Page images



were appealed to. The answer will never den and Thomas from their several stabe forgotten. Paris may have seen some- tions to Murfreesboro' and the line of the thing like it in her revolutionary days, but Nashville and Chattanooga railway. It the cities of America never did. Be proud was in one of the movements consequent that you have given them an example so upon this change of position that Brigasplendid. The most commercial of people, dier-General Robert L. McCook, who bad you submitted to a total suspension of bus- gained so distinguished a reputation by iness, and without a murmur adopted my his bravery in Western Virginia and Mill principle, 'Citizens for labor, soldiers for Spring was cruelly murdered on the battle.' In coming times, strangers viewing march by a party of guerrillas. The cirthe works on the hills of Newport and cumstances are thus related in a dispatch Covington will ask, 'Who built these in- dated Camp near Dechard, Tennessee, trenchments? You can answer, 'We built by Colonel F. Vanderveer, in command them. If they ask who guarded them; of a regiment, the 35th Ohio, of his brigYou can reply, We helped in thousands.' ade: “It becomes," he writes, “my If they inquire the result, your answer melancholy duty to report that, while a will be, 'The enemy came and looked at portion of the 3d Brigade, composing the them, and stole away in the night.' You 9th Ohio volunteers, the 2d Minnesota have won much honor. Keep your organ- volunteers, and the 35th Ohio volunteers, izations ready to win more. Hereafter, be under the command of Brigadier-Generalways prepared to defend yourselves.” al Robert L. McCook, were on their

Cincinnati was no sooner relieved from march from Athens, Alabama, to this the presence of the forces of Kirby Smith point, at a point near the southern line than the state was called to confront a of Tennessee, General McCook, who was more serious danger, in the invasion by sick, and riding in an open carriage upon the main army of the confederates in his bed, about three miles in advance Tennessee. After the retreat of the enemy of the troops, accompanied by Captain from Corinth to Tupelo, in Mississippi, Hunter Brooke of his staff, and Major while General Buell, who had been left Boynton, of the 35th Ohio, together with by General Halleck in command of the nine members of his escort, was suddenarmy of the Ohio, was with painful effort ly attacked by a band of mounted guerextending his lines eastward along the rillas, numbering between one and two Memphis and Charleston Rail Road, to hundred men, about noon on the fourth Huntsville, in Alabama, where he es- instant. Major Boynton, with one of the tablished his headquarters, General escort, and a citizen as a guide, mounted Bragg anticipating a further movement in upon the horse of another, had been this direction of the Union General, trans- sent a half-mile to the rear ; and three ferred a portion of the rebel army to members of the escort, including the serChattanooga, thus outflanking him, and geant, a like distance to the front, in with Eastern Tennessee already in pos- search of suitable camping-grounds for session, bad an open route in the rear the brigade, thus leaving but four of the of Nashville to Kentucky. The guerril- escort with General McCook-one of la warfare opened on his communications, whom was dismounted, and Captain in the destruction of railway bridges and Brooke, who was unarmed and in a carother interruptions of travel, with the riage attending upon the General when successful dash of Forrest upon Mur- the attack began. The General succeedfreesboro', now compelled General Buell ed in turning his carriage, but not until to abandon his line of defence in North- 'the guerrillas were within range, and firern Alabama and withdraw his divisions 'ing. He was soon overtaken and surunder Nelson, Wood, McCook, Critten- rounded, although his horses were running at the top of their speed. In reply who had done so much by his courage to the oft-repeated cry of 'Stop! Stop !' and spirit in the early days of the rebelthe General arose in his bed and ex- lion to assure the fortunes of his country. claimed: "Don't shoot, the horses are "He was affable in his manners and a unmanageable ; we will stop soon as pos- courteous gentleman. A brave officer sible. Notwithstanding this surrender, and congenial friend is lost to this divithose riding within a few feet, by the sion, and the country has been deprived side of the carriage, fired, one ball passing of a General who was firm and devoted through his bat, and one inflicting a mor- to its interests.” tal wound in the abdomen, which pro- On the 5th of August Fort Donelson, duced death about twenty-four hours af- garrisoned by four companies under ter, at noon of August 6th. The alarm Major Hart, of the 71st Ohio volunteers, having reached the column, it was hur- was attacked by the rebel forces of Colried up at double-quick, and almost im- onels Woodward and Johnson, numbermediately encountered the advance of ing eight hundred men, who were repulsed the band ; but a few shots from the head with considerable loss. Clarksville on the of the 35th scattered them instantly. 19th, held by Colonel R. Mason with the General McCook was found in a house remainder of the 71st Ohio, capitulated near where he was shot, whither he had to General Woodward without a strugbeen carried by Captain Brooke and the gle. In another direction to the northdriver of the carriage. Of those in ad- east of Nashville the guerrilla Colonel vance, Captain Brooke, two members of Morgan on the 12th entered Gallatin the escort, and two teamsters of the 9th capturing Colonel Boone and four comOhio, were captured, and one member panies of the 8th Kentucky Union regiof the 9th Ohio band was wounded by a ment. The place was immediately resabre-cut on the head. General Mc- taken, but the vicinity a few days after, Cook's wagons were fired, but not great- on the 21st, became the scene of another ly damaged. The three horses attached surrender to the seemingly invincible to this team, and the mules of one other Morgan and his men, when General R. brigade team were taken. The condition W. Johnson in command of a brigade of of General McCook could not but have Indiana and Kentucky troops making the been known to the attacking party, as he attack, bis forces wavered and broke, was on his bed divested of all outer cloth- and being rallied to resist pursuit by the ing, except a hat used as a shade, and the enemy, a second time fled. All who did curtains of the carriage being raised on not cross the Cumberland in flight, much all sides. There are good reasons for to the mortification of their General, supposing that the attack was planned were compelled to surrender. The Union solely for General McCook's capture or loss in this affair was thirty killed, fifty murder. Infuriated by this cowardly wounded and seventy-five taken prisonassassination, many of the soldiers of the ers. Morgan reported a loss of five brigade spread themselves over the coun: killed, eighteen wounded and two missing. try before any measures could be taken The movement of the army of the to check them, and burned nearly all the Ohio was now in a northerly direction property of rebels in the vicinity, and parallel with the advance of General shot a rebel lieutenant who was on fur- Bragg through middle Tennessee toward lough, and supposed to be connected Kentucky. Bragg leaving Chattanooga with the gang.'

