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DIFFICULTIES AT THE OUTSET.
twelve miles north of Hatteras, and the its further passage to the destined scene horses, except a few which swam ashore, of its operations in the waters within. were lost. The Zouave, also, one of the Many of the vessels on which reliance gunboats, was sunk in the inlet, in con- had been placed for carrying the troops sequence of an injury to her bottom, were found to be of too great draft, or caused it is said, by overrunning her an- too heavily laden, for the transit. A. chors. She had been already weakened New York regiment, the D'Epineuil Zouby sticking on Barnegat Shoals on her aves, was sent back to Fortress Monroe way to Annapolis. Her guns were saved. for lack of appropriate means of enterOne or two schooners, also, laden with ing the Sound. The skill of the various provisions and coal, were wrecked. commanders was tried to the uttermost
None of these disasters, it was remar- in the preservation of the various veskable, was attended with any loss of hu- sels, and in attempts to secure their pasman life. The occasion, however, was sage through the pestilent, narrow, vionot to pass without this melancholy con- lent channel, which would serve only a secration. On Wednesday, the 15th, few hours at each tide. The work, anwhile the ships were outside, a party set noying enough under the most favorable out for the shore from one of them, the conditions of the strait, was frequently Anne E. Thompson, which carried the rendered quite impracticable by the con9th New Jersey regiment. They reached tinued ill temper of the weather which the land in safety, and were on their re- seemed spitefully to follow up the temturn to the ship, when their boat was pest-tossed flotilla. It was overturned by a wave, and three of the however, than was to be expected at company, the Colonel of the regiment, this wintry season in the latitude of Joseph W. Allen, the Surgeon, F. S. Hatteras. At times the anxiety was inWeller, and the second mate of the ves- creased by the want of water in some of sel, were drowned. When relief came the vessels not provided with salt water the rest were saved, and the lifeless bod-condensers, and the danger of passing ies of the two officers were recovered. from one to another to procure the Colonel Allen was a native of Burling- needed supply. On one such occasion a ton, who had been a civil engineer be- purse was made up in gratitude to an fore entering the army. He had been adventurous boat's crew which had volengaged in political life, and in the mili- unteered for the duty. tia service of his State, and his loss, with The whole month of January was exthat of his fellow officer, was much re- pended in the worrying process of study. gretted. Much anxiety was felt for the ing the humors, and taking advantage of fate of the schooner carrying the Signal the kindlier opportunities of what ComCorps, but she at length arrived, to the modore Goldsborough, in the dispatch great joy of the squadron, bringing her announcing the final passage of his gunpassengers in safety, after having been boats, calls “ this perplexing gut.” At tossed at sea in storm and tempest for length, however, by the unwearied exermore than a fortnight.
tions and ability of General Burnside With these disasters, which, consider- and his faithful officers and men, diliing the magnitude of the fleet, and the gently assisting in the unexpected and perils of the place, and season, must be laborious work, what with temporarily thought no more than the ordinary acci- relieving one and another of the vessels dents incident to such a service, the Ex- of their living freight, and by dint of pedition having overcome its first diffi- prudent management, the fleet was fairly culties on the sea, had now to encounter embarked on Pamlico Sound, and rea series of vexatious embarrassments in ported ready for action.
