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The evacuation had evidently been a the boast of a writer from Pensacola, to settled purpose, most of the heavy guns the Mobile Register, the day after the having been previously removed. Fort conflagration, that General Jones had McRae was entirely consumed in the in- most admirably performed his task of terior ; Fort Barancas was less injured, destruction, and that he had left to the the enemy having been driven away Federals but an in hospitable sand-beach. from their work of destruction by the fire The land, however, and the harbor with from Pickens. · The Naval Hospital, said its refuge for the Gulf squadron, reto be the finest structure of the kind in mained; the Government was freed from the United States, was entirely consumed. the necessity of keeping up a large force The storehouses and workshops at the with perpetual vigilance, as in previous Navy Yard had suffered the same fate. months at Pickens, and it was much that The Custom House and a few other small the United States flag once more waved buildings were left uninjured, but in in its old seat of authority in this imgeneral the ruin was complete. It was portant station in Florida.
THE REDUCTION OF FORT MACON, N. C., APRIL 25, 1862.
FOLLOWING close upon the capture of | rebel garrison, and the troublesome ConFort Pulaski and the bombardment of federate steamer Nashville, which, since Forts Jackson and St. Philip, on the its successful passage from Southampton, Mississippi, came the reduction of Fort had been blockaded in the harbor, burnt Macon, in North Carolina. The position to escape capture. The news was premaof this work rendered its possession of no ture in some of its particulars, and far slight importance, were it only to secure from prophetic in others; but the main the valuable seaport and harbor at Beau- result was speedily attained. So far from fort. Great as were the advantages of being burnt, the Nashville, improving the previous conquests of the army and her opportunity while there were but two navy at Hatteras, Roanoke island and sailing vessels blockading the harbor, Newbern, there was still wanting for the ran by them uninjured on the night of the fleet a naval station in North Carolina 17th of March, and escaped to Georgeof ready access from the ocean. The town, S. C. Fort Macon, named after capture of Newbern effectually cut off the Honorable Nathaniel Macon, was a Beaufort from direct communication by regularly constructed work, hexagonal land with the interior. General Burn-in form, mounting two tiers of guns-one side was in possession of the railway in casemated bomb-proof, the other en which led to the city, and the enemy had barbette. Its full armament consisted of no sufficient force on the spot to resist its about sixty guns. When'it was taken capture. Indeed, so obviously appeared possession of by the troops of the State the place at his disposal, that within ten of North Carolina, about the middle of days after his occupation of Newbern, it April, 1861, it was ungarrisoned, mountwas currently reported that Beaufort was ed but •four 24-pounders, on weak carevacuated in advance of the arrival of riages, and was generally out of repair. his troops, Fort Macon, blown up by the It is situated on the eastern extremity of Bogne island, in full command of the in full command of the fort in its rear. channel to Beaufort, distant a mile and The trouble of effecting this transit was, three quarters across the bay in a north- of course, considerable. When the easterly direction. Bogue sound sepa- marsh was passed, the ground was broken rates the island on which the fort is built by a number of loose sand-bills, which, from the mainland.
