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JOHN STUART MILL'S DEFENCE OF AMERICA.

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going, that human beings should be treated those who did attempt so to apply burned alive. The calm and dispassion- them ?" In this easy and masterly way ate Mr. Olmsted affirms that there has the acute dialectician turned the tables not been a single year, for many years upon the accusers of the United States, past, in which this horror is not known of the high tory party, who thus saw to have been perpetrated in some part themselves repudiating the wisdom of or other of the South. And not upon

And not upon their ancestors by which they were acnegroes only; the Edinburgh Review, customed to swear, and contradicting the in a recent number, gave the hideous genius of their order by advocating the details of the burning alive of an unfor- lowest pretences of revolutionary license. tunate Northern huckster by lynch law, It was this that made America so impaon the mere suspicion of having aided in tient of the criticism of England, and the escape of a slave. What must Ameri- judge it to be hypocritical, prejudiced can Slavery be, if deeds like these are ne- and unfriendly. Looking to Great Britcessary under it? and if they are not ne- ain as the land of all others where the cessary and are yet done, is not the evi- principles of law and order were underdence against Slavery still more damn- stood and respected, she had reason to ing? The South are in rebellion not for expect that the first grand vindication of simple slavery ; they are in rebellion for her violated Constitution, which had been the right of burning human beings alive.” forced upon her, would receive, if not

Mr. Mill turned next to a common de admiration, at least sympathy and refence of the Rebellion on the lips of spect. When, on the contrary, the costly many Englishmen, that the South, hav- effort was received with reproach and ing a right to separate, the disunion pretended contempt, there was little should have been consented to at the wonder that the nation felt aggrieved. first demand by the North, who in re- The perplexities and contradictions of sisting it had committed a similar wrong the English mind over this very simple with the England of George III. in the affair, in which there should have been contest with the American colonies. The in their own avowed rules of judgment answer to this was given with a touch room for not a moment's hesitation, preof irony. "

" This,” said he, “is carry- sent one of not the least noticeable pheing the doctrine of the sacred right of nomena of this extraordinary period. insurrection rather far. It is wonderful We need not here present Mr. Mill's how easy and liberal and complying speculations farther. They will be repeople can be in other people's concerns. membered and sought for with the ablest Because they are willing to surrender documents of the time, and read not their own pact, and have no objection only for their acuteness at a time when to join in reprobation of their great the judgments of very many intelligent grandfathers, they never put themselves Englishmen were very much astray, but the question what they themselves would as an historical memorial of the perdo in circumstances far less trying, under verted reason of the hour which they far less pressure of real national calam- combated. As an aid to the formation ity. Would those who profess these of a sound public opinion in Great Briardent revolutionary principles consent tain respecting the national cause in to this being applied to Ireland, or India, America, the essay was of the highest or the Ionian Islands? How have they importance.

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GENERAL HALLECK'S DEPARTMENT OF MISSOURI, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1861.

On the removal of General Fremont his department of New Mexico required we have seen General Hunter placed in the utmost circumspection and vigilance. command of the army in Missouri. The The line of the Rio Grande on which arrangement was a temporary one pend, above and below the important position ing the reorganization of the Department of Santa Fe the Government posts were meditated at Washington. By a General located, as a protection of the country Order from the War Office, dated the against Indian ravages, was beset by 9th of November, a week after Fremont's armed bands of insurgents from Texas, dismissal General Halleck was appointed where by treason and violence, as we to the command of the new Department have seen, the enemy had early gained of the Missouri, including the States of possession of the southerly chain of forts Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, or military stations. Lieutenant-Colonel Illinois, Arkansas, and that portion of Baylor, a rebel officer, in August, claimed Kentucky west of the Cumberland river ; possession of Arizona, issuing a Proclathe remainder of the last mentioned mation declaring the country under miliState being included in the new Depart- tary government as a part of the Confedment of the Ohio, assigned to General erate States. By the surrender of Fort Buel. To General Hunter was given the Fillmore and the other stations below, Department of Kansas, embracing the the National defence became limited to State of Kansas, the Indian Territory the Forts more immediately around Santa West of Arkansas, and the Territories Fe, of which Fort Craig on the southof Nebraska, Colorado, and Dakota. west, and Fort Union nearer at hand or. The Department of Mexico, consisting the north-east, were the most important. of the Territory of New Mexico, was Henry Wager Halleck, the new Comassigned to Colonel E. R. S. Canby. The mander of the Department including last mentioned officer, on whose patriot- Missouri, like his distinguished associate, ism and energy the Government relied General McClellan, was one of the ofinot in vain for the preservation, under cers of the regular army, whose educamany difficulties of this imperilled region tion and experience led the country to was a native of Kentucky, a graduate anticipate the greatest benefits from their of West Point of 1839, in the same class services at the present time. Both highly with General Halleck. Entering the 2d accomplished, distinguished for the soInfantry, he was in 1846 promoted to a lidity of their attainments in the profes1st Lieutenancy. He served with dis- siou to which they had been brought up, tinction in the war with Mexico, being they had enjoyed in a remarkable degree brevetted Major, and subsequently Lieu- the confidence and favor of the head of tenant-Colonel, for his gallantry in the the army, General Scott, at whose rebattles before and at the capture of the commendation they were at once raised capitol. In May, 1861, on the increase to their eminent positions. It happened of the regular army, he was promoted also, that each had left the army for the to the Colonelcy of the new 19th regi- pursuits of civil life. Neither, however, ment of Infantry. The management of had lost sight of his military calling, and

