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From the San Francisco (Cal.) Bookseller.
A Plea for Amusement and Physical Culture.

school with a fondness for athletic amusements, he has one of the surest safeguards against expensive and ruinous dissipation.

In the education of girls, physical culture is A judicious union of social, mental and phyof the greatest importance. Who can read Miss sical culture, will make our public schools pracBeecher's startling array of facts about deform-tically adapted to the wants of the people. If ed spines and round shoulders and ruinous parents, through ignorance, neglect the proper habits in American boarding schools, and rot training of their children, let the public school feel the urgent demand for reform? Few girls take charge of them. Amusements form a part who are educated in the public schools, escape of education, and much excellent gymnastic and the universal law of labor; most of them when calisthenic training may be connected with they enter, at an early age, homes of their own, games or made delightful by music. need strength as well as accomplisments. Any But many teachers will say, all this is very education purchased at the expense of health is fine, theoretically, but it is utterly impossible a loss. The fact is, too many of the little misses to carry it into the school-room. in our schools were never girls. They are sim- money to buy apparatus. ply little old ladies, who never romp, never such things as innovations. play, never know anything of the rich sensuous to spare, and know nothing about it ourselves. life of a rude country girl.


We have no The public regard We have no time

Let us, then, consider the subject in a very “The English girl spends more than one-half plain, practical and business manner. We have her waking hours in physical amusements, which been connected with a public school of five huntend to develop and invigorate and ripen the dred children for the last five years. During bodily powers. She rides, walks, drives, rows that time, gymnastic and calisthenic training upon the water, runs, dances, plays, sings, jumps have been as much a part of our daily teaching the rope, hurls the quoit, draws the bow, keeps as arithmetic, grammar or geography. We have up the shuttle-cock and all this without hav- made experiments and noted results, and claim, ing it forever on her mind that she is wasting at least, to have a foundation of facts from our her time. She does this every day until it beown experience. We have practiced what we comes a habit which she will follow up through preach. We have been laughed at as foolish, Her frame, as a natural consequence, is sneered at as boyish, blamed for innovations, larger; her muscular system better developed; shunned by conservatives, and frowned upon by her mental system in better subordination; her those who ought to have given encouragement. strength more enduring, and the whole tone of But we patiently" stuck to it," and have estabher mind healthier." Which is preferable, the lished fully the principle we desired, and accomrobust health of the English woman, who can plished more than we ever hoped for. Mothers walk twenty miles a day, or the timid accom- who objected to letting their boys exercise in plishments of an American boarding-school the gymnasium, for fear they would tear their young lady, sent home "finished to order?" trowsers, or break their necks, now mend their The truth is, mental and physical health walk clothes, and are proud of the agility and activihand in hand. Other things being equal, the ty of their sons. Many who once sent notes to brain which has the strongest body will do the excuse "Mary" and "Dora" and Ella " most work. The girl who has a headache three from "rods" and "dumb-bells," are now glad days in six is a useless piece of furniture in a to have the advantages of such training. We have seen awkward, clumsy, lubberly boys en


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The strong boys, in the long run, come out ter the gymnastic class the laughing stock of ahead. Strong mind and pluck are better than the "experts," and leave school, in a year, acbrilliance and precociousness. When an ox is tive gymnasts, twice as strong as when they let into a pasture full of cattle, there is a trial entered, and all their strength at perfect comof horns, and the strongest takes the lead; so mand. We have seen pale, weakly-looking with the boys of a public sehool. The strong, boys, who at first only moped around and "lookthe energetic, the active, are the real kings. of ed on," become interested and take hold in earschool, whether they are at the head or foot of nest, until the narrow chest expanded, the round the arithmetic class. Give the boy, then, the shoulders were pushed back, and the soft, lean exercise his nature craves, and which will make arm become like knotted whip-cords. him a living boy and a manly man. If he leaves The measurements of many boys' arms have