without greatly diminishing the difficulThe preliminary steps for the capture ties of transportation, afforded an excelof Fort Macon were taken by General lent protection to the troops sheltered Burnside immediately after the battle of behind them. The ground was cleared Newbern. That event occurred on the of the enemy by laborious pickèt duty of 14th of March ; on the 19th General Colonel Rodman's 4th Rhode Island volParke was ordered, with his brigade, to unteers, Major Wright's battalion of the advance towards Beaufort. The railway 5th Rhode Island, and Major Applebeing broken up by the rebels, the troops man's 8th Connecticut. Captain Wilwere transported by water to Slocum's liamson, topographical engineer of Gencreek, their former landing place, and eral Burnside's staff, surveyed the vicinity marched thence across the country over for the purpose of ascertaining the most swampy roads and long stretches of sand, desirable places for the location of the to Carolina city, on Bogue sound, a few batteries. In this duty he was assisted miles west of Morehead city, at the ter- by Lieutenant Flagler, ordnance officer inination of the railway opposite Fort of General Burnside's staff ; Captain Macon. Both these places, with Beau- Lewis 0. Morris, Company C, 1st United fort on the opposite side of the Newport States artillery (regulars); Lieutenant river, which here enters the bay, were Prouty, 25th Massachusetts volunteers, occupied by the Rhode island troops (acting assistant ordnance officer), and without opposition. The only rebel force Captain Ammon, of battery I, 3d New in arms in the neighborhood was the gar-York artillery. The site for the first r'ison at Fort Macon, commanded by battery (of four 10-inch mortars), was Colonel Moses J. White, a nephew, it chosen under the cover of a large sandwas said, of Jefferson Davis. After des- hill, near the edge of the marshes which troying the railway bridge of Newport line the northern side of the 'spit,' disand opposing, as far as possible, the ad- tant 1,400 yards from the fort. The vance of the Union army, he awaited, working of this battery was particularly with some five hundred men in the fort, allotted to Lieutenant Flagler, by whose the operations for its reduction. General name it was known during the siege, Parke, from his headquarters at Caro- though he devoted himself generally to lina city, having, on his arrival, offered the erection and working of all three. the garrison liberal terms of surrender, This battery was manned by a portion which were refused, lost no time in di- of battery I, 3d New York artillery. recting the movement. The siege mate- The next battery was placed one hunrial, transported with difficulty from dred yards in advance, and nearly in the Newbern along the route taken by the centre of the island, It was built and troops, was brought to Bogue sound, and worked by Captain Morris, assisted by thence ferried across the shallow water Lieutenants Gowan and Pollock. Its to a point some four or five miles west of armament was three long 30-pound siege Fort Macon, on the island or spit of sand Parrott guns, rifled. The shot used in on the eastern termination of which that this battery was of a novel character. work was situated. A wide marshlay
A wide marsh lay Each projectile was made of solid cast between the landing-place and the station iron, conically shaped, with a blunt point for the batteries, which were to be placed some three inches in diameter, and the
more especial object of the battery was These various preparations for the to dismount the guns on the fort. For bombardment were completed on the 23d this object the flat, impinging surface of of April, when General Burnside arrived the shot was peculiarly adapted, as it from Newbern on board the steamer was less liable to glance, a fault common Alice Price, through the inner waters with sharp-pointed shot. The next and of Cove sound, bringing with him two last battery was that of four 8-inch mor- barges fitted up as floating batteries—the tars. It was located one hundred yards Shrapnel, in command of Captain Nichols further on, or twelve hundred yards from of the navy, and the Grenada, Lieutenthe fort, under a sand bill near the beach. ant Baxter. Each was armed with two It was in charge of Lieutenant Prouty, 30-pound Parrott guns ; and the forand manned by a detachment of battery mer had, in addition, a 12-pound Wiard I, 3d New York artillery. In addition steel rified cannon. They were protected to the above, rifle pits had been dug in by bales of cotton and hay as breastvarious parts of the 'spit,' on the flanks works. These vessels, with the gunboat and in front of the battery, in which our Ellis, armed with a 100-pounder, under pickets were posted to repel any sortie the command of Captain Franklin, were which the enemy might make. The bat- intended to operate against the fort from teries, again, were connected with each the inner waters of the bay, in the direcother by trenches sunk in the sand and tion of Beaufort. In addition there was skirting the hills. Communication was the blockading fleet off the harbor, under thus kept open between the various po- command of Commander Samuel Locksitions by this means, while they also wood, which we shall find taking part in served as a protection to the pickets and the action. reliefs sent from one point to another Immediately after his arrival General during the progress of the bombardment. Burnside sent the Ellis toward the fort The siege train employed for the reduc- bearing a flag of truce. Captain Briggs, tion of the fort, it will be