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Written Examinations.

the accession of each sovereign of the Stuart family.

2. When and under what sovereigns respectively did the constitutional union between England and

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be ad- Scotland and between England and Ireland take

drassed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

THE following questions were used at a recent examination of candidates for the mastership of the Boylston School, Boston. We take them from the Massachusetts Teacher.


1. What is phonetic analysis?-its use?
2. What are the three principal objects of



3. Name the four principal battles between the Cavaliers and Roundheads.

4. State the nature, object and result of the British Navigation Act of 1651.

5. What French possessions in America were confirmed to England by the Peace of Paris, 1763? 6. When and where did the Colonial Congress syl-meet, and of how many delegates did it consist?

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7. In what respects was the battle of Saratoga one of the most important in the Revolutionary war?

8. What are the Alien and Sedition Laws? NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

1. A cannon ball fired perpendicularly upwards returned to the same place in ten seconds. How high did it rise?

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1. What is the shape of the earth?

2. What circles on the globe would be omitted

1. The sum and difference of two numbers is 45 and their product is 56. Required a mean pro-if the axis of the earth were perpendicular to the portional between them.

4 5-6 .07


2. Divide

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plane of the orbit?


What are the principal natural advantages of Great Britain?

5. What is the northern boundary of the Uni

3. What is the least common multiple of 7, ted States from New Hampshire westward? 4, and 63 ?

4. A merchant sells a parcel of goods for $40, and in so doing loses 10 per cent. of the cost; for how much must he have sold them to gain 15 per


5. A merchant owes $800 payable in $4 mos., $600 payable in 90 days, and $400 payable 30 days. For accommodation he pays $1200 in 60 days. When should he pay the remainder?

6. How many cubic feet in a block of granite 6 ft. 7 in. long, 3 ft. 5 in. thick, and 33 ft. wide?

7. If A can perform a piece of work in 25 days, B in 31 9-11 days, and A, B, and C together in 10 days, in what time can B and C together perform the same work?

8. The area of a right-angled triangle is 126, and the base is to the perpendicular as 4 to 7; what is the length of the hypothenuse?

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Eleemosynary. Iridescent. Plural of Chrysalis. Plural of Vertebra. Seigneurial. Esophagus. Sibylline. Sibilant. Diäeresis. Erysipelas. Stan1. Name the sovereigns of England in their or- chion. Plural of Miasma. Marchioness. Appender since the War of the Roses-with the date of nines. Saccharine.


COMMUNICATIONS for this Departinent should be addressed to HENRY CLARK, Pawtucket, R. 1.

For the Schoolmaster.

The Essays of A. K. H. B.

"Here am I this morning, writing on busily. I am all alone in a quiet little study. The prevailing color around me is green - the chairs, tables, couches, book-cases, are all of oak, rich in color, and growing dark through age, but green predominates: window-curtains, table-covers, carpet, rug, covers of chairs and couches, are green. I look through the window, which is some distance off,

THE letters A. K. H. B. are initials of a clergy-right before me. The window is set in a frame of man known as The Country Parson, whose name is green leaves; it looks out on a quiet corner of the Boyd. He is now pastor in a city in Scotland, and garden. There is a wall not far off green with ivy first became known to American readers through and other climbing plants: there is a bright little the transported numbers of Fraser's Magazine. bit of turf like emerald, and a clump of evergreens Over the wall I see a round There is very much in the style of his productions varying in shade. as well as in the subjects he chooses that seems to green hill, covered by oaks which autumn has not How quiet everything is! be agreeable to a large class of readers in England begun to make sere. and America. The prominent qualities of his style I am in a comparatively remote part of the house, consist in a certain pathos, which seems to be real, and there is no sound of household life; no patand is therefore contagious, united to a very natur-tering of little feet; no voices of servants in disal and proper simplicity, at once picturesque and cussion less logical and calm than might be desirpleasing. His productions are in the form of es- ed. The timepiece above the fire-place ticks audisays. They are serials.

bly; the fire looks sleepy; and I know that I may sit here all day if I please, no one interrupting


