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order from the War Department to pro- pelling Castro from the northern part of ceed on a survey to the river Desmoines. the territory, and on July 4 the AmeriThis mission was rapidly accomplished can settlers elected Fremont governor. by the impatient suitor, who, soon after About this time he was promoted to a his return, on the 19th of October, 1841, lieutenant-coloneley, and on January 13, secretly married Miss Benton.

1847, he concluded with the Mexicans On May 2, 1842, Fremont set out from articles of capitulation which terminated Washington on an exploration of the the war in California, and left that counRocky Mountains, and particularly the try in possession of the United States. South Pass, which had been suggested Having quarrelled with General Kearto the Government by himself. The re-ney, his superior in command, Fremont port of his first expedition, which was was refused permission to join the army concluded in October, 1842, attracted in Mexico, and ultimately was courtgreat attention. In May, 1843, Lieu- martialed and sentenced to be dismissed tenant Fremont started on a second ex- from the service. President Polk repedition, much more comprehensive in mitted the penalty, but Fremont refused its design than the first, extending to avail himself of the favor, declaring through the valleys of the Columbia that he was not conscious of having done River. While on this expedition he anything to merit the finding of the crossed the mountains on the Pacific court.

court. In October, 1848, he started on coast, reaching Sutter's Fort, on the Sac- a fourth exploring expedition, along the ramento, early in March, 1844, after waters of the Upper Rio Grande and forty days of great trial and suffering. through the country of the Apaches, The preparation of the report of this Camanches, etc., hoping to find a pracexpedition occupied the remainder of ticable route to California. This expethat year, and in the spring of 1845, dition also proved one of great trial and having been brevetted captain, he started suffering. Having purchased a vast on a third expedition, to explore the tract of land in California, known as the great basin and maritime region of Mariposa estate, Fremont has the prosOregon and California. This expedition pect of great wealth, though for the was full of stirring incident. The Mexi- present embarrassed by lawsuits and can war having, in the mean time, broken heavy mortgages. In 1849 he was out, Fremont was diverted from the elected one of the United States senators scientific object of his exploration by a from California, drawing the short term call to arms. He defended himself and serving but three weeks. In 1852 bravely and skilfully against the Mexi- he visited Europe, where he was received can General Castro, who threatened to with every mark of respect by eminent attack him with an overwhelming force. men of letters and of science. In 1853 Subsequently, under Fremont's leader- he made a fifth and highly successful ship, the Californians succeeded in ex- | exploring expedition, between the Mis


sissippi Valley and the Pacific, and in his home, he raised in that city, on the 1856 was nominated by the Republicans commencement of the civil war, a regias their candidate for the Presidency. ment of Germans, who appointed him He received 114 electoral votes, and their colonel. So great was the trust of was defeated by Mr. Buchanan, who his fellow-countryman, Hecker, in his had 174. Returning to California in skill as a military leader, that he left his 1858, he devoted himself to the care of home in Illinois, to which he had retired, his vast estates until February, 1861, and entered the ranks of Sigel's regiment when he departed for Europe, whence he as a private, together with his whom was summoned, as we have seen, to bear he had brought with him. Soon after an important part in the present war. Hecker was summoned back to Illinois

While Fremont was still lingering on to assume the command of a regiment his route to St. Louis, important events of Germans formed in that State. He were occurring in Missouri. The ener- at first refused, declaring that he had no getic movements of General Lyon, his higher ambition than to serve as a priexpedition up the Missouri River, his vate under his old friend Sigel, but seizure of Jefferson City, the capital, his finally yielded to the persevering deexpulsion of the secession bands at mands of his fellow-citizens in Illinois, Booneville, his possession of that town, and returned there to take command of and his march to the southwestern part a regiment of Jagers. Sigel was urged of the State, where the enemy were by the Germans of New York to become mustering in force, have been already the general of a brigade, but refused, recorded. General Lyon was spiritedly declaring that Missouri presented a seconded in his efforts to establish the wider field of usefulness, and that he Federal authority by his subaltern, Col- did not care to desert the loyal Germans onel Sigel.

of his own adopted State. Though still Franz Sigel was born in the Duchy a young man, Sigel's foreign experience of Baden, in Germany. During the as a military leader has made him one revolution of 1848 he sided with the of the most accomplished officers, and liberals, and under the provisional gov- he has given proof on various occasions ernment was appointed to command the during the fierce conflict in Missouri, republican forces of the Grand Duchy that he not only is versed in the military of Baden. He proved himself a skilful art, but possesses that rare aptitude for general; but when the revolutionary command, which comes only from nature. government was overturned, and its army Sigel had pushed on in advance of obliged to yield to the reactionary move- Lyon, and had penetrated, after various ment in Germany aided by the armed encounters with the secession bands force of Prussia, Sigel, like Hecker and of Missouri, to the extreme southwest other German patriots, made his escape of the State. While encamped at Neoto the United States. Making St. Louis sho, on the river of that name, in the

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