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of supply and its communications by and fifty miles, through the counties of Bragg's army of invasion. Though en- eastern Kentucky, by way of Manchester, vironed by the enemy, it had bravely Hazel Green, West Liberty, and Grayheld its own during the two months since son, to the Ohio at Greenupsburg, where the date of its occupation by General they arrived on the 3d of October, was Morgan, who, on more than one occasion, one of the most perilous adventures of on the 14th of July, at Wallace Cross the war, beset as the force was by the Roads, and on the first week of August, enemy, the divisions of Marshall and in the vicinity of Tazelville, in recon- Smith, on whose flank they were moving. noitering and foraging expeditions, had The troops suffered much from want of shown the spirit of his command. In water, the dry season having exhausted the latter affair the brigade of Colonel the pools on which the country dependDeCourcey, Ohio and Kentucky troops, ed, or left but a scanty stagnant supply. had successfully encountered the Geor- The dust was at times intolerable. The gia and Tennessee regiments of General force also felt the want of suitable proStevenson's division." The enemy," says visions, when their rations were spent General Morgan in his dispatch to Gov- and they were obliged to depend upon ernor Andrew Johnson, "outnumbered chance aid from the inhabitants, or the DeCourcey four to one. They lost two crops growing in the fields. The men hundred and twenty-five, and Lieuten- made graters by punching holes in their ant-Colonel Gordon, of the 11th Tennes- tin plates and thus "gritting" the corn see, was taken prisoner. We captured which was too old for roasting and too two hundred wagonloads of forage, one new for grinding. In this way they obthousand two hundred pounds of tobac- tained material for a palatable cake. co, and thirty horses and mules. We The cannon were dragged the whole dislost three killed, fifteen wounded, and tance by oxen and mules. In this way fifty prisoners. Two companies of the ten thousand men with twenty-eight 16th Ohio were surrounded by the rebel pieces of artillery and four hundred regiments but two-thirds of them cut wagons marched in safety to the Ohio. their way through."

Their arrival at Greenupsburg was It was the intention of General Mor- celebrated in a general order from their gan to hold the position at Cumberland commander :-"Comrades : At midnight Gap at all hazards, but the fear of fam- ou the 17th of September, with the army ine and of being finally compelled to 'of Stevenson three miles in your rear, surrender, determined him, while he had with Bragg on your left, Marshall on opportunity, to make good his retreat. your right flank and Kirby Smith in Accordingly, on the 17th of September, your front, you marched from Cumberhe issued bis order for the evacuation. land Gap, mid the roar of exploding The military buildings and all the stores mines and magazines, and lighted by the that could not readily be carried away conflagration of the storehouses of the were burnt. Four heavy siege pieces, commissary and quartermaster.

Since too heavy for transportation, were ren- then you have marched two hundred dered useless. As the forced marches and nineteen miles, overcome difficulties before the departing regiments, in face as great as ever obstructed the march of the enemy, forbade the necessary of an army, and with your field and care of the sick on the journey, they siege guns have reached the Ohio river. were left, with the necessary medical at- The rapidity of your marches, in the tendance and an abundant store of pro- face of an active foe, over ridges regardvisions. The escape of the brigade along ed impassable, and through defiles which a wild mountain track of two hundred a hundred men ought to hold against a