The unavoidable delay in its opera- north-west, and there was much animations had given the enemy, who had tion in the scene, as the entire feet of every facility through the newspapers seventy vessels slowly traversed the disof becoming acquainted with the gen- tance, some thirty miles, to Roanoke. eral character and extent of the Ex. At sunset they anchored within sight of pedition, an opportunity of providing the island. The next day was foggy and against its attacks; and they had ac- wet
, and nothing was undertaken beyond cordingly strengthened the defences, and a reconnoissance of Croatan Sound, as the congregated a large body of North Car- passage is called which separates Roanolina and Virginia troops at Roanoke Is- oke from the mainland. The channel was land, a position commanding the channel reported clear to the upper end of the which separates the waters of Pamlico island, where the rebel gunboats were and Albemarle Sounds. Their exact found to be stationed. Friday, the folforce was not known, but it was well lowing day, like its predecessor, was understood that it was formidable, that foggy in the morning, but about ten in it was securely entrenched, with various the forenoon cleared up sufficiently for fortifications along the shore, and had the advance. Commodore Goldsborough the protection of a fleet of gunboats, then gave the necessary orders, and with, of course, the means of reinforce- hoisted the signal, consecrated by Lord ment from the north by the open com Nelson, “ This day our Country expects munication beyond. If, as was intimat- every man to do his duty.” It was reed, it was the intention of General Burn-ceived with enthusiam as the fleet went side to gain possession of the coast line forward. An active and daring bomof railway, at its most important station, bardment of Fort Bartow, at Pork Point, at Weldon, on the border of the State, on the upper part of the island, ensued, or cut off the supplies of Norfolk in its doing considerable damage to the work, rear, it was evident that he must open and setting on fire the barracks beyond, the way to the upper waters of Albe- with but little loss or personal injury to marle Sound. The enemy in his neigh- either assailants or defenders, while anborhood, at any rate, must be dislodged, other portion of the gunboats, unable and an attack upon Roanoke was conse- to come to close quarters with the enequently inevitable.
my's vessels, in consequence of their The military and naval forces having shelter behind a blockade of suuken vesbeen thoroughly organized and assigned sels and double row of stakes which bad their respective parts in the movement, been planted across the Sound, engaged the Expedition set sail from Hatteras in them, with little or no damage, at long that direction on the morning of the 5th range. The rebel squadron of seven of February. Fifteen gunboats of Com- vessels was commanded by Flag-Officer modore Goldsborough’s naval squadron W. F. Lynch, late a lieutenant in the led the way, followed at an interval of United States service, widely known by a mile by the armed transports, side- his published account of an expedition to wheel steamers, and numerous retinue of the Holy Land, which he had conducted the army divisions. The naval vessels, under the auspices of the Government, placed by Flag-Officer Goldsborough un- while on duty in the Mediterranean. At der the immediate command of Comman- the close of this action of the 7th, he reder Rowan, were formed in three sepa- ported the Curlew, his largest steamer, ratecolumns, commanded respectively by sunk, and the Forest, a propeller, disLieutenants Reed Werden, Alexander abled. Several of his officers and men Murray, and H. K. Davenport. The were wounded, and his stock of ammuday was clear, with the wind from the nition was quite exhausted. " In all
LANDING OF THE TROOPS.
probability,” he wrote, “ the contest the shore utterly unsheltered amidst the will be renewed to-morrow. I have discomforts of the weather. This, with decided, after receiving the guns from an uncounted enemy before them on unthe wreck of the Curlew, to proceed tried ground, was sufficiently discouragdirect with the squadron to Elizabeth ing, but the morning found them ready City, and send express to Norfolk for for battle, as General Foster, the comammunition. Should it arrive in time, mander of the day, promptly organized we will return to aid in the defence ; if the brigades and regiments for the decinot, will there make a final stand, and sive attack. He himself led the way blow up the vessels rather than they with his brigade supporting a six-howshall fall into the hands of the enemy." itzer battery, in charge of Midshipman
