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edge of the woods. In this advance their advantage by the necessary change Lieutenant-Colonel J. Gerber was killed, of front, some fresh troops dashed against and it is but justice to say of him, “No them, and once more drove them back. man died that day with more glory ;' For this favor my acknowledgments are yet many died, and there was much glo- especially due Colonel August Willich ry. Captain McGaffin and Lieutenant and his famous regiment. Pending this Southwick, of the same regiment, also struggle, Colonel Thayer pushed on his fell - gallant spirits, deserving honor- command and entered the woods, assaultable recollection. Many soldiers equally ing the rebels simultaneously with Colbrave perished, or were wounded on the onel Smith. Here the 58th Ohio and same field.

23d Indiana proved themselves fit com“It was now noon, and the enemy rades in battle with the noble 1st Nehaving been driven so far back, the idea braska. Here, also, the 76th Ohio won of flanking them further had to be given a brilliant fame. The 1st Nebraska fired up. Not wishing to interfere with the away its last cartridge in the heat of the line of operations of the division to my action. At a word, the 76th Ohio rushed lest, but relying on it for support, my in and took its place. Off to the right front was again changed, the movement meanwhile arose the music of the 20th beginning with the 1st brigade, taking and 78th Ohio, fighting gallantly in supthe course of attack precisely as it had port of Thurber, to whom the sound of been in the outset. While the maneu- rebel cannon seemed a challenge no ver was being effected, a squadron of re- sooner heard than accepted. From the bel cavalry galloped from the woods on time the wood was entered, forward was the right, to charge the flank temporarily the only order. And step by step, from exposed. Colonel Thayer threw forward tree to tree, position to position, the rethe 23d Indiana, which, aided by an ob- bel lines went back, never stopping again lique fire from a company of the 1st Ne--infantry, horse, and artillery all went braska, repelled the assailants with loss. back. The firing was grand and terriScarcely had the front been changed, ble. Before us was the Crescent regi

. when the supporting force on the left ment of New Orleans-shelling us on the again gave way, closely followed by right was the Washington Artillery of masses of the enemy. My position at Manassas renown, whose last stand was this time became critical, as isolation in front of Colonel Whittlesey's comfrom the rest of the army seemed immi- mand. To and fro, now in my front, nent. The reserves were resorted to. then in Sherman's, rode General BeauColonel Woods, with his regiment, was regard, inciting his troops, and fighting ordered into line on the left. The rem- for his fading prestige of invincibility. nant of a Michigan regiment sent me by The desperation of the struggle may be General McClernand was dispatched to easily imagined. While this was in prothe left of Woods'. Thurber galloped gress, far along the lines to the left the up, and was posted to cover a retreat, contest was raging with equal obstinacy. should such a misfortune become neces- As indicated by the sounds, however, sary. Before the dispositions could be the enemy seemed retiring everywhere. effected, the 11th Indiana, already en- Cheer after cheer rang through the woods. gaged with superior numbers in its front, Each man felt the day was ours. About was attacked on its left flank ; but back- four o'clock the enemy to my front broke ward wheeling three companies of his en- into rout, and ran through the camps ocdangered wing, Colonel McGinniss gal- cupied by General Sherman, on Sunday lantly held his ground. Fortunately, be- morning. Their own camp had been fore the enemy could avail themselves of established about two miles beyond.

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There, without halting, they fired tents, shell of the heaviest description. Darkstores, etc. Throwing out the wounded, ness was close at hand. Officers and they filled their wagons full of arms men were exhausted by a combat of over (Springfield muskets and Enfield rifles), twelve hours without food, and jaded by ingloriously thrown away by some of our the march of the preceding day, through troops the day before, and hurried on. mud and water; it was therefore imposAfter following them until nearly night- sible to collect the rich and opportune fall, I brought my division back to Owl spoils of war scattered broadcast on the creek, and bivouaced it. The conduct field left in our possession, and impracof Colonel M. L. Smith and Colonel John ticable to make any effective dispositions M. Thayer, commanding brigades, was for their removal to the rear. I accordbeyond the praise of words. Colonel ingly established my headquarters at the Whittlesey's was not behind them. To church of Shiloh, in the enemy's encampthem all belong the highest honors of ment, with Major-General Bragg, and victory."