followed up the valley of the SequatIn a general order, General Thomas, chie to Pikeville, thence to Sparta threatthe head of the division, paid a personal ening Buell's army for the protection of and official tribute to the fallen soldier, Murfreesboro' and Nashville at McMinn



ville and pursuing his route by Car- our ear. Banish henceforth, forever, from thage, entered Kentucky the first week your minds the fear of loathsome prisons in September about the time the advance or insulting visitations. Let your enthusiof his army under Kirby Smith, as we asm have free rein. Buckle on the arhave seen, bad gained possession of mor of your kindred, your husbands, sons, Frankfort. At Glasgow, on the 18th of and brothers, and scoff with shame him September, like his predecessors Morgan who would prove recreant in his duty to and Smith, he issued an address to the you, his country, and his God.” people of the state, making a similar ap- On Sunday, the 14th of September, peal, in the most inviting phraseology to there was a sharp engagement between the the inhabitants. “We come,” said he, advance of Buckner's division of Bragg's “not as conquerors or despoilers but to army and the brigade of Colonel J. T. restore liberty and guaranty the sanctity Wilder, about two thousand men in all, of homes and altars. Believing that the stationed at Munfordville on Green river. heart of Kentucky is with us in our great An attack was made on the pickets on the struggle for Constitutional Freedom, we south side of the river at daylight, the main have transferred from our own soil to works were then assailed, when the enemy, yours, not a band of marauders, but a Mississippi and Alabama regiments, were powerful and well disciplined army. repulsed with considerable slaughter. The Your gallant Buckner leads the van. rebel General Chalmers reciting his suMarshall is on the right, while Breckin- perior force and their disposition on both ridge, dear to us as to you, is advancing sides of the river, and announcing the with Kentucky's valiant sons, to receive army of General Bragg to be but a short the honor and applause due to their hero- distance in the rear, demanded an unconism. The strong hands which in part ditional surrender, which Colonel Wilder have sent Shiloh down to history, and refused.