thousand, will hereafter be regarded a considerable force of raw troops hastwith astonishment and wonder. Al- ily collected from Illinois, Indiana, and though on the retreat you constantly Ohio, under the command of Major-Genacted on the offensive, so hotly did you eral Nelson, who had recovered from his press the enemy sent to retard your wound at the battle of Richmond. A march, that on three successive days few days only after General Buell's aryou surprised the hungry rebels at their rival this officer was slain in a personal supper, and fed upon the hurried meals rencontre by Brigadier-General Jefferwhich they had prepared. With an son C. Davis, who after the battle of Pea effective force of less than eight thou- Ridge, in which he commanded a divissand men you had maneuvered against ion, had been engaged in the army of an army eighteen thousand strong, and General Halleck before Corinth, and bad captured Cumberland Gap without the recently arrived in Louisville and been loss of a man. By your labor you ren- employed in the organization of the milidered it impregnable, and an enemy four tia. The following account of the cirtimes your strength dare not attack you. cumstances of General Nelson's death When Kentucky was invaded you sent was published in the telegraphic distwo regiments to aid in driving out the patches, the day of the event, to the invader, and such was your confidence Associated Press : “About a week ago in your strength, that while threatened Nelson placed Davis in command of the by a superior force you sent out five ex- home guard forces of the city. At night peditions, captured three hundred pris- Davis reported to Nelson the number of oners and killed and wounded one hun- men working on the intrenchments and dred and seventy of your foes. At enrolled for service. Nelson cursed him length, when it became evident that for not having more. Davis replied that your services were needed in the field, he was a general officer, and demanded you marched boldly from your strong- the treatment of a gentleman. Nelson hold, hurling defiance at the foe. One in an insulting manner ordered him to and all, you are entitled to the thanks report at Cincinnati, and told him he of your countrymen ; and I pray you to would order the provost-marshal to eject accept the assurance of my profound him from the city. This morning, Govgratitude. In my official report your ernor Morton, of Indiana, and General services and your sufferings will be Nelson were standing near the desk in properly noticed. Although you have the Galt House, when General Davis done well, let it be your determination approached, and requested Governor to do better, and always remember that Morton to witness a conversation bediscipline is the life-blood of an army. tween himself and General Nelson. He Soldiers ! as a friend and brother, I hail demanded of Nelson an apology for the and greet you.”

rude treatment he had received last To return to the movements of the main week. Nelson, being a little deaf, asked armies of Bragg and Buell. The latter, him to speak louder. Davis again deleaving Nashville in charge of General manded an apology. Nelson denounced Negley, had followed the invading army him and slapped him on the face. Daclosely on its route into Kentucky, reoc- vis stepped back, clenched his fist, and cupied Mumfordsville on the route, and, again demanded an apology. Nelson while Bragg was making his way toward again slapped him in the face, and again Frankfort, marched by the main road denounced him as a coward. Davis into Louisville, where the advance ar- turned away, procured a pistol from a rived on the 25th of September. Gen- friend, and followed Nelson, who was eral Buell found in and around the city going up stairs. Davis told Nelson to defend himself, immediately thereon fir- half-hour the leaden hail was doing its ing. The ball penetrated his left breast, work of death ; rebel after rebel was and General Nelson died in about twenty made to bite the dust, while our boys, minutes.” The coarse and violent con- thus secreted, were fighting for their duct of General Nelson was generally homes and firesides. But what a scene thought, by its excessive provocation, to now followed! The houses in which our palliate the attack by General Davis, forces were posted were set on fire, the who, after a short detention under ar- cannon of the enemy was planted in our rest, was ordered to duty in Kentucky. streets, and, disregarding the women and

A guerrilla attack upon the town of children, they were firing shell into the Augusta, on the Kentucky bank of the houses. Yet, true to their work, the Ohio about forty miles above Cincinnati, little band of Union men fought on until illustrates the character of the civil war it was madness to try to hold out longer. in the state, and the sufferings brought, Colonel Bradford ordered a surrender. at this time, upon the inhabitants by the As soon as this was done, then comrebel aggressors. At noon, on the 27th menced the pillage and plunder-every of September, this quiet place, with about rebel acting for himself. Stores were 1,500 inhabitants, was suddenly startled broken open and rifled of what was by the announcement of the approach wanted by the rebels. This, however,