directed our troops to sleep on their arms, From these details which might be in such positions in advance and rear as readily multiplied from the reports of corps commanders should determine, the division and brigade commanders, hoping, from news received by a special the interesting narratives of Generals dispatch, that delays had been encounRousseau, McCook, Nelson, and others, tered by General Buell in his march from may be gathered some adequate idea of Columbia, and that his main forces, therethe resolute and determined conflicts of fore, could not reach the field of battle in the 6th and 7th of April, by far the time to save General Grant's shattered most serious engagement yet fought in fugitive forces from capture or destruction

on the following day. The account of the second day's en- "During the night the rain fell in torgagement, from the official report of the rents, adding to the discomfort and harConfederate General Beauregard, will assed condition of the men; the enemy, complete the narrative of this memorable moreover, had broken their rest by a disbattle. After the death of General John-charge, at measured intervals, of heavy ston on the afternoon of Sunday, General shells, thrown from the gunboats; thereBeauregard had taken the chief command fore, on the following morning, the troops on the field, “a responsibility," says he, under my command were not in condition “which, in my physical condition, I would to cope with an equal force of fresh troops, have gladly avoided, though cast upon me armed and equipped like our adversary, when our forces were successfully push- in the immediate possession of his depois, ing the enemy back upon the Tennessee and sheltered by such an auxiliary as the river, and though supported on the im- enemy's gunboats. About six o'clock on mediate field by such corps commanders the morning of the 7th of April, however, as Major-Generals Polk, Bragg, and a hot fire of musketry and artillary openHardee, and Brigadier-General Breckin-ed from the enemy's quarter on our adridge commanding the reserve. It was vanced line, assuring me of the junction after six o'clock P. M., when the enemy's of his forces, and soon the battle raged last position was carried, and his forces with a fury that satisfied me I was attackfinally broke and sought refuge behind a ed by a largely superior force. But from commanding eminence covering Pittsburg the onset, our troops, notwithstanding Landing, not more than half a mile dis- their fatigue and losses from the battle of tant, and under the guns of the gunboats, the day before, exhibited the most cheerwhich opened on our eager columns a ing, veteran-like steadiness. On the right fierce and annoying fire with shot and and centre the enemy was repulsed in



every attempt he made with his heavy tion warily observing our movements. column in that quarter of the field; on Arranging, through my staff officers, for the left, however, and nearest to the point the completion of the movements thus beof arrival of his reinforcements, he drove gun, Brigadier-General Breckinridge was forward line after line of his fresh troops, left with his command as a rear guard to which were met with a resolution and hold the ground we had occupied the courage of which our country may be night preceding the first battle, just in proudly hopeful. Again and again our front of the intersection of the Pittsburg troops were brought to the charge, inva- and Hamburg roads, about four miles riably to win the position at issue, in- from the former place, while the rest of variably to drive back their foe. But the army passed to the rear in excellent hour by hour thus opposed to an enemy order. On the following day General constantly reinforced, our ranks were Breckinridge fell back about three miles perceptibly thinned under the unceasing, to Mickey's, which position we continued withering fire of the enemy, and by to hold, with our cavalry thrown contwelve, meridian, eighteen hours of hard siderably forward in immediate proximity fighting had sensibly exhausted a large to the battle-field. Unfortunately, tonumber, my last reserves had necessarily wards night of the 7th instant it began to been disposed of, and the enemy was rain heavily; this continued throughout evidently receiving fresh reinforcements the night; the roads became almost imafter each repulse; accordingly about one passable in many places, and much hardP. M., I determined to withdraw from so ship and suffering now ensued before all unequal a conflict, securing such of the the regiments reached their encampments. results of the victory of the day before But despite the heavy casualties of the as was then practicable.