seen, embraced an old classmate of West Point of Coloonly eleven pieces-four 10-inch mor- nel White, proceeded from the steamer tars, four 8-inch mortars, and three siege when it came to anchor in the channel, guns. In view of the work accomplished, in a small boat, and was met midway by the facts themselves will tell how admir- a sailboat from the fort, with a similar ably and effectively the batteries were flag of truce. On board the latter was managed. It entered into the plan orig. Captain Stephen D. Pool, of the Beauinally to have batteries at the westerly fort Grays, accompanied by other officers side of Beaufort, and on Shackleford of the garrison. Captain Briggs submitbanks, on the opposite shore of the inlet, ted to them the demand of General so that the fort would be surrounded in a Burnside for the surrender of the fort. semicircle. With their fire and that of The message was communicated to Colothe. gunboats and blockading fleet, the nel White, who, after some hours' delay, fort would have been a target for shot returned an answer declining to surrenand sholl from all points of the compass. der. An arrangement was at the same But they were not erected, as the invest-time made that the two commanders ment was deemed sufficiently complete should meet the following day. for the opening of the bombardment. Accordingly, early on the morning of Had the fort made a protracted resist the 24th, General Burnside, accompanied ance their construction would have been by Captain Briggs, was landed on the occasioned as a means to its speedier re- beach before the fort, and held a cour
teous interview with Colonel White, when • Beaufort Correspondence N. Y. Herald, April 27, 1862. I permission was asked and readily ob
tained for the garrison to send open let- withdrew after being engaged about an ters to their friends at Beaufort. No hour and a quarter, hoping that the wind concessions were made to arrest the im- and sea would subside so as to enable us pending bombardment. General Burn- to renew our firing in the afternoon; side returned to his quarters, and order and the more readily adopted that course, was given by telegraph to General Parke as we did not contemplate to be continon the island to open fire at once. uously engaged, but occasionally open One of the batteries not being quite fire on the enemy, whom we expected ready, the action was postponed till the would hold out for several days. The morrow.
wind and sea increasing rendered the reAbout six o'clock in the clear morn- newal of the engagement impracticable ing of that day, Friday, the 24th-it was that afternoon by the gunboats. We exnoticed that Friday was General Burn- pended nearly one-half of our fifteenside's lucky day, the victories of Roanoke second fused shells, and, I am happy to and Newbern having been fought on that say, with good effect ; and our time of day—the fire from the batteries was attack was most opportune, as we drew opened by Captain Morris's Parrott guns, the fire of the enemy from an important followed by a discharge from Lieutenant land battery, which enabled our forces Flagler's and Prouty's mortars. The fort to repair damages caused by the concendid not respond immediately, but after trated fire thereon. The fire of the enesome little delay, the guns bearing on the my on the vessels from guns of greater Federal batteries were brought into ac- range was excellent. Their shot and tion, and at eight o'clock, both parties shell fell around us in every direction. improving in the range, the firing was in Many good line shots passed just over general well directed ; the works of the and beyond us as we successively passed fort, affording the better target, evident- their line of fire, and we were exceedingly suffering most in the operation. ly fortunate in receiving so little damage.
Commander Lockwood, in the mean The Daylight was struck by an 8-inch time, was getting the blockading vessels solid shot on the starboard quarter, beunder way to take part in the action. low the spar deck, passing through sev“When within range,” says he, in his re- eral bulkheads and the deck below, to port, "and as near as the shoals allowed the opposite side of the vessel in the enus to approach, the Daylight opened fire, gine-room, about six inches above the followed in succession by the State of machinery, among which it dropped. A Georgia, Commander James F. Arm- splinter fractured the small bone of the strong, the gunboat Chippewa, Lieuten- right fore-arm of Acting Third Assistant ant Commanding A. Bryson, and the Engineer Eugene J. Wade, and I am bark Gemsbok, Acting Lieutenant Ed- happy to state that this was the only ward Cavendish. The three steamers casualty that occurred.” kept under way, steaming around in a cir- After the gunboats had retired, the cle, delivering their fire as they came two armed barges were brought within within range, at a mile and a quarter three miles of the fort, and threw about distant from the fort. The bark was an- thirty shots from the Parrott guns. By chored. After firing a number of rounds the afternoon the guns of the Federal of shot and shell, finding that the sea, batteries—the range being now fully sefrom a southwest wind which was blow- cured—told upon the fort with destrucing on shore, caused the vessels to roll so tive effect, and shortly after four o'clock, quick and deep as to render our guns a white flag on the west front announced almost unmanageable to our range and that the surrender was at hand. It was the accuracy of our aim, I reluctantly an odd medley of the association of war
TERMS OF THE CAPITULATION.