, of a band of some four or five hundred was soon over, the rebel bugle was soon mounted guerrillas under a leader named sounded, and the enemy retired from our

a Bazil Duke. There were in the town about town in good order, though in haste. a hundred home guards and militia, under “ The fighting was desperate, and alcommand of Colonel J. T. Bradford, and though our loss is small, yet gallant and there were several gunboats at hand in brave men have gone from us forever. the river. With these resources, Col. Our killed and wounded amount to onel Bradford resolved upon a defence. twelve or fifteen, while that of the eneThe rebel cavalry having captured the my number between seventy-five and pickets and appeared with a piece of ar- one hundred-among them some eight tillery upon the hill immediately back of or ten officers. We had no means of the place, there was barely time to order ascertaining the names of all the rebels shell to be thrown from the gunboat Bel- killed and wounded; but among the fast, and to station the little militia band number mortally wounded is a son of among the brick houses of the town. George D. Prentice, of Louisville. CapThe women and children, unable to get tain W. Rogers, of Harrison county, was away, were to take refuge in the cellars. killed, and a Lieutenant Wilson. The A shell from the Belfast took effect upon rebels left some of their killed and a party of the enemy and caused them wounded in our hands, all of whom have to change the position of their gun. been properly cared for. They took our Fire was returned from the bill with horses, buggies, wagons, and all means little or no effect beyond causing the of transportation to carry off their dead timorous withdrawal of the gunboats, and wounded.” Such were the scenes leaving the town exposed to the assault enacted by confederate fury on “the of a body of men five times as numerous dark and bloody ground” of Kentucky, as its defenders. Then, in the words of and such the peace and prosperity Judge Joseph Doniphan, in bis report of brought by the invaders ! the affair to General Wright, "came a There was much confusion at Louisshout from the rebels, and they were ville incident to the gathering of the upon us.

From every window our true new troops, the arrival of Buell's army, and trusty boys were firing, and for one the death of General Nelson, and the



conflicts of authority between new and rear of the enemy's infantry retired old officers, suddenly brought together, from that place eight hours before our and of the armies of Ohio and Kentucky. arrival, when his rear guard of cavalry There was much distrust, too, expressed and artillery retreated after a sharp enby the governors of the northwestern gagement with my cavalry. The purstates, and others, in regard to the effi- suit and skirmishing with the enemy's ciency of General Buell, who was, in rear guard continued toward Springfield. consequence, by order of General Hal- The information which I received indileck, at the last moment, unexpectedly cated that the enemy would concentrate superseded by General George H. Tho-, his forces at Danville. The 1st Corps, mas.

On the remonstrance, however, under Major-General McCook, was thereof General Thomas himself, seconded fore ordered to march from Bloomfield by Generals Crittenden, Rousseau, and on Harrodsburg ; while the 2d Corps, others, General Buell was immediately under Major-General Crittenden, moved restored to his command. Kentucky on the Lebanon and Danville road, which was withdrawn from General Wright's passes four miles to the south of Perrydepartment of Ohio, and the army of ville, with a branch to the latter place ; General Buell was organized in three and the 3d Corps on the direct road to corps, under the command respectively Perryville. My headquarters moved of Generals Alexander McDowell, Mc- with the 3d (or centre) Corps. MajorCook, Thomas L. Crittenden, and Charles General Thomas, second in command, C. Gilbert. General Thomas was sec- accompanied the 2d (or right) Corps. ond in command of the whole. Affairs After leaving Bardstown, I learned that having been thus adjusted, on the 1st the force of Kirby Smith bad crossed to of October General Buell left Louis- the west side of the Kentucky river, ville with an army of about 100,000 near Salvisa, and that the enemy was men in pursuit of the forces of General moving to concentrate either at HarrodsBragg. The military events which fol- burg or Perryville. General McCook's lowed, including the battle of Chaplin's route was therefore changed from HarHills, or Perryville, are thus related in rodsburg to Perryville. The centre the account of the campaign by General corps arrived on the afternoon of the Buell :

7th, and was drawn up in order of bat" The army marched in five columns. tle about three miles from Perryville, The lest moved toward Frankfort, to where the enemy. appeared to be in hold in check the forces of the enemy, force. The advanced guard, under Capwhich still remained at or near that tain Gay, consisting of cavalry and arplace; the other column, marching by tillery, supported toward evening by two different routes, finally fell

, respectively, regiments of infantry, pressed successinto the roads leading from Shepherds- fully upon the enemy's rear guard to ville, Mount Washington, Fairfield, and within two miles of the town, meeting a Bloomfield, to Bardstown, where the somewhat stubborn opposition.