shown an increase in circumference of one inch mains to this day our beau ideal of a teacher, in three months, and an expansion of the chest played ball with us in the academy yard in P—, of two or three inches in the same time. All God bless him? he never can grow old! these results have been slow. A few fitful feats We would give little for a teacher who canwill not make an athletic gymnast, neither will not enjoy the fun of kicking foot-ball, and still all boys become robust under training; but in less for one who has not muscular life enough six months you will find the boys clear-headed to luxuriate in a gymnasium. An owl should and more cheerful, and the girls erect and more not mingle with swallows and singing birds; graceful in their walk. they have nothing in common. A teacher needs

We have organized classes, conducted daily exercise even more than his pupils. No occuat regular times, and always by ourselves. All pation so drains the system of its nervous vitalapparatus is useless, unless a teacher infuses ity; therefore, he needs amusement and recreainto it his own life. Come, ard not go, is the tion. He must find the "Fountain of Youth" word of command. The class emulate the teach- in the sports of boyhood. The teacher who er. As well put books into the hands of pupils r.eglects his physical being must suffer the penand tell them to teach themselves, as send them alty. We knew a teacher, three years ago, into a gymnasium and expect them to practice brought face to face with death, by Panama without a teacher. It is no small tax on a and congestive brain-fever, contracted on one teacher's time; it requires patience, resolution of the pestiferous steamships - bad as the lowand persistent efforts - but it can be done. er-hold of a slave-ship's hell-which ply between New York and Aspinwall. Those only who have suffered from the secondary effects of


How can a teacher find time for such exercise? Take it. In pleasant weather we exercise in the yard with the boys, half an hour, such a sickness, can imagine its deadening, defrom 9 to 10 o'clock; we give the girls a calis- bilitating and disheartening character. thenic exercise of fifteen minutes, at noon, taken under the pressure of daily duty in school, a out of the three-quarters of an hour intermis- regular course of exercises, persevered in as a sion. In the afternoon, at two o'clock recess, religious duty, brought back vigor of mind and body. the boys take a dumb-bell or club exercise of ten minutes. This is too little time, but in six months it allows a great amount of training. When men have true views of education, more time will be given. Little children, in years to come. will have only a short session of three more rare. hours a day. Years ago, clergymen preached grow up sensible men and women, and to form sermons two hours long, and those were weak tastes and habits which shall follow them through in the faith who could not listen patiently. Bet- life. We seek to make the school-room a home. ter sermons are preached now, with as good results, in thirty minutes. So it is with schools. The six hour session is doomed to become obsolete, and better teachers than we will teach

more in half the time.

Teachers should study variety in all their exercises. They soon tire, and boys are fond of novelty and change; witness how tops succeed to marbles, and marbles to kites, and kites to

For ourselves, so long as we teach, we mean to give the physical nature of children its due, even if examinations are less "brilliant," children less precocious, and infant phenomenons" We teach to train boys and girls to


There must be some kindness to soften the necessary strictness of discipline in a public school. The indirect lessons of the play-ground are often more important than the studied teaching of the class-room; and the kind word of social intercourse will be remembered when geography and grammar shall have faded from the mind. We would have our pupils retain the memory of their teacher as a sharer of their sports, a of his teaching as a living man, moulding their sympathizer in their joys, and feel the influence character and forming their habits, rather than as a schoolmaster, who fed them with the dry chaff of text-books.

ball. It requires more skill, tact and judgment than the routine of text-books. Any teacher who thoroughly understands boy-nature, may mingle freely in their sports. If he can beat them all at their own games, he will command their respect, and win their love; but if he is THE population of M.nnesota is nearly identical over-burdened with dignity, and a bungler at with that of Rhode Island, being 175,525, or rather games, he will do well to keep clear of the play- more than that of the city of Boston. Wisconsin ground. The first teacher we learned to love, has 777,771, or about 100,000 less people than the the first one who ever waked us up, and who re-city of New York.