refused. Colonel Dunham coming on the the nerved arms which have kept at bay field with a reinforcement of about four from our own homes the boastful army hundred Indiana troops, took command as of the enemy, are here to assist, to sus- senior officer the next day which was detain, to liberate you. Will you remain voted to working upon the entrenchments. indifferent to our call, or will you not Additional reinforcements came up in rather vindicate the fair fame of your the evening, and the following day, Tuesonce free and envied state? We be- day, the fight was resumed and continued lieve that you will

, and that the memory with various skirmishing till late in the of your gallant dead who fell at Shiloh, afternoon, when on the demand of Gentheir faces turned homeward, will rouse eral Bragg in consideration of the vastly you to a manly effort for yourselves and superior force which he claimed, twentyposterity. Kentuckians! We have come five thousand men and sixty pieces of with joyous hopes. Let us not depart artillery besides cavalry, the garrison in sorrow, as we shall if we find you surrendered. On Wednesday, the 17th, wedded in your choice to your present at six o'clock in the morning, the entire lot. If you prefer Federal rule, show it force, now about four thousand, marched by your frowns, and we shall return out of the works with the honors of war, whence we came. If you choose rather drums beating and colors flying, being alto come within the folds of our brother-lowed by the terms of surrender their hood, then cheer us with the smiles of side-arms and all private property and your women, and lend your willing hands four days' rations. They were immedito secure you in your heritage of liberty. ately paroled and departed for the Ohio.* Women of Kentucky! Your persecu

* Reports of Colonels Wilder and Dunham, Rebellion tions and heroic bearing have reached Record, v. p. 449-463.

Bragg now advanced to Bardstown, debarred from the renewal of former where, on the 26th, we find him issuing proposals for peace, because the relenta memorable proclamation to the people less spirit that actuates the government of the Northwest. After a brief pre- at Washington leaves us no reason to amble declaring that the Confederate expect that they would be received with government was waging war solely for the respect naturally due by nations in self-defence, it declared "that among the their intercourse, whether in peace or pretexts urged for the continuance of the war. It is under these circumstances war, is the assertion that the Confederate that we are driven to protect our own government desires to deprive the United country by transferring the seat of war States of the free navigation of the west- to that of an enemy who pursues us ern rivers, although the truth is that the with an implacable and apparently aimConfederate Congress, by public act prior less bostility. If the war must continue, to the commencement of the war, enact- its theatre must be changed, and with it ed that the peaceful navigation of the the policy that has heretofore kept us on Mississippi river is hereby declared free the defensive on our own soil. So far it to the citizens of any of the states upon is only our fields that have been laid its borders or upon the borders of its waste, our people killed, our homes tributaries,' a declaration to which our made desolate and our frontiers ravaged government has always been and is still by rapine and murder. The sacred ready to adhere. From these declara- right of self-defence demands that hencetions, people of the Northwest, it is forth some of the consequences of the made manifest that by the invasion of war shall fall upon those who persist in our territories by land and from sea, we their refusal to make peace. With the have been unwillingly forced into a war people of the Northwest rests the power for self-defence, and to vindicate a great to put an end to the invasion of their principle once dear to all Americans, to home ; for, if unable to prevail upon the wit: that no people can be rightly gov- government of the United States to conerned except by their own consent. We clude a general peace, their own state desire peace now. We desire to see a governments, in the exercise of their stop put to a useless and cruel effusion sovereignty, can secure immunity from of blood, and that waste of national the desolating effects of warfare on their wealth rapidly leading to, and sure to soil, by a separate treaty of peace, which end in, national bankruptcy. We are our government will be ready to conclude therefore now, as ever, ready to treat on the most just and liberal basis. The with the United States, or any one or responsibility, then rests with you, the more of them, upon terms of mutual jus- people of the Northwest, of continuing tice and liberality. And at this junc- an unjust and aggressive warfare upon ture, when our arms have been success the people of the Confederate States. ful on many hard-fought fields, when our And in the name of reason and humanpeople have exhibited a constancy, a. ity, I call upon you to pause and reflect fortitude, and a courage worthy of the what cause of quarrel so bloody have boon of self-government, we restrict our- you against these states, and what are selves to the same moderate demands you to gain by it? Nature has set her that we made at the darkest period of seal upon these states, and marked them our reverses—the demand that the peo- out to be your friends and allies. She ple of the United States cease to war has bound them to you by all the ties of upon us, and permit us in peace to pur- geographical contiguity and conformasue our path to happiness, while they in tion, and the great mutual interests of peace pursue theirs.

