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under which they had enlisted, and which they had sworn to defend. They had no interest in slavery, nor in any other secession object. But that was not his wish.
President Lincoln's Inauguration took place on the 4th day of March, 1861, at the Capitol in the city of Washington, according to law and established usage. The day, after an inclement morning, became favorable. The loyal multitude of spectators was immense. The hireling assassins, awed by the military, kept at a respectful distance, or feared to make any treacherous demonstration.
The President elect appeared, and in full view of the vast audience, took the oath of office, and read his inaugural address, which occupied about one hour, and gave very general satisfaction.
Though grave apprehensions for the President's safety had pervaded the minds of his numerous friends, yet the day and the ceremony passed off without any occurrence to darken the one or mar the other.
The President, in conclusion, retired to the White House, and received numerous friends there presented : on which occasion the following lines were presented to him, by the author, with a request that he would read them at his leisure, and hand them to Mrs. Lincoln, to which he assented :
Awake! arise ! thou mighty chief; and gird thine armor on !
BOMBARDMENT OF FORT SUMTER.
On receipt of the notice from Washington of the purpose of the Government to provision Sumterpeaceably if it could, forcibly if it must-General Beauregard telegraphed the purport to Montgomery, and received in reply from Secretary Walker, on the 10th of April, an order to demand at once the evacuation of the fort, and, in case of refusal, to proceed to reduce it. The demand was not made, however, till two o'clock, P. M., of the 11th, when time was allowed Major Anderson till six o'clock to answer. Major Anderson replied that "his sense of honor and his obligations to his Government prevented his compliance."
At one o'clock on the morning of the 12th, Major
Anderson received another communication from Beauregard, stating that, as he understood the garrison was short of provisions and would soon have to evacuate, he wished him to set a day when he would do so. Major Anderson, on consultation with his officers, replied, “Provided Fort Sumter or the flag it bore was not fired on, he would be obliged to evacuate by Monday, the 15th." But it did not suit the purpose of the Rebels to wait. They had made great preparations to bombard the fort;
a blow must be struck to fire the Southern heart," as Pryor had said; and they were too eager for the fray, not to prefer force to evacuation. After a few moments consideration, Beauregard's deputies informed Major Anderson that the batteries would open their fires in one hour. Thereupon, they immediately left the fort, it being then 3:30 A. M., and in one hour, it commenced.
After the deputation had left, the sentinels were immediately removed from the parapets of the fort, the posterns closed, the flag drawn up, and the troops ordered not to leave the bomb-proofs, on any account, till summoned by the drum.
At 4:30 A. M., one bomb-shell was thrown, bursting directly over the fort. After a short pause, the firing became general on the part of the Rebel batteries, doing the greatest credit to the artillerists. The command did not return a single shot until the men had their breakfasts. As the number of men was small, and the garri. son so nearly exhausted by the several months siege they had endured, it was necessary to husband their strength; the command was therefore divided into three relief, or equal parties, who were to work the different batteries by turns, each four hours.
The first relief opened upon the iron batteries at Cumming's Point, at a distance of 1,600 yards; the iron floating battery, distant 1,800 or 2,000 yards, at the end of Sullivan's Island; the enfilading battery on Sullivan's Island, and Fort Moultrie. This was at 7 o'clock A. M., Captain Doubleday firing the first gun; all the points named being opened upon simultaneously. For the first four hours, the firing was kept up with great rapidity; the enthusiasm of the men, indeed, was so great, that the second and third reliefs could not be kept from the guns.
Shells burst with the greatest rapidity, in every portion of the work, hurling the loose brick and stone in all directions, breaking the windows and setting fire to whatever wood-work they burst against. The solid shot firing of the enemy's batteries-particularly Fort Moultrie—was directed at the barbette guns of Sumter, disabling four and tearing away a large portion of the parapet.
The explosion of shells, and the quantity of deadly missiles that were hurled in every direction, constantly, rendered it almost certain death to go out of the lower tier of casements; and also made the working of the barbette, or upper, uncovered guns, which contained all the heaviest metals, and by which alone shells could be thrown, quite impossible. During the first day there was hardly an instant of time that there was a cessation of the whizzing of balls, which were sometimes coming half a dozen at once. Before dinner, several vessels of the fleet, beyond the bar, were seen through the portholes; they dipped their flags, but it was impracticable to pass the bar; Sumter's flag was dipped in return, while the shells were bursting in every direction.
About noon the cartridges were exhausted, and a party was sent to the magazine to make more out of blankets and shirts, the sleeves of the latter readily answering the purpose. The great misfortune was, nothing for weighing powder.
When it became so dark as to render it impossible to see the effect of their shot, the port-holes were closed for the night; while the Rebels continued to fire all night.
During Friday, seventeen mortars, firing ten-inch shell, and thirty-three heavy guns, mostly columbiads, were engaged in the assault. The iron battery was of immense strength, and most of our shot struck and glanced off. We succeeded in dismounting two of the guns on Cummings' Point battery; but the full effect of our firing could not be ascertained.
During the day the officers' barracks were three times set on fire by the shells, and three times put out, under the most destructive firing.
The firing of the rifled guns from the iron battery on Cummings' Point, became very accurate on Friday afternoon: cutting out large quantities of masonry about the embrasures at every shot, throwing concrete among the cannoniers, slightly wounding some, and stunning others. One piece struck Sergeant Kearnan on the head and knocked him down. On reviving and being asked if he was badly hurt, he replied: “No; I was only knocked down temporarily;" and went to work again.
Meals were served at the guns of the cannoniers, while the guns were being pointed and fired.
For the fourth time, the barracks were set on fire, early on Saturday morning, and attempts were made to