For the Schoolmaster.
Knowledge and Education.

THERE is a distinction between knowledge and education which is not always observed, but which is well defined and vital. Grave mistakes are often made upon this point, which it seems necessary to correct. For they are concerned with the best interests of our life,

and in their influence are far-reaching and powerful. We propose to make a few suggestions upon this matter which are intended simply as hints to be followed out into practice, if so the reader is disposed.

of learning, in the reception of knowledge. There they end. What is done is a simple act. When memory is retentive and the mind quick to apprehend, one may receive and retain a vast amount of knowledge. But if nothing more is done than this, it is of very little benefit to the world. We do not call a miser a rich man because he is able to hoard a fortune. His money The best use of money is to be found in spendis of no use either to himself or his fellow man. ing it. So he who has knowledge must apply it to the benefit of the world around him; must share the results of his culture with his fellow creatures; must grow himself into larger proportions, if he would wish to become an educated man. His acquisitions must be arranged in due order, his mind must be skilled, his powers must be practiced.

Mere teaching and learning car.not be education. The knowledge of a thing does not necessarily imply the application of the thing to useful ends. Merely to know is somewhat derived from the labors of other men, and is an It is also to be observed, that knowledge conact of memory and perception. Education is a self-work — an original power gained from the sists in the attainment of certain ends, educaaction of the whole intellectual nature. It is the tion in the development of powers. Acts of process of leading out the powers of the mind, attention and study may be performed without giving them opportunities of action, and in- strengthening the intellectual powers to useful A certain amount of knowledge is creasing their strength by exercise. A mechan- works. ic's apprentice may learn the names of all the gained, the names of things are understood, tools in his master's chest. But he will never facts of history, science, philosophy, and the become a good workman or a skillful artisan like are apprehended by the mind. A man may till he has learned the use of the tools by prac- pass through all the academical curriculum, yet tice. The knowledge of facts is to be taken into is he not therefore educated. the laboratory of the mind and there wrought English nobleman, that on one occasion, at a over into results. A man of accomplished meeting of the neighborhood, he got into a scholarship may not have the ready tact which sharp discussion with a farmer upon some point enables him to use his learning for the common under consideration. Greatly enraged at last, exigencies of life. A traveller in Europe with he said: "Sir, do you know that I have been considerable navieté acknowledges that on his at two universities, and at two colleges in each arrival at Strasburg, when he wished to change university;" "Well, sir," retorted the farmer, "what of that? I once had a calf that sucked his baggage from one train of cars to another, he could not remember the necessary German two cows, and the observation that I made was, word to express his desires, though he had al- that the more he sucked the greater calf he ready translated one or two German books, and grew."

It is told of an

is known as one of the best German scholars Knowledge, of course, furnishes the materials in America. We might study 66 hand-books "with which the mind does its work. But it is of skating till every word had become fixed in education that gives the ability to accomplish. memory, and we knew the precise angle at The process of receiving food does not necessawhich we should strike out. But the first step rily strengthen the body. That must be done upon the ice would prove to us the weakness of by another process, by means of which, the bad our understanding in respect to the practical and useless matter is rejected, and the good reprocess. The veriest urchin, who, instead of tained to be sent into the blocd, the muscles, studying hand-books, had used his feet to some the brain, and through all the arteries and avpurpose, would laugh at us for our misfortune, enues, to give health, vitality, animation, beauand beat us in the race. ty and vigor to the whole physical man. So Knowledge terminates with the act of know- the process of receiving food into the mind does Education can only terminate with the not of necessity strengthen the mind. It is the man himself. The act of teaching is performed process of digestion that gives life and vigor to in the communication of knowledge; the act the intellect. Without that process, knowledge


Chock-Full of Teeter.

is of little advantage. Mental dyspepsia is a bad disease. For there is much indigestible knowledge which disarranges the functions and WE once heard of a boy, who was dancing faculties of the mind. There is also though about in great glee, cutting up all sorts of anthis is not common, and is not to be strictly tics, and raising a hubbub generally. At last, guarded against - danger in knowing too much, his mother said, "Why, Charles, what is the as in eating too much. Some men's minds are matter with you; can't you keep still?" "No, like an old garret, or curiosity shop, filled with ma'am," said he, turning heels over head, "I's all sorts of rubbish and antiquated things and so chock-full of teeter!"