two eventful days of the 6th and 7th of “About two o'clock, P. M., the lines in April, this army is more confident of uladvance, which had repulsed the enemy timate success than before its encounter in their last fierce assault on our left and with the enemy." centre, received the order to retire; this In a later portion of his report, Genwas done with uncommon steadiness, and eral Beauregard, after complimenting vathe enemy made no attempt to follow. rious officers and men of his command, The line of troops established to cover thus speaks of the conduct of others: “As this movement had been disposed on a a contrast to the behavior of most of the favorable ridge commanding the ground army who fought so heroically, I allude of Shiloh church; from this position our to the fact that some officers, non-comartillery played upon the woods beyond missioned officers, and men, abandoned for a while, but upon no visible enemy, their colors early in the first day, to piland without reply. Soon satisfied that lage the captured encampments; others no serious pursuit would be attempted, retired shamefully from the field on both this last line was withdrawn, and never days, while the thunder of cannon, and did troops leave a battle-field in better the roar and rattle of musketry told them order; even the stragglers fell into the that their brothers were being slaughranks and marched off with those who tered by the fresh legions of the enemy." had stood more steadily by their colors. In the unsurpassed heroism of this great A second position was taken up about a engagement there were thus examples of mile in rear, where the approach of the failure and delinquency on both sides. In enemy was waited for nearly an hour; no army are all equally brave and resobut no effort to follow was made, and on- lute; nor could it be expected that the ly a small detachment of horsemen could vast forces hastily gathered from civil be seen at a distance from this last posi- life here suddenly brought to the field would exhibit, in all cases, the skill and indeed, under the organization of the endurance of veterans. Heroism on both Sanitary Commission throughout the loyal sides was the rule; failure, from whatever States, ample stores of all kinds were forcause, in the performance of duty, the warded, hospital steamboats fitted up, in rare exception. Among the losses of the which the wounded were transported to Confederates on the second day, General the charitable western cities, and all that Beauregard records with deep regret, could be done under the circumstances " the death of the Hon. George M. John- was accomplished to relieve and mitigate son, Provisional Governor of Kentucky, the enormous human misery; but one who went into action with the Kentucky item, alas! in the account of this most troops, and continually inspired them by cruel

, merciless rebellion. The loss of his words and example. Having his horse officers was heavy on both sides. Besides shot under him on Sunday, he entered the commander-in-chief, General Johnthe ranks of a Kentucky regiment on ston, and the Provisional Governor of Monday, and fell mortally wounded to- Kentucky, Johnson, the Confederates lost wards the close of the day.” The entire Brigadier-General Gladden, and a numloss of the Confederates in the two days, ber of field officers, while Major-General as given by General Beauregard, was Cheatham, Brigadier - Generals Clark, 1,728 killed outright, 8,012 wounded, Hindman, Johnson, and Bowen, were re959 missing, making an aggregate of cas- ported among the wounded. General ualties of 10,699. The loss of the Union Gladden was from South Carolina, and army in the two days' engagement, as had achieved some distinction as an offifinally reported, was in the six divisions cer in Colonel Butler's Palmetto regiment of General Grant's army :-General Mc- in the Mexican war. The chief officer of Clernand's, 1st, 251 killed, 1,351 wound the Union ranks who fell was Brigadierded, 236 missing; General W. H. L. General W. H. L. Wallace, commanding Wallace's, 20, 228 killed, 1,033 wound- a division. Mortally wounded, as we ed, 1,163 missing; General Lewis Wal- have seen, in the afternoon of Sunday, he lace's, 3d, 43 killed, 257 wounded, 5 miss- was, after a vain attempt by his aids to ing ; General Hurlbut's, 4th, 313 killed, lead him away, left on the battle-field, 1,449 wounded, 223 missing ; Gene- where he was discovered the next day, ral Sherman's, 5th, 318 killed, 1,275 when the Union troops recovered the wounded, 441 missing; General Pren- ground, still alive, but perfectly senseless. tiss', 6th, 196 killed, 562 wounded, 1,802 He was removed to Savannah, where he missing:-a total of 1,349 killed, 5,927 died on Tuesday night. wounded, 3,870 missing. In the three The Union army also lost an officer of divisions of General Buell's army in the great promise for the future in Colonel action, General McCook's, 2d division lost Everett Peabody of the Missouri volun95 killed, 793 wounded, 8 missing; Gen- teers. A native of Springfield, Massachueral Nelson's, 4th division, 90 killed, 591 setts, a graduate of Harvard College in wounded, 58 missing; General Critten- 1849, he had adopted the profession of a den's, 5th division, 80 killed, 410 wound civil engineer, and found active and reed, 27 missing:-making, in both armies, sponsible employment as chief engineer of an aggregate of 1,614 killed, 7,721 wound- the Memphis and Ohio railway, and subed, and 3,963 missing--a total of 13,508 sequently as superintendent on the Hanlosses of all kinds. The great number of nibal and St. Joseph's. At the breaking wounded demanded extraordinary efforts out of the rebellion he brought his perfor their care, and most nobly were they sonal influence and professional knowmet by the contributions and active ben - ledge to the service of the government, eficence of the people of the west; and, raised a regiment, rallied loyal citizens



