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Panola. At daylight, on the 30th, Gen- the bridges between Saltillo and that eral Washburn was at Preston, sixteen place. The expedition, which subsisted miles from Grenada. From this vicinity on the country, on its return to the camp he sent parties who destroyed several of General Grant, at Oxford, reported bridges, and the telegraph wires on the having “marched about two hundred

, Mississippi and Tennessee, and the Mis- miles, worked two days at the railroad, sissippi and Central railroad. The latter captured about one hundred and fifty service was performed by Major Birge, prisoners, destroyed thirty-four miles of who, with one hundred men of the 9th important railroad, and a large amount Illinois cavalry, armed with carbines, of public stores of the enemy, and recrowbars and axes, crossed the country, turned, passing round an enemy of nine through the woods and canebrakes. The to our one, without having a man killed, enemy in their retreat before Grant, wounded, or captured."* In this way being now at Grenada and its approaches, confidence was gained by the Union and aroused by General Washburn's forces, and a practical knowledge of the proceedings, the latter avoided them by interior of Mississippi, important for furetiring a short distance, to Mitchell's ture operations. Cross-roads, where he received a rein- The effect of the movements of Grant forcement from General Hovey, of about and his supporters from the Mississippi, 1,200 infantry, with four field pieces. had been the withdrawal of the ConfedWith these, a few days after, he came up erates to Grenada, and even beyond. with a body of Texan cavalry at Oak- The pursuit was not continued, Grant land, after the first encounter, in which a finding " the roads too impassable to get gun was taken by the enemy, driving up supplies for a longer continuance of them through the town, wounding many it." His long line of communication severely, and capturing a number of through Western Tennessee to Columbus, prisoners, horses and arms, and 5,000 in fact offered a means of annoyance to rounds of minié ball cartridges. Here the enemy, which he was not long in General Washburn received a dispatch availing himself of. Towards the end of from General Hovey recalling him to December, simultaneous attacks were Helena, whither he returned, having in made upon various points--at Holly six days marched two hundred miles in Springs, Davis' Mills, in the vicinity of a hostile country, surrounded by the Jackson, Tennessee, at Humboldt, and enemy in force.*

Trenton. At the last place, and at Holly Another cavalry scout, not inferior in Springs, a number of prisoners were spirit to that of General Washburn, was taken and paroled, and a large quantity made in the middle of December, by of stores destroyed. The attack upon Colonel T. L. Dickey, at the order of Holly Springs, on the 20th of December, General Grant, on the Mobile and Ohio was led by the Confederate General Van railroad. His instructions were “to Dorn himself, and certainly afforded a strike the line as far south as practicable, very complete illustration of a rebel and destroy it as much as possible.” raid. The enemy in force entered the Accordingly, while another party was town at daybreak, and readily overcame sent to engage the attention of the ene- the scattered guards and pickets, when my on the Mississippi Central, Colonel Colonel Murphy, who was in command, Dickey, on the 14th, with a picked body unprepared for conflict, surrendered the of Illinois cavalry, took the road for place, not, however, without resistance Okolona, and succeeded in destroying being made by the Illinois cavalry, a portion of whom cut their way through diarrhea, to start with him on the road." the numbers of the foe, and escaped the And it was not till they had fallen in the parole which awaited the infantry. The street, that the continued remonstrances work of pillage and destruction was of the surgeons were listened to.* While promptly commenced and systematically the fearful conflagration was going on, carried out. The railway depots and the northern cotton buyers, of whom property, a foundry, the arsenal, full of there were a number in the place, were military stores, a vast quantity of cotton, assembled and compelled to pay over the property of government and private the ample funds with which they were owners, and the armory hospital, “ in provided. The southern ladies, however, violation of an express promise, and of by their kindness in taking charge of a all rules of civilized warfare,” were at portion of this property, saved consideronce consigned to the flames. An at- able sums from the grasp of the insatiate tempt was even made to destroy the Van Dorn. The surrender at Holly general hospital, located in the main Springs was severely censured by Gensquare, and which at the time contained eral Grant, who had warned Colonel over five hundred sick. The report of Murphy of the approach of the enemy, the United States Medical Director, Sur- and who at the very time had sent reingeon Wirtz, narrates the fearful suffering forcements on their way to his aid. Colto which the inmates were exposed. onel Jacob Fry, commanding at Trenton, Barrels of powder and boxes of shells gallantly, though unavailingly, opposed and cartridges were piled up and set fire the attack on Trenton, which was led by to in front of the building. Before the the rebel General Forrest. sick could be removed the walls and win- The effect of these attacks was to dows were riddled with flying balls and confine General Grant to the borders shell, and an explosion took place wound- of Tennessee. The public, ignorant ing twenty men, and setting fire to a of the difficulties in his way, had number of buildings on the square. To looked for the immediate reduction of add to the horrors of this pandemonium, Vicksburg ; but that was an undertaka rebel cavalry officer forced a hundred ing destined to tax the resources of the and fifty sick soldiers from their beds to Union armies in more than one future rise, and fall in line, and notwithstanding campaign. the expostulations of the medical officer, “actually made the poor fellows, suffer- * H. R. Wirtz, Surgeon, U. S. A., Medical Director, 13th

