Page images


That Augustine hallowed Mellitus and Justus to bishops, and of his

decease. 1. After these things Augustine, bishop [of Britain), hallowed two bishops: the one was named Mellitus, the other Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach divine lore to the EastSaxons, who are shed off from Kentland by the river Thames, and joined to the east sea. Their chief city is called Lundencaster (now London), standing on the bank of the foresaid river; and it is the market-place of land and sea comers. The king in the nation at that time was Seabright (or Sabert), Ethelbert's sister-son, and his vassal. Then he and the nation of the East-Saxons received the word of truth and the faith of Christ through Mellitus, the bishop's lore. Then King Ethelbert ordered to build a church in London, and to hallow it to St. Paul the apostle, that he and his after-followers might have their bishop-seat in that place. Justus he hallowed as bishop in Kent itself at Rochester, which is four and twenty miles right west from Canterbury, in which city likewise King Ethelbert ordered to build a church, and to hallow it to St. Andrew the apostle; and to each of these bishops the king gave his gifts and bookland and possessions for them to brook with their fellows.

2. After these things, then, Father Augustine, beloved of God, departed [this life), and his body was buried without [doors], nigh the church of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, which we mentioned before, because it was not then yet fully built nor hallowed. As soon as it was hallowed, then his body was put into it, and becomingly buried in the north porch of the church, in which likewise the bodies of all the after-following archbishops are buried but two; that is, Theodorus and Berhtwald, whose bodies are laid in the church itself, because no more might [be so) in the foresaid porch. Well-nigh in the

] middle of the church is an altar * set and hallowed in name of St. Gregory, on which every Saturday their memory and decease are celebrated with mass-song by the mass-priest of that place. On St. Augustine's tomb is written an inscription of this sort: Here resteth Sir † Augustine, the first archbishop of Canterbury, who was formerly sent hither by the blessed Gregory, bishop of the Roman city; and was upheld by God with working of wonders. King Éthelbert and his people he led from the worship of idols to the faith of Christ, and, having fulfilled the days of his ministry in peace, departed on the 26th day of May in the same king's reign.

* Lit., holy table, wigbed, Anglo-Saxon.

p"Sir" in Eng. (“Schir," Scot.) equal to Dominus, Latin, was five or six centuries ago prefixed to the name of every ordained priest.

St. Augustine was the first archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated at Rome under the famous Gregory, by whom he was sent to Britain with forty monks of the Benedictine order, to carry out the project of converting the English to Christianity. England was not a land where Christianity was unheard of. Bertha, the wife of Ethelbert, king of Kent, was a Christian, daughter of Charibert, king of Paris, and had brought her chaplain with her, using for Christian services the ruined church of St. Martin, outside Canterbury, which survived from Roman times. Augustine and his monks, setting out reluctantly, landed on the isle of Thanet in the year 596. The history of what followed, to the death of Augustine, is given in the chapters from the Venerabie Bede's “ Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation,' printed in the present leaflet. The chapters immediately preceding the story of Augustine, giving an account of the coming of the Angles and Saxons, are printed, as showing the conditions which Augustine found in England.

The “Ecclesiastical History” is the chief monument of the labors of the Venerable Bede, and gives us the best of our knowledge of the history of England until 731, four years before his death. Bede, “the father of English history," was the most learned and famous English scholar of his age; and the number and range of his writings were very great. The monastery at Jarrow, where he taught, and whither hundreds of nionks repaired to study, spread the fame of English scholarship throughout Europe. His history shows marvellous industry, manifest truthfulness, and rare literary charm. As King Alfred translated Orosius for his people as the best available book in universal history, so he translated Bede as the best work on their own English history. There are controversies among the scholars as to Alfred's exact personal responsibility for the translation, as there are concerning other works traditionally attributed to him. His version, literally translated into modern English by Thomson, from which the present leaflet is taken, occupies about 200 pages in the Jubilee edition of Alfred's works. There are other English translations by Stapleton, Stevens, Hurst, Giles, and Gidley.