in Missouri, and defended the State in the river, and was drowned. Governor its most assailable western portion. He Harvey was born at East Haddam, Conwas in command at Lexington previous necticut, in 1820, and was carried by his to the defence of that town by Colonel parents to Ohio in his boyhood. Educated Mulligan, and was severely wounded at Western Reserve College, Hudson, in during the siege. He had hardly re- that State, he removed to Wisconsin at covered from his injuries when he joined the age of twenty. He was a member of General Grant at Pittsburg. He was in the convention which formed the constithe advance on the morning of the 6th, tution of the latter State, and was for as acting brigadier in General Prentiss' several years a leading member of the division, and was the first, before dawn, State Senate. to send out a scouting party to observe General Prentiss and the prisoners of the movements of the enemy, whose com- his division taken by the enemy, about ing he anticipated. A skirmish ensued, two thousand in number, were marched reinforcements were called for from his to Corinth, and thence transported to command, which he led in person. Driven Memphis by the railroad. They were back by superior numbers, he fell in the then carried through Mississippi and Alfirst onset of the foe, pierced by five abama to Mobile, whence the officers were shots. *

sent to Talladega, and the men to TuscaAmong the wounded in the Union loosa. From Talladega the officers were ranks, was acting brigadier, Colonel Wil- taken to Selma, and then to Montgomery liams, of General Hurlbut's, and Colonel and Atlanta. Finally they were brought Kirk, of McCook's divisions. Major- to Richmond, and after six months' painGeneral Smith, who was prevented by ful imprisonment, exposed to privation illness taking part in the engagement, did and insult, officers and men were released not long survive the battle, in prepara- by exchange. On his arrival at Washtion for which he had labored so stren- ington General Prentiss was serenaded at ously. He died at Savannah, Tennes- Willard's hotel, where he told the story see, on the 25th of April. General Hal- of his imprisonment, and the hardships leck, in communicating the intelligence to which his command had suffered. He the Secretary of War, justly pronounced characterized the rebel rule at the South his death “a great loss to the army." His as "a reign of terror,” forcibly suppressremains were brought to Philadelphia, ing any expression of Union sentiment, and interred with public honors at Laurel informed his hearers of the strength of Hill.

the rebellion, and advised the people of To the list of honored dead on the the north, if they would overcome an battle-field of Pittsburg or Shiloh, is to be enemy fearfully in earnest that they added the name of an eminent civilian should endeavor to "persuade officers who met his fate on an errand of mercy and men that it was time for them to to the wounded survivors of the engage- fight without gloves."* ment. Governor Louis P. Harvey, of The day following the second day's Wisconsin, having left his seat of office battle, General Beauregard addressed the after the battle to carry to the field a following communication from his headlarge amount of hospital stores, given, at quarters at Monterey, to General Grant: his request, by the citizens of Milwaukie, "Sir: At the close of the conflict yesterMadison, and Janesville, had just reach- day, my forces, being exhausted by the ed Savannah, Tennessee, when on the extraordinary length of the time during night of April 19th, in passing from one which they were engaged with yours, on boat to another, he accidentallyt fell into

* General Prentiss' account of his captivity. Washing * Squier's Pictorial History of the War, ii., p. 6. ton correspondence New York Tribune, Oct 17, 1862.

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