In the afternoon, the army transports B. F. Porter. The brigades of Generals came up, and preparations were made Reno and Parke followed in order. The for landing the troops on the island. The road which they pursued, leading toward place chosen for this purpose was situ- the centre of the island, was wet and ated on the west shore some distance swampy, and closely environed with below the first battery, and bore the woods. “ After fording a creek,” to promising title, Ashly's Harbor. It, pursue the narrative in the words of an however, afforded but little facility for intelligent observer of the events of the a debarkation. The water was shallow, day, “General Foster's force came up and the smaller steamers of the trans- with the enemy's pickets, who fired their ports could approach the shore only at a pieces and ran. Striking the main road distance. A boat, commanded by Lieu- the brigade pushed on, and after marchtenant Andrews of the 9th New York, ing a mile and a half, came in sight of and manned by ten members of the the enemy's position. To properly unRhode Island regiment, who had volun- derstand its great strength, in addition teered for the perilous service, was sent to what skillful engineering had done, the forward to sound out a channel of ap- reader will bear in mind that the island, proach. After this work was performed, which is low and sandy, is cut up and and when the boat was nearing the land, dotted with marshes and lagoons. On it was fired into from a party previously the right and left of the enemy a morass, concealed by the tall grass on the bank, deemed impassable, stretched out nearly and one of the men, Charles Vial, of the entire width of the island. The upProvidence, was desperately wounded. per and lower part of the island being When the troops were about to land connected by the narrow neck on which there were some indications of a rebel the battery was situated, and across which force at hand to contest the passage to lay the road, the battery of three guns the shore, but it was quickly dispersed had been located so as to rake every inch by a discharge of shrapnel from one of of the narrow causeway, which, for some the gunboats into the sheltering woods. distance was the only approach to the The landing was then effected with great work. General Foster immediately disprecision, but the men were compelled to posed his forces for attack, by placing wade several hundred feet through the the 25th Massachusetts, supported by water, sinking at every step in the soft the .23d Massachusetts, in line, and ooze. This cheerless process was going opened with musketry and cannon. The on through the afternoon, evening, and a enemy replied hotly with artillery and good portion of the night, the usual in- infantry. While they were thus enclemency of which, at this season, was gaged, the 27th Massachusetts came up, aggravated by a cold rain storm, till and were ordered by General Foster to some eleven thousand men were left on the left of the enemy in the woods, where when the volleys grew hottest, dashing the right, General Smith with his division on when they slackened or ceased. was ordered to the assault on the left. Meanwhile, their own firing was con- Both of his brigades were brought into stant and deadly. Meanwhile, also, Col- action ;--Colonel Cook taking the right onel Cruft's line was marching up in sup- of the attack, and Colonel Lauman asport and to the right of Colonel Smith. sailing the heart of the enemy's works The woods through which we moved on the left. The movement was made seemed actually to crackle with musket- by each with determined bravery, and ry. Finally, the 8th and 11th cleared with success. General Smith was in the the hill
, driving the rebel regiments at thick of the fight, aiding and directing least three quarters of a mile before the operations, and encouraginging the them, and halting within one hundred men by his example. Colonel Lauman and fifty yards of the entrenchments, be- thus relates the performances of his hind which the enemy took refuge. This brigade. “At about two o'clock," says was about five o'clock, and concluded he, in his report to General Smith, “I the day's fighting. In my opinion, it received your order to advance with my also brought forth the surrender. While whole brigade, and assault the heights the fighting was in progress, an order on the left of the position attacked on reached me, through Colonel Webster, the previous Thursday.
The brigade to retire my column, as a new plan of was promptly in motion, in the following operations was in contemplation for the order : the 2d Iowa, Colonel Tuttle, led next day. If carried out, the order the advance followed by the 52d Inwould have compelled me to give up the diana, (temporarily attached to my brihill so hardly recaptured. Satisfied that gade), who were ordered to support them. the General did not know of our suc- This regiment was followed closely by cess when he issued the direction, I as- the 25th Indiana, the 7th Iowa, and sumed the responsibility of disobeying the 14th Iowa. The sharpshooters were it, and held the battle-ground that night. previously deployed as skirmishers on Wearied as they were, few slept ; for the our extreme right and left. Colonel night was bitter cold, and they had car- Tuttle led the left wing of his regiment ried the lost field of the morning's ac- in line of battle up the hill, supported tion, thickly strewn with the dead and by the right wing, advancing at a diswounded of McClernand's regiments. tance of about one hundred and fifty The number of Illinoisans there found yards in the rear. So soon as he came mournfully attested the desperation of within range of the enemy's fire, he led their battle, and how firmly they had his men forward, without firing a gun, fought it. All night, and till far in the up to and charged into the rebel works, morning, my soldiers, generous as they driving the enemy before him, and plantwere gallant, were engaged ministering ing his colors on their fortifications. He to and removing their own wounded and was closely followed by the other regithe wounded of the 1st division, not for- ments in the order of advance above getting those of the enemy."