For further information, see the articles on Alfred, by Edward A. Freeman; Augustine, by Bishop Creighton; and Bede, by Rev. William Hunt, in the Dictionary of National Biography. Old South leaflet No. 112 contains King Alfred's Description of Europe (from the Orosius), with fuller historical and bibliographical notes concerning Alfred. The Jubilee edition of King Altred's works, in two large volumes, was published a few years after the celebration in 1849 of the millennial of his birth, and is very complete. There are lives of Alfred by Pauli, Hughes, Giles, Macfadyen and others.

[ocr errors]


Old South Meeting-house, Boston, Mass.

[graphic][subsumed][merged small][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][merged small]


NATIONAL DIFFERENCES, 1899. His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the Emperor of China; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain, and in his name Her Majesty the Queen-Regent of the Kingdom; the President of the United States of America; the President of the United States of Mexico; the President of the French Republic; Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India ; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; His Highness the Prince of Montenegro; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia ; His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves; His Majesty the King of Roumania; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; His Majesty the King of Servia; His Majesty the King of Siam ; His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway; The Swiss Federal Council; His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans; and His Royal Highness the Prince of Bulgaria.

Animated by a strong desire to concert for the maintenance of the general peace;

Resolved to second by their best efforts the friendly settlement of international disputes ;

Recognizing the solidarity which unites the members of the society of civilized nations ;

Desirous of extending the empire of law, and of strengthening the appreciation of international justice;

Convinced that the permanent institution of a Court of Arbitration, accessible to all, in the midst of the independent Powers, will contribute effectively to this result;

Having regard to the advantages attending the general and regular organization of arbitral procedure;

Sharing the opinion of the august Initiator of the International Peace Conference that it is expedient to solemnly establish, by an international Agreement, the principles of equity and right on which repose the security of States and the welfare of peoples;

Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:


Who, after communication of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions :

TITLE I.— On the Maintenance of General Peace. ARTICLE I. With a view to obviating, as far as possible, recourse to force in the relations between States, the Signatory Powers agree to use their best efforts to insure the pacific settlement of international differences.

TITLE II.- On Good Offices and Mediation. ARTICLE II. In case of serious disagreement or conflict, before an appeal to arms, the Signatory Powers agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly Powers.

ARTICLE III. Independently of this recourse, the Signatory Powers consider it useful that one or more Powers, strangers to the dispute, should, on their own initiative, and as far as circumstances will allow, offer their good offices or mediation to the States at variance.

The right to offer good offices or mediation belongs to Powers who are strangers to the dispute, even during the course of hostilities.

The exercise of this right shall never be regarded by one or the other of the parties to the contest as an unfriendly act,

ARTICLE IV. The part of the mediator consists in reconciling the opposing claims and in appeasing the feelings of resentment which may have arisen between the States at variance.

ARTICLE V.. The functions of the mediator are at an end when once it is declared, either by one of the parties to the dispute or by the mediating Power itself, that the methods of conciliation proposed by it are not accepted.

ARTICLE VI. Good offices and mediation, whether at the request of the parties at variance or upon the initiative of Powers who are strangers to the dispute, have exclusively the character of advice, and never have binding force.

ARTICLE VII. The acceptance of mediation cannot, unless there be an agreement to the contrary, have the effect of interrupting, delaying, or hindering mobilization or other measures of preparation for war.

If mediation occurs after the commencement of hostilities, it causes no interruption to the military operations in progress, unless there be an agreement to the contrary.

ARTICLE VIII. The Signatory Powers are agreed in recommending the application, when circumstances allow, of special mediation in the following form :• In case of a serious difference endangering the peace, the States at variance shall each choose a Power, to whom they intrust the mission of entering into direct communication with the Power chosen on the other side, with the object of preventing the rupture of pacific relations.

During the period of this mandate, the term of which, unless otherwise stipulated, cannot exceed thirty days, the States in conflict shall cease from all direct communication on the subject of the dispute, which is regarded as having been referred exclusively to the mediating Powers, who shall use their best efforts to settle the controversy.

In case of a definite rupture of pacific relations, these Powers remain charged with the joint duty of taking advantage of every opportunity to restore peace.


TITLE III.- On International Commissions of Inquiry. ARTICLE IX. In differences of an international nature involving neither honor nor vital interests, and arising from a difference of opinion on matter of fact, the Signatory Powers recommend that parties who have not been able to come to an

« PreviousContinue »