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to influence their decisions, an invasion of the liberties of the people, and indicating a want of confidence in the justice of Congress: that it is expected by Congress, the said officers will make proper acknowledg ments for an interference of so dangerous a tendency; but if any of those officers are unwilling to serve their country under the authority of Congress, they shall be at liberty to resign their commissions and retire." The 2d, which related to Monsieur du Coudray, and which was passed a few days afterwards, was : "That a committee of three be appointed to confer with Monsieur du Coudray; that they inform him, Congress cannot comply with the agreement he bas entered into with Mr. Deane but sensible of the services he has rendered these States, and having a favourable opinion of his merits and abilities, they will cheerfully give him such rank and appointments as shall not be incompatible with the honour and safety of these states, or interfere with the great duties they owe to their constituents."-He was soon afterwards appointed Inspector General of Ordnance, with the rank of Major General; but we shall see hereafter, that rank was not the object of this friend of liberty.

Let us now turn to the army of the North.-We have said that Major General Gates arrived at Van Schaick's Island, and took the command of the Northern army on the 19th of August. General Washington had been directed by Congress to appoint an officer to supersede Schuyler, but he declined doing so through motives of delicacy, and on the 4th August, Gates was elected by ballot. Major General Gates found the army in high spirits from the recent successes against St. Leger and Baume, and gaining daily strength from the vigorous measures of the Govern

our of New York, General George Clinton, who ordered out the whole military force of the State, which, with the exception of eleven regiments ordered to reinforce General Putnam in the Highlands, were placed at his disposal. He came clothed by Congress with extraordinary powers, and bringing with him every testimony of the confidence reposed in him by the Commander in Chief. The following resolution will not only show the confidence reposed in General Gates, but the effect which reports, founded on prejudice and jealousy, had made upon their minds with regard to the command of General Schuyler. "Resolved, that the commanding officer in the northern department be empowered for the term of four months from the date of this resolution, to suspend officers under his command for mal conduct, and to appoint others in their room, till such time as the pleasure of Congress can be known concerning the person or persons so suspended; and that he report to Congress with as much despatch as possible, the names of such as he may suspend, with the cause of their suspension." This resolution was enclosed to him in a letter of the same date, 14th August, from the President of Congress, from which the following is extracted: "Want of discipline and other disorders, too apt to prevail in a retreating army, have induced Congress to pass a resolve, empowering you to remedy those evils as far as possible, and they have for this purpose authorised you for the limited time of four months, to suspend any officers for misconduct; not doubting that before the expiration of that period, you will be able to introduce that order and subordination so necessary in a military line.-Your zeal and success in the American cause, have hitherto been so distinguished, that


it is impossible for me not to flatter myself with the expectation, that we shall ere long have the most agreeable accounts from the department where you command."—If Congress had waited only a few days longer, it is probable that the affairs of Fort Stanwix and Bennington would have been regarded as such "agreeable accounts," that General Schuyler might have been suffered to enjoy the consummation of that triumph, which they prepared for General Gates. But thus it is, that one man profits by the misfortunes of another. Both these Generals were no doubt equally competent, and the same disasters and successes, under the same circumstances, would have attended either.-General Schuyler had repeatedly urged the attention of the commander in chief to the situation of his army, but circumstances had always prevented the latter from affording the aid required. This, though attributed by some to the partiality of Washington for Gates, was beyond all question the effect of unavoidable necessity. Washington had not the men to spare, until the change in the command was made by Congress. Then, fortunately for General Gates, he was enabled to send to his assistance one of the most effective corps in the army. The following extracts from General Washington's letters, while they show that General Schuyler had not been inattentive to his duties, will at the same time prove the reliance which the Commander in Chief reposed in the aid sent to General Gates. On the 20th August he wrote thus to General Gates: "From the various representations made to me, of the disadvantage the army lay under, particularly the militia, from an apprehension of the Indian mode of fighting, I have despatched Colonel Morgan, with his corps of riflemen, to your assist


ance, and expect they will be with you in eight days from this date. This corps I have great dependence

on, and have no doubt that they will be exceedingly useful to you; as a check given to the savages, and keeping them within proper bounds, will prevent General Burgoyne from getting intelligence as formerly, and animate your other troops, from a sense of their being more on an equality with the enemy. Colonels Courtland's and Livingston's regiments are also on their way to join you, and must of course be with you in a very few days. With these reinforcements, besides the militia under General Lincoln, (which by this time must be pretty considerable) I am in hopes you will find yourself at least able to stop the progress of Mr. Burgoyne, and by cutting off his supplies of provision, &c. to render his situation ineligible." *** "General Schuyler's sending a reinforcement to Fort Schuyler, I think was absolutely necessary; and am of opinion, that particular attention should be paid to the inroads leading to this quarter, as a successful stroke of the enemy there, might be a means of encouraging the whole of the Six Nations to unite against us.

On the same day he wrote thus to Governour Clinton: "I am forwarding as fast as possible to join the Northern army, Colonel Morgan's riflemen, amounting to about five hundred men. These are well chosen men, selected from the army at large, well acquainted with the use of rifles, and with that mode of fighting which is necessary to make them a good countorpoise to the Indians, and have distinguished themselves on a variety of occasions since the formation of the corps, in skirmishes with the enemy. I expect the most eminent services from them, and am mistaken


if their presence does not go far towards producing a general desertion among the savages.'

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General Gates seemed to be fully sensible of the great advantages under which he took command of the army, and not at all inclined to take to himself any part of the credit which belonged to his predecessor. He had now under his orders some of the best and bravest officers of the American army-The militia of New York under the active exertions of Governour Clinton, were marching from all quarters to join him the check which Burgoyne had received, gave him time to make the best disposition of his force: and the Indians, whose mode of fighting had before struck a panick in the army, had been so severely handled by the unfortunate Herkimer and his brave followers, that it seemed doubtful whether they would again appear in much force. On the 23d August, Colonel Morgan arrived at head quarters with his corps, which consisted of 508 officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates; Lieutenant Colonel Richard Butler, of Pennsylvania, Major Morris, of Jersey, and Major Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts, were his field officers-the latter had command of a select portion of this excellent corps, of 250 men armed with bayonets.

So little intelligence had been received of the enemy at head quarters since the affair at Bennington, that General Gates remained in ignorance of their situation or movements until the 30th August, when a messenger arrived from Burgoyne, with a letter, complaining of the treatment of the prisoners taken by General Stark. This gave occasion to the hot temder and patriotick feelings of General Gates to break out in a severe retort. He replied to Burgoyne's let.

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