named. The enemy were closely purColonel Cruft reported the casualties sued, and driven behind their inner of the four regiments of his brigade, works. Night coming on, we held the thirty-six non-commissioned officers and position we had gained, and remained privates killed ; eight officers and one under arms until morning, intending at hundred and seventy non-commissioned the dawn of day to recommence the officers and privates wounded, and twen- attack. In this engagement the 2d ty-two missing
Iowa suffered terribly. Captains SlayWhile this conflict was going on upon maker and Cloutman fell just as they en
A CONSULTATION BY THE ENEMY.
tered the enemy's fortifications. Clout- tion one half hour against an assault of man was instantly killed, and Slaymaker the enemy, and said the enemy would died gallantly shouting to his men to go attack him next morning at daylight. forward and consummate the work.” In The proposition was then made by Genthis successful assault of the Iowa and eral Pillow to again fight our way out. Indiana volunteers, sixty-one were re- General Buckner said his command was ported killed, three hundred and twenty- so worn out and cut to pieces and deone wounded, and one missing.
moralized, that he could not make anothThe issue of the day was sufficiently er fight; that it would cost the comdispiriting to the defenders of the fort. mand three quarters of its present They had staked all upon one decided number to cut its way through, and it movement, into which their whole avail. was wrong to sacrifice three quarters of able strength had been thrown ; the con- a command to save a quarter ; that no test had been long and severe, and had officer had a right to cause such a sacriended in their repulse, with the gain of fice. General Floyd and Major Gilmer several important positions commanding I understood to concur in this opinion. their works by the besiegers. General I then expressed the opinion that we Pillow, to whom the main sortie on their could hold out another day, and in that left had been assigned, bears witness in time we could get steamboats, and set his report, to the readiness of the Union the command over the river, and probtroops to meet his fire in advance of ably save a large portion of it. To this their encampment. ** The enemy did | General Buckner replied that the enemy meet me," says he,“ before I had as- would certainly attack him at daylight, sumed a line of battle, and while I was and that he could not hold his position moving against him, without any forma- half an hour. The alternative of these tion for the engagement. I was much propositions was a surrender of their embarrassed in getting the command in position and command. General Floyd position properly to engage the foe. said that he would neither surrender the Having extricated myself from the posi-command, nor would he surrender himtion, and fairly engaged him, we fought self a prisoner. I had taken the same for nearly two hours before I made any position. General Buckner said he was decided advance upon him. He con- satisfied nothing else could be done, and tested the field most stubbornly. He that, therefore, he would surrender if did not retreat, but fell back fighting us, placed in command. General Floyd said contesting every inch of ground." The he would turn over the command to him command of General Buckner, which if he could be allowed to withdraw his was expected to gain an important ad- command. To this General Buckner vantage on the right, was found by Gen- consented. Thereupon General Floyd eral Pillow at noon, “massed behind the turned the command over to me. I ridge within the works, taking shelter passed it instantly to General Buckner, from the enemy's artillery.” Subsequent- saying I would neither surrender the ly, General Buckner joined his forces command nor myself a prisoner. I diwith those of General Pillow, and main- rected Colonel Forrest to cut his way tained a stubborn, though, as it proved, out. Under these circumstances Genfruitless conflict. In this condition of eral Buckner accepted the command, and affairs, a consultation of general officers sent a flag of truce to the enemy for an was held within the fort, when General armistice of six hours to negotiate for Buckner, as we learn from the report of terms of capitulation. Before this flag General Pillow, “gave it as his decided and communication were delivered, I reopinion that he could not hold his posi- | tired from the garrison.”