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regiment, which set out for the seat of war in less than a week after the President's call, was distinguished for its splendid equipment, its wellordered camp, its thorough drill, and its fighting qualities. Rhode Island owes this distinction in great degree to two men, Governor Sprague, whose political antecedents peculiarly fitted him to be the leader in the union of parties, and whose large fortune was lavished without stint to secure the comfort and efficiency of his regiments, and Colonel (now Major-General) Burnside, who left home and a lucrative business at a moment's notice, to devote his thorough military training and splendid abilities to his country's service, in command of a regiment of militia. Mr. W. H. Russell was never tired of speaking of the disgraceful conduct of the Fourth Pennsylvania, in "marching away to the sound of the enemy's cannon," but says nothing of the Fourth Iowa, who fought so gallantly, after their time was out, at Wilson's Creek; the Sixth Massachusetts, who stayed on guard at the Relay House until immediate danger was passed (more than a week, we believe, after their time); and the First Rhode Island, who offered to stay as long as needed. General Scott assured Colonel Burnside that Washington was in no danger. He led home his regiment to receive well-deserved ovations, and then returned himself to serve his country wherever he might be needed.


Ir is not long since we heard a gentleman of large general cultivation and much political experience regret the difficulty of finding an authentic record of events less than five years old, before they have been condensed in histories, or got wrought up into standard literature. Every one must have felt this annoyance; and, if his life has reached its middle bound, must have been amused to see how vaguely the borizon of years shifts in the perspective, for want of clear landmarks to note the distances. Such a landmark a noble milestone on the historic highway- the Messrs. Appleton have just set up; and we are forward to recognize our great indebtedness to them. The volume of the new annual is similar in size and style to those of the New American Cyclopædia, with which all our readers are familiar. As its title may suggest, the topics are arranged alphabetically, two hundred and thirty in all, while a copious Index at the end (a feature greatly wanted in the other work) makes it very convenient indeed as a book of reference.

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The titles are of topics of special interest as connected with the year 1861. Of those belonging in particular to this country, we have reckoned names of States, as to which the history for the year is given in more or less detail, 33; localities in the United States, 75; persons of note in our history, mostly obituaries, 28; other topics belonging specially to our history, 36;-in all, 172 articles strictly American, or about three quarters of the whole. Besides the histories of States (ranging from a column in length to 20 pages), the titles "Bull Run"

The American Annual Cyclopædia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1861. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

(16 pages), "Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States" (20 pages), "Public Documents" (37 pages), "Navy of the United States" (13 pages), and "Slaves" (5 pages), indicate the character and value of these articles. Of foreign countries, Austria, Canada, France, Great Britain, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and Russia are treated in separate articles. Biographies are given of eminent persons abroad who have died within the year, the following: Abdul Medjid, Prince Albert, F. C. Baur, Mrs. Browning, Lord Campbell, Cavour, Frederick William IV., Sir James Graham, the Duchess of Kent, Lacordaire, and twelve others. Among the American names the most distinguished are Mr. Douglas, Sam Houston, General Lyon, and Major Winthrop. The articles whose titles indicate a more general interest are, Antiquity of the Human Race, Agriculture, Architecture, Artesian Wells, Astronomical Phenomena, Earthquakes, Epidemics, Geographical Explorations, Great Eastern, Insurance, Literature, Metals, Petroleum, Piers, Subterranean Railway, Spectrography, Taconic System, Wool and Flax. This list is rather a slender one, and indicates that the chief value of the work must be sought as a register of events. It by no means supersedes the use of a Scientific Annual as the record of the year. Even the few papers we have named are most unsatisfactorily brief and incomplete, for instance, that on Spectrography, of which the value might easily have been doubled.

The characteristic of the book is as a register of topics especially associated with the year 1861. A deficiency, which will strike every reader who consults it, is that it contains no chronological record of events, an omission which we find it difficult either to understand or to pardon. Another is its want of completeness (which might easily have been supplied) as a scientific register, a record of discoveries and inventions. The few titles which occur in this department are taken almost at random. If we might suggest what in our view are the most important features in an Annual Register, they would perhaps be the following, in their order:

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1. A Chronological Record of Events, with a Summary of Public Laws.

2. Statistical Tables for the Year.

3. Progress of Discovery and Invention.

4. Record of Literature and Art.

5. Obituary of the Year.

6. Historical and Biographical Notices, followed by an Index of the whole.

We trusted to find at least the materials of such a work in that before us. The publishers have not undertaken precisely that; and it would be ungracious, for want of it, not to acknowledge, with all gratitude, the very valuable compendium which they have given us.

THE last volume of Appleton's New American Cyclopædia, the fourteenth, fully sustains the character which the previous volumes have won. Two more, it is announced, will complete the series. No other similar work compares with it in the amount it gives of excellent and popular reading-matter.