Not that they should be rude and boisterous but so full of spirit that they are ready to be touched off at any time like a sky-rocket; that's the kind of youngsters for me when I want a None of your mopish, great-brained,


curious old fragments. There may be treasures That's the way we like to see children feel of priceless worth, but they are stowed in such full of life; ready for fun and frolic if they out-of-the-way places that one scarcely knows come along, and able to make them if they do not where to look for them. Or they are so covered over with the dust of years and heaps of useless things as to have lost their value, unless the utmost labor of restoration is performed. It is the office of education to arrange, to digest, to separate the worthless from the worthy, the tares from the wheat, and to retain and use spindle-limbed, old-fogy sort! No-no! We the good for the sustenance and power of the pity such, and would like to take them out into the pure sunlight, where the birds sing, and evrything is glad, and teach them how to use their It is an old illustration of education, that it little strength, and help them to grow strong acts the part of a skillful sculptor in carving out and lively, and full of teeter, too. Yes, God manhood. In every block of marble lies em- made the young to be happy; not in reading bedded a beautiful statue, which the artist finds love stories, or in sitting in a corner of the room by cutting away the circumjacent stone. So like an Egyptian mummy, to be looked at education works upon the human soul. It re- but to be glad as the little lambs are on a spring moves the outside. It smooths and polishes morning-scaling rocks and leaping stones, runthe rough points. It strikes off excrescences, ning, frisking and jumping! Ah,- that's the and without diminishing, but rather increasing life for a boy or a girl who wants to be someindividual excellence, gives grace and beauty to body in the world, by and by.

intellectual life.

all the being. The artist is experience, working with equal facility and faithfulness in the closet and the library, or among the busy walks of men. One short period of school life does not constitute its time of labor. But its work extends through all the years of human life. He that is true to himself and his life-task, finds schools and school-masters all along the way, educating him perpetually to nobler attainments and a more manly life.

"All work and no play, Makes Jack a dull boy." Yes, and quite as much does

"All play and no work,

Make Jack a poor shirk."

So remember. children, and put life into your work as well as your play.-American Monthly.

THE following salutary counsel, given by Rev. Dr. Tyng to superintendents of Sabbath schools, furnishes hints to teachers too valuable to be pass

SCHOOLS IN WINTER.-We wish to put in a spe-ed without notice: cial plea for the girls. Make their dresses short "The superintendent's manner must be simple, enough to swing clear of the mud, and give them prompt, calm, adequate to command attention, or good water-proof boots to wear to school. Yes, he fails entirely. He must be a person of few we insist upon it, they should have boots. Wo- words and peaceful habits. A perpetual harangumen's shoes, of the present fashion, are no more ing,-jangling and disjointed exhortations, -hafit to be put upon country roads in winter, than an bits of chattering and familiar interference with Indian birch-bark canoe is fit to cross the ocean. teachers or scholars, are more out of place in Boots will not look quite so trim about the ankle, school, perhaps, than anywhere beside. Everyor step so light upon the floor, but they will do thing must be real, actual, self-demonstrative, to what is of more consequence-preserve their command the attention or to win the confidence of graces in after life, and to take a great many elas- children. These are all simple and external qualitic steps, that might otherwise be fewer, and those fications, but they are of immense consequence in leading directly down to the grave.-Exchange. the successful management of this work."