We are, however, commerce and productions. When the



passions of this unnatural war shall have lation. You are blindly following abolisubsided, and reason resumes her sway, tionism to this end, whilst they are nicea community of interest will force a com- ly calculating the gain of obtaining your mercial and social coalition between the trade on terms that would impoverish great grain and stock growing states of your country. You say you are fightthe Northwest and the cotton, tobacco ing for the free navigation of the Missisand sugar regions of the South. The sippi. It is yours freely, and has always Mississippi river is a grand artery of been without striking a blow. You say their mutual national lives which men you are fighting to maintain the Union. cannot sever, and which never ought to That Union is a thing of the past. A bave been suffered to be disturbed by union of consent was the only union ever the antagonisms, the cupidity and the worth a drop of blood. When force bigotry of New England and the East. came to be substituted for consent, the It is from the East that have come the casket was broken and the constitutional germs of this bloody and most unnatural jewel of your patriotic adoration was strife. It is from the meddlesome, grasp- forever gone. I come then to you with ing and fanatical disposition of the same the olive branch of peace, and offer it to people who have imposed upon you and your acceptance, in the name of the us alike those tariffs, internal improve memories of the past and the ties of the ment, and fishing bounty laws, whereby present and future. With you remains we have been taxed for their aggrandize- the responsibility and the option of conment. It is from the East that will come tinuing a cruel and wasting war, which the tax-gatherer to collect from you the can only end after still greater sacrifices mighty debt which is being amassed in such treaty of peace as we now offer ; mountain high for the purpose of ruin- or of preserving the blessings of peace ing your best customers and natural by the simple abandonment of the defriends. When this war ends, the same sign of subjugating a people over whom antagonism of interest, policy and feel no right of dominion has been conferred ing which have been pressed upon us by on you by God or man."

Such were the East and forced us from a political the terms,-a mingled appeal to self-inunion, where we had ceased to find terest, prejudices, and even to fear, -safety for our interests or respect for with which General Bragg approached our rights, will bear down upon you and the men of the Northwest. It did not separate you from a people whose tradi- appear, however, that his arguments had tional policy it is to live by their wits much force in engaging the sturdy patriupon the labor of their neighbors. ots beyond the Ohio in any new admiraMeantime, you are used by them to tion of the Confederacy. Indifferent, fight the battle of emancipation-a bat- alike to his threats and persuasions, they tle which, if successful, destroys our needed no admission from a foreign powprosperity and with it your best mar- er of their right to navigate the Missiskets to buy and sell. Our mutual de- sippi. That, they felt, was in their own pendence is the work of the Creator. hands, and they were determined to asWith our peculiar productions, conver- sert it in their own way. In the meantible into gold, we should, in a state of time the invasion of Kentucky was to be peace, draw from you largely the pro- repelled. ducts of your labor. In us of the South While such was the situation of affairs you would find rich and willing custom- in the central part of the state and on ers ; in the East you must confront rivals the Ohio, the isolated outpost of the in productions and trade, and the tax- Union General Morgan, at Cumberland gatherer in all the forms of partial legis- Gap, was cut off from its usual sources

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »