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THE CONFEDERATE ARMY.
calculation of the probable wants of the under Generals Lee and Floyd, thirty fiscal year ending in June, 1863, at about thousand. In Missouri, under Price and four hundred and seventy-five millions, McCulloch. sixty thousand. In Kento provide for which, with the supply of tucky and Tennessee, under General Althe deficiencies of the previous year, bert S. Johnston, with his headquarters at would necessitate an aggregate of $655,- Nashville, an aggregate of one hundred 000,000 in loans. On the first day of and twenty-five thousand. This includJuly, 1860, the public debt was less than ed General S. B. Buckner's coinmand at sixty-five millions ; on the first day of Bowling Green in Kentucky, of twenty July, 1863, supposing the war to con- thousand, and that of Generals Polk and tinue, it was estimated it would reach Pillow at Columbus and Hickman of nearly nine hundred millions. “It is fifteen thousand. The defences of the earnestly to be hoped, however," was lower Mississippi, including New Orthe language of the report, " and in the leans, were maintained by some sixty judgment of the Secretary, not without thousand. To Charleston, Savannah, sufficient grounds, that the present war Mobile, and Galveston, were assigned may be brought to an auspicious termi- some forty thousand.* nation before midsummer. In that event In the absence of official returns, not the provision of revenue by taxation, accessible at the North at the time, such which he has recommended, will amply an estimate, of course, could only be suffice for all financial exigencies, with-1 conjectural. Accepting it, however, as out resort to additional loans; and not a rough calculation, subject to correction, only so, but will enable the government there would probably remain a force sufto begin at once the reduction of the ex- ficient, added to that reported by Secreisting debt.” Such was the expectation ftary Cameron, to raise the aggregate of of Secretary Chase in regard to the sup- men enlisted or in arms in all parts of pression of the Rebellion in the month the country to the number of more than of December, 1861.
a million. What use could be made of We have seen the returns of the this immense host, the equipment of Union army, by the Secretary of War, which had largely drawn upon the workmade to exceed six hundred thousand shops of Europe, and supplied for the men, from which, however, a liberal de- last three months the chief manufacturduction was to be made to reduce the ing industry at home? Would it be number to the force ready for service in concentrated at various points, on the the field. An estimate made at this time Potomac, in Kentucky, on the Mississipby a Northern journal, with a show of pi, the Gulf of Mexico, and meet in particularity, set forth the Confederate deadly conflict on the soil of the Southforce in the field.at nearly five hundred ern States, or would it be held spellthousand. To the Department of the Po- bound in mutual defiance till the sober tomac, under the command of General Jo- second thought of the insurgents would seph E. Johnston, with his headquarters prevail, arrest the impending desolation, at Manassas Junction, Major-General and bring both portions of the nation Gustavus W. Smith commanding the together in fraternal unity under the old left-wing, and General Beauregard the flag ? right, were assigned one hundred and Such a result would at any moment fifty thousand men. To the Department have been welcomed by the President, of the Chesapeake, with General Huger the Cabinet, the Northern States, and in command at Norfolk and Portsmouth, the whole civilized world ; but the deand General Magruder at Yorktown, cision of the matter rested with the inforty thousand. In Western Virginia, * New York Herald, December 7, 1861.
surgents, and they had shown no dispo- and peace under the same government. sition to bring about so acceptable an We can never entertain friendly feelings event. Their leaders had resolved upon for a people who have ruthlessly shed Independence, and they would fight for Southern blood upon Southern soil in so it to the end. The voice of the Confed-execrable a war. They have shown erate Government was clear enough on themselves our worst enemies, and such this point, and there was no lack of zeal we hold them to be. The separation in the State authorities to second the that has taken place bas been signalized resolution. Governor Letcher, of Vir- in blood, and it ought to be, and I ginia, a State which had most to lose by trust will be, a permanent separation. the continuance of the conflict, may speak Reconstruction is not desirable, and for the rest. In his message to the leg- even if it were, it is now an impossiislature of his State at the time of which bility." we write, the beginning of December, he of a similar tone, stronger, if possible, reviewed the condition of affairs. With in its contempt of the North, was the a coolness and imperturbability belong-language held in South Carolina the preing to the practiced politician, he spoke vious month to the legislature by Gov. as the representative of a cause which ernor Pickens. “As far as the Northhad only to be asserted to be successful. ern States are concerned, their GovernTaking for granted the proposition that ment is hopelessly gone, and if we fail
, it was the intention of the Government with all our conservative elements to at Washington to subjugate the South, save us, then, indeed, there will be no and coerce its people to remain in a hope for an independent and free repubUnion, “the great aims and objects of lic on this continent, and the public mind which,” he asserted, “ had failed,” he will despondingly turn to the stronger maintained that the struggle which bad and more fixed forms of the Old World. been begun should not terminate " until Clouds and darkness may rest upon our our enemies shall recognize fully and beloved country, but if we are true to unconditionally the independence of the ourselves and just to others, looking Southern Confederacy." Whatever men with confiding faith up to that Provior money should be wanted, he promised, dence who presides over the destinies of should be cheerfully furnished. “There men and governments
, we will surely can be and there will be no compromise. triumph and come out of our trials a We can never again live in harmony wiser and a better people."
MILITARY OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY-BATTLE OF MILL SPRING, JANUARY 19, 1862.
On the 9th of November, by a new ar- | Tennessee, while the portion of Kentucky rangement at Washington of the military west of the Cumberland was included Districts of the West, Brigadier-General in the Department of the Missouri asDon Carlos Buell was placed in charge signed to General Halleck. General of the Department of the Ohio, consist- Buell, a native of Ohio, about forty-two ing of the States of Ohio, Michigan, In- years of age, was a graduate of West diana, the portion of Kentucky east of Point of 1841, appointed to the 3d Inthe Cumberland River, and the State of fantry, and a few years after distinguish
ed himself in the war with Mexico, where eral Hardee from Southeastern Missouri, he had risen from 1st Lieutenant to the when that officer superseded General brevet rank of Major. He was in the Buckner in bis command. General Polk engagements at Monterey, Cerro Gordo, also received some additions to his force, Contreras, and was wounded at Churu- already large, wbile General Zollicoffer, busco. He subsequently filled the office baving secured the pass at Cumberland of Assistant Adjutant-Genéral. He had Gap, was taking up an important posibeen actively engaged in the organiza- tion in the midst of the rich mineral and tion of the army, and in command on agricultural district on the upper waters the Potomac since the breaking out of of the Cumberland. On the 16th of Dethe Rebellion. His appointment as the cember, from his camp at Birch Grove, successor of General Sherman, was hail- he addressed a Proclamation to the Peoed as the promise of an energetic and ple of Southeastern Kentucky, assuring decisive campaign.
them that he came not to war upon KenThe inevitable moment of action was tuckians, but to repel "those armed Northnow approaching. The appointment in ern hordes who were attempting the subOctober of the Confederate general, jugation of a sister Southern State.” Albert S. Johnston, to the Department of Adroitly turning the evils he himself the Mississippi, had infused new vigor was creating to the charge of the surinto the operations of the rebels on the porters of the Government, whose whole Kentucky frontier. This officer was a object was the preservation of the peacenative of Kentucky, now in his fifty- ful relations he was seeking to destroy,
He had been educated at this ruthless invader, whose path was West Point, and was engaged in the marked by devastation, proclaimed that Black Hawk war, acting as Adjutant- he had come to “open again the rivers, General when President Lincoln was a restore the ancient markets and the acCaptain of Volunteers. He resigned his customed value of lands and labor.” commission at the close of the war, and with a consciousness of past misdeeds, resided first in Missouri, afterwards in he admitted that his force had been reTexas. On the war breaking out in presented as murderers and outlaws. that region he entered again into mili- We bave come to convince you,” he tary service, and became Secretary of said, “ that we truly respect the laws, War. When the country was annexed, revere justice and mean to give security and war with Mexico followed, he raised to your personal and property rights. a partisan troop and accompanied. Gen- With a liberal employment of the maxeral Taylor to Monterey. When peace im that all is fair in war, in other words, came he received from the Government with a total disregard of truth, he as. the office of Paymaster. Jefferson Davis serted that the openly avowed object on when Secretary of War made him Colo- the part of the North was to set the nel of the 2d Cavalry, and he was subse- slaves at liberty, while the ensuing quently appointed to the command of the step will be to put arms in their hands Southwestern Military District. Presi- and give them political and social equaldent Buchanan placed him at the head ity with yourselves. We saw these of the grand military expedition to Utah, things,” he added, “in the beginning, from which he returned to join the Re- and are offering our heart's blood to bellion.
avert those dreadful evils which we Calling together considerable bodies saw the Abolition leaders had deliberof troops from various quarters, General ately planned for the South. Johnston now strengthened the force at must have the ballot or none ; all men Bowling Green by the division of Gen-I must have the bullet or none,' said Mr. Beward the present Federal Secretary August Willich, a soldier of European of State. How long will Kentuckians experience, entered the service as Major close their eyes to the contemplated ruin of Colonel McCook's 9th Ohio. The of their present structure of society ?" efficiency of both regiments was largely
The day following this proclamation, due to his zeal and ability as an instructhere was a spirited engagement on the tor and disciplinarian. south side of Green River, opposite After this engagement the enemy, fallMumfordsville, at Rowlett's Station, ing back towards Bowling Green, having where the troops were restoring the destroyed the northern railway commurailway bridge which had been des- nication, strengthened their defences at troyed by the rebels, between four com- that place, and concentrated there a panies of Colonel Willich's 32d German large force under command of General Indiana Regiment, under Lieutenant-Col- Albert Sydney Johnston ; while Mconel Van Trebra, a part of General Mc- Cook's, Nelson's, and Mitchell's divisCook's advance division, and Colonel ions of General Buell's army threatened Terry's regiment of Texan mounted the position in front. Whilst these twoRangers, supported by two regiments fold preparations of attack and defence of infantry and a battery of six guns. were being made and similar proceedThe national party, thus greatly out- ings were going on upon the line of Zolnumbered, bravely repelled the enemy's licoffer's advance, there was a sudden onset. The attack of the enemy was diversion of a portion of the national mainly with his cavalry and artillery. forces to arrest a movement of General The Union troops fought as skirmish- Humphrey Marshall, who, notwithstanders, rallying rapidly into squares when ing his previous disclaimer, was again charged by the cavalry ; sometimes even himself in arms. He was this time in defending themselves singly and killing command of a force of some three thoutheir assailants with the bayonet. Thir-. sand rebels in the extreme eastern porty-three of the rebels, including Colonel tion of the State, on the Big Sandy Terry, were killed, and about fifty wound- River. where he had entrenched himed. The Union loss was Lieutenant Saxe self in the neighborhood of Paintsville. and eight men killed and ten wounded.* Thither, by order of General Buell, he The Indiana troops were aided by a was pursued by Colonel Garfield, folbattery stationed on the north side of lowing up the course of the river from the river. The enemy retreated as the Ohio, at the head of a brigade reinforcements were coming up. Col-composed of his own, the 42d Ohio regionel Willich's command was handsomely ment, the 14th Kentucky, and three huncomplimented a few days after in an or- dred of the 2d Virginia cavalry. His der from General Buell, at Headquarters march was one of extraordinary difficulat Lonisville. He “thanked the offi- ties from the state of the roads, the men cers and soldiers of the regiment for being compelled to relieve the teams by their gallant and efficient conduct, com- adding a portion of the transportation mending it as a study and example to burdens to their own, as they made all other troops under his command, and their way through the deep mud of the enjoining them to emulate the discipline wet, inclement winter season. On hearand instruction which ensure such re- ing of their approach, Marshall broke sults.” He ordered the name of Row- up his camp and began a retreat, his lett Station to be inscribed on the regi- whole army flying in confusion, closely mental colors of the regiment. Colonel pursued by Colonel Garfield's troops.
In an encounter of the cavalry of the * General Buell to General McClellan, December 18, 1861. General Buell's Military Order, December 27, 1861. rival forces three were slain on the rebel
side and a considerable number wounded, on the sides of the adjacent hills. Colwhile the Union loss was two killed and onel Garfield wholly avoided the guns, one wounded. This occurred on the 7th bringing his force along the brow of the of January, 1862. On the 9th, at noon, hill, where the fight was carried on. His Colonel Garfield having been in the mean- men, also, were skillful in availing themtime reinforced by an Ohio regiment and selves of the protection of the trees. a squadron of-cavalry from Paris, led out Among the anecdotes of the engagea part of his command, eleven hundred ment, characteristic of this peculiar warmen, from Paintsville in further pursuit fare, the story is told of the commandof the enemy in the direction of Preston- ing Colonel's address to a band of Kenburg. The enemy's pickets were driven tuckians volunteering to clear the hill of in two miles below that town, and night the enemy—“Go in boys ; give them coming on, the men slept on their arms Hail Colimbia!" and of his own enthuon the field. At four o'clock the next siasm being so much excited that he folmorning they moved toward the main lowed on with the reserve, pulling off his body of General Marshall's army at the coat and flinging it up into the air, where forks of Middle Creek, three miles be- it lodged in a tree. The men then threw yond Prestonburg. Skirmishing with his up their caps with a wild shout and outposts began at eight o'clock, and at rushed upon the enemy ; Colonel Garone in the afternoon the action became field in his shirt-sleeves leading the way. general. Marshall had with him twenty- A member of Captain Bushnell's comfive hundred men, with three cannon pany of the commander's 42d Ohio, was planted on a hill. Colonel Garfield was about to bite a cartridge when a' musketjoined during the action by seven hun- ball struck the cartridge from his fingers. dred additional troops from Paintsville, Coolly facing the direction from which making his force in the field eighteen the shot came, he took out another carthundred. The engagement lasted till ridge and exclaimed, “ You can't do that dark when the enemy was driven from again, old fellow."* all his positions, carrying off with him, Colonel James A. Garfield, the leader however, the greater number of his dead of the Union troops in this encounter, and all his wounded. His loss in killed was born in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, in •was estimated by Colonel Garfield at 1831. He was educated at Williams sixty. Twenty-seven were found on the College, Vermont, where it is said, he field in the morning. Twenty-five rebel enjoyed a high reputation for ability, prisoners were taken and a quantity of graduating with distinction in 1856. He stores, though the most were burnt in afterward became Principal of an Acathe precipitate retreat. The property demy in northern Ohio, and in 1859 was found, it was said, “was wretchedly elected to the State Senate, of which he poor, the coats being made almost en- became a prominent member. He had tirely of cotton.” The Union loss was
The Union loss was just been admitted to the bar when the two killed, of the 14th Kentucky, and Rebellion broke out. He offered his sertwenty-five wounded.* The compara- vices to the nation, and was soon at the tively · small number of casualties on head of his Ohio regiment. that side was owing to the excellent dis- This decisive battle freed the people position of Colonel Garfield and the pro- of Kentucky from the military operatection afforded by a wood to the men. tions of General Marshall, and left GenThe enemy's cannon were planted to erals Thomas and Schoepf free to pursweep the valley road and his infantry
* Anecdotes of the engagement narrated by Captain Colonel J. A. Garfield to Captain J. B. Fry, A. A. G., Willard of Colonel Garfield's 42d Ohio Regiment. CleveJanuary 8th, 1862.
land Herald, January 16, 1862.