. main force of the enemy, under General “ The whole army bad for three days Bragg, was known to be ; these roads or more suffered from a scarcity of waconverge upon Bardstown at an angle ter, the last day, particularly, the troops of about fifteen degrees from each other. and animals suffered exceedingly for the Skirmishing with the enemy's cavalry want of it, and from hot weather, and and artillery marked the movement from dusty roads. In the bed of Doctor's each column from within a few miles of creek, a tributary of Chaplin river, about Louisville. It was more stubborn and two and a half miles from Perryville, formidable near Bardstown ; but the some pools of water were discovered, of which the enemy showed a determina. Maxville road. General McCook was tion to prevent us gaining possession. instructed to get it promptly into posiThe 36th brigade, under command of tion, on the left of the centre corps, and Colonel Daniel McCook, from General to make a reconnoissance to his front Sheridan's division, was ordered forward, and left. The reconnoissance had been to seize and hold a commanding position continued by Captain Gay toward his which covered these pools : it executed front and right, and sharp firing with the order that night, and a supply of artillery was then going on. I had somebad water was secured for the troops. what expected an attack early in the On discovering that the enemy was con- morning on Gilbert's corps, while it was centrating for battle at Perryville, I sent isolated, but as it did not take place, no orders on the night of the 7th to Gen- formidable attack was apprehended after eral McCook and General Crittenden to the arrival of the left corps. The dismarch at three o'clock the following position of the troops was made, mainly, morning, so as to take position respec- with a view to a combined attack on the tively, as early as possible, on the right enemy's position at daylight the followand left of the centre corps, the com- ing morning, as the time required to get manders themselves to report in person all the troops into position, after the unfor orders on their arrival, my intention expected delay, would probably make it being to make the attack that day if pos- too late to attack that day. The cansible. The orders did not reach Gen- nonading, which commenced with the eral McCook until half-past two o'clock, partial engagement in the centre, foland he marched at five. The 2d corps lowed by the reconnoissance of the cavfailing to find water at the place where alry under Captain Gay, extended toit was expected to encamp on the night ward the left, and became brisker as the of the 7th, had to move off the road for day advanced, but was not supposed to that purpose, and consequently was some proceed from any serious engagement, as six miles or more further off than it no report to that effect was received. would otherwise have been. The orders At four o'clock, however, Major-General did not reach it in time, and these two McCook's aide-de-camp arrived, and recauses delayed its arrival several hours. ported to me that the General was susStill it was far enough advanced to have taining a severe attack, which he would been pressed into the action on the 8th, not be able to withstand unless reinif the necessity for it had been known forced ; that his flanks were already givearly enough.

ing way.' He added, to my astonishThe engagement which terminated ment, 'that the left corps had actually at night the previous day, was renewed been engaged in a severe battle for sevearly on the morning of the 8th by an eral hours, perhaps, since twelve o'clock.' attempt of the enemy to drive the brig- It was so difficult to credit the latter, ade of Colonel McCook from the position that I thought there must even be some taken to cover the water in Doctor's misapprehension in regard to the forcreek ; the design had been discovered, mer. I sent word to him that I should and the divisions of Generals Mitchell rely on his being able to hold his ground, and Sheridan were moved into position though I should probably send him reinto defeat it, and hold the ground until forcements. I at once sent orders for the army was prepared to attack in two brigades from the centre corpsforce. A spirited attack was made on Schoepff's division to move promptly Colonel McCook's position, and was hand- to reinforce the left. Orders were also somely repulsed. Between ten and elev- sent to General Crittenden to move a en o'clock the left corps arrived on the division in, to strengthen the centre, and

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