and peace that while the bombardment to be released on their parole of honwas going on, a boat was sent under a flag or not to take up arms against the of truce to the fort from Beaufort, bear- United States of America until proping the answers to the letters which had erly exchanged, and to return to been transmitted from the garrison the their homes, taking with them all their day before. “Many of the letters," it is private effects, such as clothing, bedding, said, contained exhortations and en- books, etc.” The three officers were . treaties to officers and soldiers to prevail landed at the fort, when Colonel White, upon Colonel White to surrender the summoning the garrison, informed them place without resistance. Others exhib- of the terms of capitulation, and prepared ited more pluck on the part of the femi- for the final act of surrender. In the nine correspondents. They besought meantime, General Burnside, General their friends to fight a dittle while and Parke, Captains Briggs and King, adthen surrender, to show that they were vanced on the beach toward the batteries. not cowards.” This tender mail, how- The 5th Rhode Island was ordered up
to ever, carrying the prayers and anxieties march into Fort Macon. Happily, a new of the relatives and friends of the volun- set of colors bearing the words “Roanteer soldiery of Beaufort, was not admit- oke," " Newbern,” a present from their ted till the further defence of the fort was State; had just been received by the abandoned.
regiment. General Burnside then unIt remained now only to adjust the furled them for the first time, and walkterms of surrender. The exhibition of ing at the head of the troops, they marchthe white flag at the fort was succeeded ed onward by the ocean surf in the clear by the appearance of two of the officers morning sunlight, to raise the national of the garrison, Captains Pool and Guion, flag once more on the fort which their with a number of attendants, coming to- arms had restored to the United States. ward the batteries. They were met by The rebel flag which had been raised on Captain Pell and Lieut. Hill, of the staff, the fort, it was observed, was made of and Lieutenant Prouty, "all three be- the old United States flag of the garrison, grimed with dust and powder smoke.” mutilated and altered to meet the requireAfter the usual civilities, Captain Guion ments of treason, “the red and white stated that he was charged with a pro- stripes ripped apart and arranged in the posal from Colonel White for a cessation broad bars of the new dispensation. Of of hostilities with relation to the surren- the thirty-four stars in the field, those der of the fort. General Parke was which were not needed to represent the then sent for, and on his arrival a truce traitorous sister States of the Confederacy was agreed upon till the next morning. were cut out, and the holes left unsewn. A consultation was meanwhile held with The flag which was hoisted in place of General Burnside on board the Alice this patchwork ensign was found in the Price, and early in the forenoon of the fort in one of the casemates. It had been following day, the 26th, the steamer taken from the wreck of the steamer again approached the fort, when Colonel Union, which went ashore on Bogue White came on board, and together with Beach, and was wrecked at the time of the two generals and Commander Lock- the Port Royal expedition."* wood, of the squadron, agreed upon the By the direction of General Burnside, articles of capitulation. They were em- who was solicitous to spare the feelings braced in two short articles, " The fort, of the rebel garrison still within the fort, armament and garrison to be surrender- the Union troops were requested to make ed to the forces of the United States. The officers and men of the garrison April 26, 1862.
* Correspondence Vero York Tribune. Fort Macon,