The Yankee Aladdin.

the animal with Dinkas and Abyssinians, chews bang with the Arabs, smokes opium with the Turks, and rides for a bride with the Calmuck


ALADDIN began by swapping jack-knives and Tartar. getting the best, and bartering halves of mar- Then Aladdin comes home. He has turned bles stuck together for whole ones. When he his goods and his opportunities over and over grew older, and sold berries which he picked on again, and they are all turned into piles of mothe hill pastures, he greased the quart pot, so rey. The wise village welcomes him, and that a little capital was carried forward to the proudly points him out to the Aladdins of a next measure. He hayed hard all summer, and younger generation as the shining example of went to evening schools all winter, and learned the successful man. "For, my dear son, just the golden rule of arithmetic, addition for him- think of it! He began with nothing, and now self, subtraction for his neighbor; and in all the look!" games he held strictly to the rules of Turna bout: "You tickle me, and I'll tickle you if I can; but at all events, you tickle me.”

My dear son does lock, and he sees Aladdin owning millions of dollars, and of all the Doinggood societies he is chief director. His name At an early age, Aladdin was considered to is as good as gold. He has bought pictures and be good at a bargain, which meant that he al- books and statues. He is housed in luxury, ways succeeded in exchanging the worse for the and he pricks his mouth with the silver fork. better; always keeping the blind eye of a horse He has a home for a poet, but he boasts that he to the wall when he wanted to sell him, and al-Lever reads anything but the newspapers. He ways looking straight at it when he wanted to goes to church twice on Sundays, and only buy him; and the approving village shook its wakes up when the preacher reviles and dehead, and said: "Let Aladdin alone to suc-nounces the sinners of Sodom and those tough old Jews of Jerusalem. His head is bald and


He grew up, and left the village for the world. shiny with all the sermons that have hit it and "He'll be rich!" said the village, with more glanced off. He clasps his hands in prayer, but enthusiasm and envy than any village says of a forgets to open them when the poor box is passdeparting boy: "He'll be honest, faithful, gened round; and he goes home like a similarly erous." To Aladdin the whole world was but successful man, tl anking God that he is not as a market in which to buy cheap and sell dear. other men are; and after dinner lights a cigar, For him there was no beauty, no heroism, no sits before the fire in an easy chair, and tells the piety, no history. To him all lands and waters children to remember that honesty is the best are alike, for each is unhallowed by association. policy, and looks sleepily at Mrs. Aladdin No Homer sings for him along the Egean; he through the thick smoke. only curses the wind that will not blow him to Odessa. No sirens call to him from the sunny shore; he loves the sharp oath of a brutal boatswain.

By-and-by old Aladdin dies.

The conven

tional virtues are called over by the editors as the mourning carriages are called out by the undertakers. The papers regret that they are With a Bible in his hand and a quid in his summoned to deplore the loss of the revered mouth, he squirts about the holy places of Jeru- parent, generous friend, public spirited citizen, salem, and calculates the cost of the sepulchre. and pious man. Then the precious swapper of He scratches his name with a jack-knife upon jack-knives and model for the rising generation Egyptian obelisks by the side of the hieroglyph is left under the sod. The stars that he never ed names of Ramises and Thothmes, names that saw now burn over him with a soft lustre that shook early history with their grandeur; and no lamps above a king's tomb emulate; and the reverend echoes of the Lybian desert, that the south wind, for whose breath upon his hot have slept since they heard the shout of Alex-brow he was never grateful, now strews his last ander's army marching to find the oracle Am- bed with anemones and violets, which his heel mon, are awakened by the shrill whistling of crushed while living. And the men who are to be formed upon that model and pursue a simi

Yankee Doodle and Dan Tucker.

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He insults the Grand Lama, hobnobs with lar success, carelessly a-k, as they stir their todthe Great Mogul, he turns his back upon Em- dies, So old Aladdin is gone at last; will he perors, and takes a pinch of snuff out of the cut up well?” The sculptor carves a cherub Pope's snuff-box. He eats flesh cut raw from upon his tombstone and graves the motto, “ By

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