General Washburn to Captain Phillips, A. A. G. December 4, 1862

* Colonel T. Lyle Dickey to Lieutenant-Colonel John A. Rawlings, A. A. G. December 20), 1862.

ing from typhoid fever, pneumonia and Army Corps, to Lieutenant Colonel Rawlings, A. "A. G.

Holly . ,

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CHAPTER L X X VIII.

GENERAL MCCLELLAN'S CAMPAIGN-BATTLES OF SOUTH MOUNTAIN AND ANTIETAM IN

MARYLAND—SEPTEMBER, 1862.

WHEN General Pope at the end of a McClellan in authority ; that officer after campaign of unintermitted toil, marked by a brief interval of inaction since his arthe persistent and courageous efforts of rival from the James River while his his overmatched forces, withdrew his troops were reinforcing the army of Pope, wasted army within the defences of having, on the 2d of September, been Washington he found there General ordered by General Halleck to the com

REBEL ADVANCE IN MARYLAND.

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mand of the fortifications of Washington the Confederate, army was appointed to and of all the troops for the defence of keep order at Frederick, and as a policy the capital. The return of Pope's forces of conciliation was evidently intended, the virtually brought the entire army of the presence of the rebel troops was made as Potomac again under his authority, and endurable as was consistent with an enwhen, as was immediately the case, it be- forced supply of their necessities, to the came necessary once more to take the field inhabitants. Foraging parties were sent -General Pope having been relieved and out for live-stock and provisions, and the appointed to a new sphere of duty—the most liberal purchases were made of command of the army for active opera- drugs, shoes, clothing, and other articles tions was virtually assigned by the Presi- from the shopkeepers of the town. An dent to General McClellan, whose ex- occasional "greenback” was rumored to perience and popularity with the army have been exhibited, but the tradesmen were looked to to repair its shattered were for the most part paid in Confederfortunes. On the 4th he issued the first ate currency, which they received with a of a new series of general orders, an- blank incredulous aspect. Sound Unionnouncing his command and requiring ists ironically congratulated “coppercorps commanders to place their troops head” storekeepers on the excellent busiin condition for immediate service. ness they were doing. Beyond this com

Rumors meanwhile began to be cur- pulsory traffic there appears to bave been rent that the Confederate General Lee little violation of the ordinary privileges was about to carry out a long-threatened of the inhabitants. They had indeed to enplan of invasion of the North. It was dure the sight of the rebel flag which was observed that his lines were extended substituted for the stars and stripes on their into the Shenandoah Valley and towards public buildings; but beyond a house or the Potomac, it was thought quite proba- two occupied as headquarters, private ble, with the intention of crossing the residences were not disturbed by the river into Maryland. The public was not soldiers who were encamped outside the kept long in suspense. At noon of the town.

