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appropriate and apply the same for defraying the publick expences—to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted—to build and equip a navy-to agree upon the number of land forcesand to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State ; which requisitions shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expence of the United States; and the officers and men so clothed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled; but if the United States in Congress assembled, shall on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other State should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

The United States in Congress assembled, shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque.


and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a Commander in Chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same; nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determine d unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.

The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secresy; and the yeas

and nays of the delegates of each State on any question, shall be entered on the journal, when it is de. sired by any delegate, and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the Legislatures of the several States.

Article 10. The committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorised to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States, in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine States, shall from time to time think


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expedient to vest them with : provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled, is requisite.

Article 11. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this union; but no other Colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.

Article 12. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the United States and the publick faith, are hereby solemnly pledged.

Article 13. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at

any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislature of every State."


Events of 1777 continued-March of Burgoyne's troops-His re

ception by General Schuyler-Conduct of his troops on the march-Their reception at Cambridge.-General Burgoyne complains that the publick faith is broken.-Congress resolve to delay the embarkation of the troops.-Correspondence between Washington and Howe on the subject of prisoners.-Report of the Board of War thereon.-Conduct of a party of the enemy under Captain Emmerick.-Contemplated expedition of General Spencer against Newport.-Savage inroads on the western frontiers.-Proceedings of Congress-General Lincoln sends an expedition against Lake George and Ticonderoga.–Surprise of General St. Clair-Extra pay given to Washington's army.

The delicacy which General Gates evinced towards the unfortunate British commander, at the convention of Saratoga, was such as to lighten the sense of degradation which such a reverse of fortune was well calculated to inspire in a proud and haughty foe, and such as to do honour to the feelings of an American victor. So scrupulous was General Gates to exact nothing which should unnecessarily wound the military pride of his adversary, that he would not permit his troops to witness the novel and humiliating ceremony which the terms of the convention imposed upon the captured army, of piling their arms: nor did he suffer them to enter their forsaken entrenchments, until the disarmed prisoners were no longer in sight to witness the triumph. Thousands of Americans lined the hills as the British troops crossed the river, but to their immortal honour, not a man seemed by look or gesture to insult their fallen state.

General Burgoyne himself, on the day the conventión was signed, was introduced to his conquerour. « The fortune of war, General Gates, (said he) has made me your prisoner." General Gates, with a politeness intended at once to place his prisoner at ease with himself, replied, “I shall always be ready to bear testimony that it has not been through any fault of your Excellency.” The generals dined and spent the day together in all the familiarity of equal and long acquaintance. In a day or two after this, Burgoyne with several of his Generals visited Albany, where they were received by General Schuyler, whose elegant house the former had reduced to ashes. Struck with the kindness of his reception, and perhaps a little ashamed of the devastations he had committed or authorised, Burgoyne said to him, “You show me great kindness, although I have done you much injury”_" That was the fate of war," said this American, let us say no more about it.T'hese little anecdotes are worth volumes of eulogy on the American character. They speak the simple truth, and speak to the hearts of their enemies.

How different from this was the spirit which actuated the British soldiers. Their march from the Hudson to Cambridge was marked by insolence and pil. lage; the return which they made for the civil, humane and delicate deportment of the inhabitants, was insult and robbery. The Germans, particularly, plundered every house they passed of every thing that could be conveniently taken with them.

The spectacle of five thousand British troops, marching as prisoners of war, under the guidance of two or three American officers, through a tract of country three hundred miles in extent, was novel and interest


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