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MAJOR - GENERAL HALLE OK.

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each was ready at the first intimation to men, rescued two naval officers and sevobey the call of his country. Henry eral marines who were prisoners of war, Wager Halleck, was born in the year captured the enemy's flag, two Mexican 1816, in Weston, Oneida county, in the officers and the Governor's archives, the State of New York. After passing some Governor barely escaping in his night time at Union College, he entered the clothes. At Todos Santa, he led into Military Academy at West Point, as a action the main body of Colonel Burton's cadet in 1835, graduated with distinction forces. In the naval descent upon Main 1839, and was brevetted 2d Lieuten- zatlan, he acted as aid to Commodore ant of Engineers. He remained for a Shubrick, and afterwards as Chief of year at the Academy as Assistant Pro- Staff and Lieutenant-Governor of the fessor of Engineering. In 1841, he was city. As Chief Engineer he planned and Assistant to the Chief Engineer, General directed the construction of the fortificaTotten, in Washington. His “Papers on tions at that place. In 1848, he was Practical Engineering," were published at brevetted Captain, " for gallant conduct this time by the Engineer Department. in affairs with the enemy on the 19th For the next three years he was employ- and 20th days of November, 1847, and ed on the fortifications of New York for meritorious service in California." harbor. He then went to Europe in He was Secretary of State of the Provcompany with Marshal Bertrand, by ince of California, under the military whom he was introduced to Marshal governments of Generals Kearney, MaSoult, then Prime Minister of Louis Phi- son, and Riley, from 1847 to the end of lippe, and received every facility in ex- 1849 ; and was a leading member of amining the military works of France. the Convention in 1849 to form, and of After prosecuting similar investigations the Committee to draft, the Constitution in Germany, Italy, and England, he re- of the State of California. From 1847 turned to the United States at the end to 1850, he directed and superintended of the Mexican war. In 1844, Congress the entire collection of the public revepublished his “Report on Military De- nues in California, amounting to several fences.” In 1845, he was appointed millions of dollars. His decisions in 1st Lieutenant in the Engineer corps, these collections, assailed at the time, and was chosen that year by the Com- were sustained by the Supreme Court. mittee of the Lowell Institute, at Boston, In July, 1853, he was appointed Captain to deliver one of the regular courses of of Engineers. Seeking more active emlectures before the institution. He took ployment than the army afforded, he refor his subject “Military Art and Sci- signed August 1st, 1854, and devoted ence.” He incorporated the lectures the himself to the legal profession. At the following year in a volume published at outbreak of the rebellion, he was the New York, with an introduction on the principal partner in the law firm of Hal"Justifiableness of War.” The Mexican leck, Peachey and Billings, of San Franwar then occurring immediately after the cisco. He still continued his attention battle of Palo Alto, he was sent to Cali- to literary pursuits, and had just pubfornia and the Pacific Coast, where he lished an important book on International served during the war in both a civil and Law. In December, 1860, he was apmilitary capacity. He was present in pointed Major-General of militia in Calivarious engagements with the enemy, fornia, and acted in that capacity till the particularly at San Antonio, where he receipt of his commission as Major-Genmarched with about 30 mounted volun- eral of the regular army. The latter teers 120 miles in 28 hours, surprised was dated August 19th, 1861, ranking the enemy's garrison of several hundred ( him third on the list of general officers

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