At noon of the town. Citizens were permitted to pass 5th of September a body of rebel cavalry freely in and out of the place. This forfrom Leesburg attempted to pass the bearance was shown to “my Maryland" river at Edwards Ferry, but were re- as by right, in the opinion of the invaders, pulsed by the Union forces at that place. an integral portion of the Confederacy. The attempt, however, was renewed in His forces having now entered in numthe vicinity with success the following bers and gained a foothold in the state, night, and the next day Poolesville and General Lee, on the 8th September, from Darnstown were visited by a party of the headquarters of his Army of Northern cavalry. At the same time the river, Virginia, near Frederickton, issued his now fordable, was crossed in force by proclamation to the people of Maryland. the enemy above and below Point of “ It is right,” said he, “ that you

should Rocks. This advance of the army of know the purpose that has brought the Lee under General Hill marched immedi- army under my command within the ately upon Frederick, the capital of the limits of your state, so far as that purstate, and occupied the city on the 6th. pose concerns yourselves. The people Their appearance was a signal to with of the Confederate States have long draw above and below the trains and roll- watched with the deepest sympathy the ing stock of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail wrongs and outrages that have been inroad, whose track they had crossed. Aflicted upon the citizens of a commonProvost Marshal, Bradley T. Johnson, a wealth allied to the states of the South seceding Marylander who had entered by the strongest social, political, and commercial ties, and reduced to the con- Provost Marshal Johnson also issued a dition of a conquered province. Under proclamation energetically appealing to the pretence of supporting the Constitu- his late fellow-citizens to join the Contion, but in violation of its most valuable federate service. Its terms, like the provisions, your citizens have been ar- invitation of Lee, and the similar adrested and imprisoned, upon no charge, dresses from the officers of the rebel and contrary to all the forms of law. A army of invasion in Kentucky, show the faithful and manly protest against this reliance placed, and, happily, placed in outrage, made by a venerable and il- vain, upou border-state sympathy. “To lustrious Marylander, to whom in better the people of Maryland. After sixteen days no citizen appealed for right in vain, months of oppression, more galling than was treated with scorn and contempt. Austrian tyranny, the victorious army of The government of your chief city has the South brings freedom to your doors. been usurped by armed strangers ; your Its standard now waves from the PotoLegislature has been dissolved by the mac to Mason and Dixon's line. The unlawful arrest of its members ; freedom men of Maryland, who during the last of the Press and of speech has been long months have been crushed under suppressed ; words have been declared the heel of this cruel despotism, now offences by an arbitrary decree of the have the opportunity for working out Federal Executive, and citizens ordered their own redemption, for which they have to be tried by military commission for so long waited, and suffered, and hoped. what they may dare to speak. Believ- The Government of the Confederate ing that the people of Maryland possess States is pledged by the unanimous vote a spirit too lorty to submit to such a of its Congress, by the distinct declaration Government, the people of the South of its President — the soldier and stateshave long wished to aid you in throwing man, Davis -- never to cease the war off this foreign yoke, to enable you again until Maryland has the opportunity to to enjoy the inalienable rights of freemen, decide for herself her own fate, untramand restore the independence and sove- meled, and free from Federal bayonets. reignty of your state. In obedience to The people of the South, with unanimity this wish, our army has come among you, unparalleled, bave given their hearts and is prepared to assist you with the to our native state, and hundreds of power of its arms in regaining the rights thousands of her sons have sworn, with of which you have been so unjustly des- arms in their hands, that you shall be

, poiled. This, citizens of Maryland, is free. . You must now do your part. our mission, so far as you are concerned. We have the arms here for you ;I am au

. No restraint upon your free will is in- thorized to immediately muster in, for tended-no intimidation will be allowed the war, companies and regiments. The within the limits of this army at least companies of a hundred men, the regiMarylanders shall once more enjoy their ments of ten companies. Come! all who ancient freedom of thought and speech. wish to strike for their liberties and We know no enemies among you, and their homes. Let each man provide will protect all of you in every opinion. himself with a stout pair of shoes, a good It is for you to decide your destiny freely blanket, and a tin cup. Jackson's men and without constraint. This army will have no baggage. Officers are in Fredrespect your choice, whatever it may be, erick to receive recruits, and all comand while the Southern people will rejoice panies formed will be armed as soon as to welcome you to your natural position mustered in. Rise at once.