THE publication of Chambers's Encyclopædia, by Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co. has been continued through the 51st number, and the article Gas, which consists of sixteen columns, amply illustrated. The beauty and completeness of this publication, as well as the singular compactness and excellent proportion of its articles, put it quite at the head of its own class of works for general reference. In all its externals, type, paper, illustrations, and maps, it is carefully and admirably adapted to the uses of such a work.

SEVERAL articles in the recent English Reviews on the subject of India since the Mutiny are very instructive. We particularize two. One in the National Review for January exposes fully the cruel injustice towards native cultivators, particularly by dealers in indigo, which have since been effectually done away. We refer to it at this date, because a paper in "The Exchange," a new monthly journal with a considerable American circulation, appears to take ground against the justice of the complaints which won the ear of the government. The whole account is a very interesting exhibition of the honor and good faith which, on the part of the better English officials, are fast healing the wounds of the great Mutiny.

The other is in the Westminster for July. It is a striking, even magnificent picture, which is given in it of the system of public works going into execution throughout that imperial province, and of the advantage which has followed the substituting of Parliamentary rule for the anomalous dominion of the Company. We refer to it partly in honor of those noble qualities which the recent English administration there exhibits, and partly to copy the following paragraphs, which have a particular interest and value to us in connection with our own Rebellion, and those measures of conquest forced upon our gov


“Oude was the most momentous victim to Lord Dalhousie's system of unscrupulous annexation, and joined the war of the mutineers with an enthusiasm entirely national. The task of subduing Oude was morally dreadful. One might have expected this province to be the permanent hot-bed of disaffection, and a future centre of revolt. The good news seems almost too much to believe, that, on the contrary, this very district is likely to vie in loyalty with the most loyal, if indeed it do not prove also the earliest to win political institutions analogous to those of free Europe."


During the American struggle, the doctrine has been repeated dogmatically over the breadth of the land, and been so echoed by the press and in company as to put us out of breath with amazement, that widely-extended dominion is unnatural, artificial, untenable; that a sea-coast 2,000 miles long under one power is an injurious monopoly; that a state containing nations of very diverse temperament can only be held together by force, and is not worth holding; and more to the same effect. . . . . Great and small are relative words to those who live under railways and electric telegraphs, what was the unwieldiness of a vast dominion vanishes entirely. . . . . The vaster and the more diverse in character are the parts of a great empire, the less is its policy to be feared, as possibly unjust, by other great powers, if only its own members possess a fully-developed freedom. . The parts of a complex and wide empire have no interests whatever in common, except the interests of justice. It cannot in general be just to its own members, except by prac

tising justice to the world without: hence its growth in magnitude, if accompanied by internal freedom in all the parts, gives to it (taken for all in all) a more and more friendly aspect to the world at large. Whatever is infinite works out its own harmony; and in human affairs it appears to be ordained, that vastness, in struggling to exist, must struggle for moral law if it have any intelligence."



Reconstruction of Biblical Theories; or, Biblical Science improved in its History, Chronology, and Interpretation, and relieved from traditionary Errors and unwarrantable Hypotheses. By Leicester Ambrose Sawyer. Boston: Walker, Wise, & Co. 12mo. pp. 195. (See p. 282.)


America before Europe. Principles and Interests. By Count Agénor de Gasparin. Translated from advance sheets, by Mary L. Booth. NewYork: Charles Scribner. 12mo. pp. 419. (See p. 296.)

A Narrative of the Campaign of the First Rhode Island Regiment in the Spring and Summer of 1861. By Augustus Woodbury, Chaplain of the Regiment. Providence: Sidney S. Rider. 12mo. pp. 260. (See p. 308.) The Life and Letters of Washington Irving. By his Nephew, Pierre M. Irving. Vol. II. New York: G. P. Putnam. 12mo. pp. 492. (Reviewed, p. 271.)


The Artist's Married Life; being that of Albert Dürer. Translated from the German of Leopold Schefer, by Mrs. J. R. Stodart. Revised Edition, with Memoir. New York: James Miller. 18mo. pp. 204.

Edwin Brothertoft. By Theodore Winthrop. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 12mo. pp. 367. (See p. 304.)

Out of his Head. A Romance. By T. B. Aldrich. New York: Carleton. 12mo. pp. 226.


The New Gymnastics for Men, Women, and Children. By Dio Lewis. With Three Hundred Illustrations. Boston Ticknor and Fields. 12mo. pp. 274.

Boston Directory for the Year commencing July 1, 1862. Boston: Adams, Sampson, & Co. 8vo. pp. 552.

Acts and Resolves passed by the General Court of Massachusetts in the Year 1862. Boston: William White. 8vo. pp. 355.

The Poems of Arthur Hugh Clough. With a Memoir, by Charles Eliot Norton. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 32mo. pp. 299. (Blue and Gold.) (See p. 307.)

The Flying Dutchman; or, The Wrath of Herr Von Stoppelnoze. By John G. Saxe. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.


God timing all National Changes in the Interests of his Christ. A Discourse by William R. Williams. New York: Sheldon and Company. pp. 56.

Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American Army of the Revolution. By George H. Moore. New York: Charles T. Evans. Pp. 24.



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