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ruse de guerre which procured the surrender of the garrison without a shot. By advancing his cavalry so as to show only their front, some of the rear were enabled to dismount unperceived; and having worked a pine log into the rough semblance of a piece of artillery, it was brought up with great parade and pointed against the house. This done, the commanding officer was summoned to surrender, and seeing no hope of being able to stand a siege, he obeyed the summons without hesitation; and having taken care of the prisoners, and demolished the barn and abbatis, Washington returned in triumph to his brigade.
Immediately after this event, General Greene moved with the main body of the army, and established himself on the eastern bank of the Pedee, nearly opposite Cheraw hill, a part of the country, which not only afforded abundant supplies for his troops, but of fered a convenient rendezvous for the militia. General Morgan had received a reinforcement of 500 militia, under General Pickens, which gave him a respectable brigade, with which he took post near the confluence of the Pacolet and Broad rivers.
General Leslie arrived at Charleston with the succours to Cornwallis on the 13th of December; and leaving a part of his troops for the protection of that city, he marched immediately with the remainder, amounting to 1500 to Cambden, where Carnwallis had ordered him to join him. In this situation we must leave the two armies, to bring the minor incidents of the year to a close.
Congress among other resolutions relating to the army, in October, resolved that all officers who continued in service to the end of the war, should receive half pay for life. About the same time, Major Hen
ry Lee, being promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, was ordered to join the southern army with his legionary corps; and the Baron Steuben was directed to proceed to Virginia, with a view to the proper organization of its means of defence. The departure of General Leslie from Portsmouth, about the time of the Baron's arrival at Richmond, prevented the necessity of those measures which had been planned for his expulsion, and Virginia continued to enjoy repose.
This year was remarkable for the enactment of four laws, by four separate and distinct powers, for the promotion of human happiness, and the diffusion of the blessings of peace and liberty, amidst the turmoils and distresses of war.-1. The general court of Massachusetts, in May, passed an act to incorporate and establish a society for the cultivation and promotion of the Arts and Sciences, by the name of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 2d. Pennsylvania passed a law for ever abolishing slavery in that state. 3d. The King of France, by solemn edict declared the trial by torture to be for ever at an end. He likewise, of his own will, made retrenchment of no less than four hundred of his household, thus lessening by the annual amount of so many salaries, the taxes of the French people. And 4th. The Duke of Modena, after the death of the grand Inquisitor, abolished the Inquisition throughout his dominions, and ordered its revenues to be applied to purposes of charity, and publick accommodation.
Events of 1781.-Movements of the army in the South.—Lieutenant Colonel Lee joins the army with his legion.-Lee and Marion surprise the British post of Georgetown. Cornwallis advances from Cambden.-Battle of the Cowpens, and defeat of Tarleton. Morgan retreats to the Catawba.-Is there joined by General Greene-Cornwallis is prevented from crossing by the sudden rise of the river.-General Davidson opposing his passage is killed.-Tarleton disperses the militia at Terrants.Greene retreats towards Guilford Court House, crosses the Yadkin, and is again saved by the swelling of the river.—Greene and Huger form a junction at Guilford Court House. They retreat to Virginia across the Dan.---Skirmish between Lee's and Tarleton's horse.-Cornwallis moves to HillsboroughGreene recrosses the Dan and advances towards the British.Lee disperses a large party of royalists under Colonel Pyle.His attempts to bring Tarleton to action fail-The latter retreats to Hillsborough.-Cornwallis again moves in pursuit of Greene, forces Colonel Williams to retreat.—Manœuvres of Lee and his Legion.-General Greene retires across the Haw, and Cornwallis relinquishes the pursuit.-Greene receives a reinforcement, Moves to Guilford Court House-Battle of Guilford.-Defeat of General Greene-Cornwallis retires to Wilmington.-Greene pursues him as far as Ramsay's Mill, where he encamps his army.
A few days after the last movement of General Greene which we have mentioned, Lieutenant Colonel Lee joined the army with his legion, amounting to about 100 horse, and 180 foot. This corps was immediately ordered to cross the Pedee and advance to the support of Brigadier General Marion. The movements of Marion, as we have before observed, were so rapid and various, and sometimes so secret that it was difficult even for his friends to find him; and it was
not until after considerable search, that Lee was enabled to learn his position and communicate his orders. He found him at length in the swamps between the Pedee and Santee rivers, engaged in his usual enterprises against the enemy's posts. Soon after the junction, a scheme was projected for surprising the British Colonel Campbell, who was stationed with a garrison of 200 men in Georgetown. The fort or inclosed work which constituted the principal defence, was situated a little out of the town, but being too small to afford quarters for the men, they were stationed for the most part in the town, where also the commanding officer had his quarters. The intention was to embark the infantry of the legion in two divisions, in boats, who were to drop down the Pedee and arrive at Georgetown in the night, while the cavalry under Marion and Lee were to gain the vicinity of the town by land and wait for the signal of cooperation. The boat party met with so little difficulty in decending the river, that they entered the town at the appointed time unperceived, and gained possession of the commandants quarters, so that when Marion and Lee rushed in upon hearing the first fire, the town was quiet and Colonel Campbell a prisoner. The troops of the enemy, however, instead of attempting as was conjectured would be the case, either to gain the fort, or rush to the quarters of the commandant, remained snug in their own quarters, and secured themselves by barricading the doors and windows. Thus only a part of the object was accomplished. Colonel Campbell and several other officers were parolled; and the American troops, having no means of battering the barricaded doors, or the fort, retired from the town on the approach of day-light. The infantry who de
cended the river, on this occasion, and to whom great praise is due for their active movements, were commanded by Captains Carnes and Rudolph.
Lord Cornwallis, in the mean time having despatched Tarleton in pursuit of Morgan, and being reinforced by the arrival of Leslie with 1500 men, advanced with the main army towards North Carolina, with a view of intercepting Morgan, should he escape the vigilance of Tarleton's legion. He directed his march between the Catawba and the Broad rivers, while Leslie was ordered to move in a parallel direction on the eastern side of the Wateree and Catawba.
General Morgan, having received intelligence of those movements of the enemy, quitted his position on the 16th of January, only a few hours before Tarleton reached it with his legion of 1100 men. would have waited to give Tarleton battle, but the approach of Cornwallis with the whole army, would have rendered such a step extremely hazardous and imprudent. Tarleton, with his usual velocity of movement, pressed the pursuit through the night and gained sight of Morgan early next morning, at the Cowpens, where the General had halted to rest and repose his troops. He was greatly inferior to Tarleton in numbers, and being considerably harassed, he would have preferred a quiet retreat; but being eagerly pressed by his enemy, he determined to prepare for action. The ground was unfavourable to him, being such as to admit with facility the operation of cavalry, of which Tarleton had three times his number; but having once taken his resolution no longer to avoid battle, his arrangements were made with his usual promptitude and skill. His front line was composed of the North and South Carolina and