Rise at once. Rememamong them, they will only welcome you ber the cells of Fort HcMenry. Rememwhen you come of your own free will." ber the dungeons of Fort Lafayette and

SOUTHERN ANTICIPATIONS.

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As foeman meets his mortal foe.'

Fort Warren; the insults to your wives aggressive policy. “It is the desire of and daughters ; the arrests, the midnight the people,” said he, “ that the war

; searches of your houses. Remember should be carried into the enemy's counthese your wrongs, and rise at once in try. Mirabeau, the French philosopher, arms, and strike for Liberty and Right!” said that the only way to conduct a suc

A debate in the Confederate Congress cessful revolution was 'to dare, to dare at Richmond, on the 12th, in the first again, and still to dare,' and I wish flush of Lee's invasion of Maryland, ex- this army, this people of ours, the Exhibited the expectations formed at the ecutive, “ to dare, to dare again, and South from this event. Not only were still to dare," and dare at once. We thanks tendered to General Lee and the have tried the opposite policy long; officers and men under his command, and it has been partially successful. “ for their brilliant victory, culminating But now is the time to make the enemy in the signal defeat of the combined for- suffer,--to make them bleed, and feel ces of the enemy in the two great battles the iron heel of war. I believe we can of Manassas ;" but it was resolved, “That do it,- at least I am willing to make the Congress has heard with profound satis- experiment. We have battled long on faction of the triumphant crossing of the our territory, and now is the time to Potomac by our victorious army, and, cease ; and I speak the sentiment of at assured of the wisdom of that masterly least my own constituents when I say, movement, could repose with entire go into the enemy's country. confidence on the distinguished skill of

"Go with banner, brand and bow, the commanding-general and the valor of his troops, under favor of the Great A more moderate view was taken by Ruler of nations, to achieve new tri- Mr. Smith of Alabama.

. Our troops, umphs, to relieve oppressed Maryland, said he,“ have already achieved great and advance our standard into the terri- victories, and the great success of our tory of the enemy." In the debate on arms has been marked by triumphs unthese resolutions, Mr. Lyons of Virginia paralleled in the history of nations. But it demurred to committing the House to is a question yet as to whether we shall any movement of the army beyond be able to hold Maryland. We have Maryland, in which he was stoutly op- never been invited to enter Maryland, posed by Mr. Miles of South Carolina, and we do not know how we shall be who hailed the invasion as the fulfillment received. When our armies entered of the long-cherished and openly-ex- Kentucky, where we had been invited pressed wishes of the South. "Do you to go, we had to meet the Kentuckians believe that we could safely go into the steel to steel and knee to knee, and we heart of the North," asked Lyons. “I were driven out by Kentuckians. This illsay promptly, yes!” responded Miles. fated move lost us Nashville, and led to “I was told by a general, for whose a series of other disasters, until the great opinion I know the gentleman from Vir- valley of the Missisippi was lost. It was an ginia bas a high regard, that give Jackson old saying, that'whom the gods would deone half of our present army, and al. stroy, they first made mad.' The people though there were 600,000 men in the go mad twice a year, when they have anyfield he would drive them all before him. thing to go mad about. No war of inI believe now is the time to strike the vasion had ever been successful except blow. The regular armies of McClellan it was for the purpose of colonizing the and Pope are unable to meet one-fifth of country which they invaded. If the polthe number they ought to be.” Mr. icy was continued we might look for the Ayer of South Carolina seconded the second day which tried men's souls."

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