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ed on the west by a steep eminence. The extremities of this camp were defended by strong batteries, and the interval was strengthened by a breastwork without intrenchments, constructed of the bodies of felled trees, logs and rails, with an additional battery at an opening left of the centre. The right was almost impracticable; the left difficult of approach."

The greater part of the intermediate space was low, open ground ; that portion which intervened between the right of the enemy, and left of the Americans, was covered with woods. On the 19th in the morning, the enemy began to move, from the low ground, towards the heights occupied by the American left; upon perceiving which, Colonel Morgan was ordered to advance with bis rifle corps, to hang on their front and flanks, and impede their approach by every means in his power. Major Morris, who headed the advance of this corps, fell in with the enemy's picket about 12 o'clock, which he drove in, and pursued, until he came unexpectedly upon the British line. His party were of course routed, and thrown into considerable confusion; and several of the men and officers were made prisoners. Intelligence of this being conveyed to the General, he ordered two of the New Hampshire regiments to the support of Morgan, under Colonels Cilley and Scammel. They took

on Morgan's left, and in an hour after, the action recommenced, other regiments successively engaging, until about 3 o'clock, it became general. From this hour until night the firing was incessant, without producing any apparent advantage to either side. About 3000 of the Americans were engaged, and about 3500 of the enemy, who had the further advantage of being enabled to bring four pieces of artillery into the action; while the Americans from the nature of their ground were unable to make use of their field pieces. General Poor's brigade, and Colonel Morgan's corps, opposed to Hamilton's brigade, consisting of the 20th, 21st and 62d British infantry, sustained the hottest of the action. The American loss on this day amounted to 321, killed, wounded and missing; and that of the enemy between five and six hundred. Colonel Cook's regiment of Connecticut militia, and Colonel Cilley's of New Hampshire, suffered very severely. Lieutenant Colonel Colburn, and Lieutenant Colonel Adams were both killed. But few prisoners were taken on either side : two of Morgan's officers and twenty privates fell into the enemy's hands on the first charge; and about one hundred of the enemy were captured by the Americans in the course of the day. The artillery of the enemy fell into our hands several times in the course of the action ; but it was impracticable to use it against them. The British corps which served this artillery, fought with the most heroick bravery, 36 of them out of 48, being killed and wounded at the guns. It was certainly one of the warmest actions ever fought, and sustained by both sides with equal courage ; night only putting an end to the contest. General Burgoyne, as was discovered by his intercepted correspondence claimed the victory; but it is evident, that there was no victory on either side, neither having gained a solitary advantage, or a single inch of ground.

It has been remarked, and from a source which renders the fact unquestionable, that there was not a single general officer on the field of battle on this day. This may be accounted for from the fact,


VOL. 11.


that the battle was wholly unexpected by either army. Burgoyne had no other object in view, in the movement which led to it, than to take such a position as should enable him to defend his provisions and baggage; and General Gates was not in a situation to wish for a general action, as he had neither completed his works of defence, nor received half the reinforcements which he expected. The mistake which the advance of Colonel Morgan's corps made, in running in upon the British line, and the necessity of sending two regiments to his support, led unexpectedly to the consequences which followed. Arnold would have been engaged, but fearful of his rashness, General Gates prohibited his interference. General Learned was ordered out late in the evening, but the action terminated soon afterwards, and before he had an opportunity of sharing much in the fortunes of the day. Had Burgoyne attacked the Americans the next morning, which it was his intention to have done, but for some dissausive reasons offered by General Fraser, or the morning after, which he was prevented from doing by intelligence from Sir Henry Clinton, there can be little doubt that his success would have been certain and complete.

Leaving the two adverse armies thus situated, let us now turn to the commander in chief.


Events of 1777 continued.-Meeting of the two armies of Wash

ington and Howe on the Schuylkill-Battle prevented by a storm.-Narrow escape of Hamilton and Leer-Unexpected loss of Monsieur de Coudray-General Wayne is surprised by the enemy, and suffers considerable loss.-Sir William Howe enters Philadelphia in triumph.-Congress repair to Yorktown.-Further powers granted to Washington-Lord Howe enters the Delaware-Battle of Germantown-Retreat of the American army.--Sir William withdraws his troops from Germantown to Philadelphia.Sir Henry Clinton's expedition up the Hudson. He reduces Forts Montgomery and Clinton.Northern army.-Dispute between General Gates and General Arnold.-The latter is excluded from command.-Battle of Behmus's Heights.-Retreat of Cornwallis. Convention of Saratoga.

The situation of General Washington, after the battle of Brandywine, was nearly as critical as any in which he found himself placed during the war. If Sir William Howe, instead of halting for three days on the field of battle, as was the case, had pursued his advantages, he might easily have overtaken him at Chester, or by a forced march have reached Phila. delphia before him. But here again the evil genius of Sir William proved the salvation of the American army, which after a short rest at Chester renewed their march towards the city. Having cross

. ed the Schuylkill, Washington moved up the river to Swedlesford, where he recrossed it to meet the enemy, having intelligence that Sir William was ad vancing towards the Upper Fords. On the 17th, the two armies met near the Warren Tavern on the

Lancaster road, and drew up in order of battle. The Americans were about to contend against a fearful odds, against troops much more numerous, better armed, and flushed with recent victory—but the elements conspired to forbid the contest: a tremendous storm came' on, accompanied by torrents of rain, which continued to pour down until the next day. The van of each army had commenced the engagement, but it lasted only a few moments, for the deluge was too great for either party to contend against; and they separated by mutual necessity. The next day, upon examination of the cartouch boxes and tumbrils of the American army, it was found that the ammunition was entirely destroyed by the wet; and while General Washington was exerting himself to remedy this loss, Sir William crossed the Schuylkill, and pursued his route towards Philadelphia. In order to prevent a quantity of flour, stowed in some mills which lay in the route Sir William had taken, from falling into his hands, Washington thought proper to order its destruction; and his aidde-camp Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton was sent with Captain Henry Lee, and a small party of his dragoons, to accomplish that object. They were of course obliged to get in advance of the enemy, which was of itself a difficult and dangerous enterprise: the mills stood on the banks of the Schuylkill, at the foot of a long hill; and in order to arrive at them, the party had to cross a bridge over the mill-race. They succeeded in getting before the enemy, and ar

, riving at the top of this bill, they posted two videttes to give them notice of the enemy's approach, and proceeded to execute their instructions. There was fortunately a flat bottomed boat lying at the mills, of

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