Under the title, "Concerning Hurry and Leisure," he introduces a charming little picture, which will bear taking out of its setting and placing in a ruder frame :

Some months ago, the Eclectic Magazine contained a singularly pleasing article concerning a shipwreck on a bleak shore, and the sad burial of drowned men and women in a church-yard not far from the sea. It was fascinating because of the picturesque character of the scene portrayed at the beginning of the essay-an ocean-view-while "It is now very warm, and beautifully bright. the whole spirit of the article appealed, in the most I am sitting on a velvety lawn, a hundred yards agreeable manner, to the deepest and most delicate from the door of a considerable country house, not Under the shadow of a of human sympathies. The reader unconsciously my personal property. imbibed withal a sense of the author's real benevo- large sycamore is this iron chair; and this little lence and modesty, while the exceedingly appro- table, on which the paper looks quite green from priate use of the pronoun I, one of the most diffi- the reflection of the leaves. There is a very little cult parts of speech to manage, seemed to chal-breeze. Just a foot from my hand, a twig with lenge and secure the respect and the regard of the very large leaves is moving slowly and gently to reader for the author and his ministrations.

and fro. There, the great serrated leaf has brushThe Eclectic has since copied from time to time ed the pen. The sunshine is sleeping (the word is other articles over this signature of A. K. H. B., not an affected one, but simply expresses the pheand recently, the second volume of a collection nomenon) upon the bright green grass, and upon from this author has been published by Ticknor & the dense masses of foliage which are a little way Fields. The writer seems to be continuing his aroff on every side. Away on the left, there is a ticles in Fraser, and he has been represented in well-grown horse-chestnut tree, blazing with blosour leading New England monthly.



The qualities of style Mr. Boyd evinces are such These passages are but occasional pictures, as I as commend themselves to a large class of readers have indicated. I do not quote them thinking whose opinion is worth the gaining. In real kind- they are new to every one whose eye glances at ly pathos these "Recreations" are not exceeded these columns, but I know that whoever has once "Great Expectations," or "Tom Brown at read this book with interest will like to remember Oxford." The writer does not fall behind either them. This is not a specimen of the character of of them in the character of the pictures he draws. the book. There is a great deal more earnestness Though there is not the shadow of a plot like and feeling than appears here, but I have not space that laid in a story, there is a charming current of to quote many other passages. thought that presents new pictures on almost eve- Mr. Boyd has improved upon the Greyson Letry page, while the very simplicity with which they ters, which were so popular two or three seasons are told and the seasonableness of their introduc- since. These were not deficient in incident, they tion add greatly to their interest. I have selected were well written - that is, they were evidently two of them. industriously written, but they contained just a

The author is writing upon The Moral Influences little spice of pedantry-I shall use the word that of the Dwelling: is expressive of my meaning-with which the de

licacy of Mr. Boyd is in strong contrast. A book sun was still warm and cheerful when he quitted which quotes in a learned manner from every the lawn; but somehow, looking back upon that learned language, and afterwards needs to be end-day, the colors of the scene are paler than the fact, ed with a glossary to show stupid people what the and the sunbeams feel comparatively chill. For author means, deserves the fate that this one met-memory cannot bring back things freshly as they a brief popularity and a speedy repose on forgot-lived, but only their faded images. Faces in the ten shelves. If the reader would be reminded of distant past look wan; voices sound thin and disan ancient author who quoted with scholar-like tant; the landscape round is uncertain and shadgrace, and whose books are now as highly prized owy. Do you not feel somehow, when you look as those of almost any man of his age, he needs back on ages forty centuries ago, as if people then only to be referred to Jeremy Taylor. spoke in whispers and lived in twilight?" Nothing in all the range of literary architecture The reprints of his papers lately published do so obviously pronounces a writer a man of taste or not exhibit so plainly these qualities which I have a pedant, as his quotations, especially if they be been illustrating. There is manifest a certain hasfrom a foreign tongue. The low, yellow-covered tiness, and nervous excitability in his later publinovels, glittering with showy italics, are notorious cations that may be accounted for by the recent examples, where the text is written in bad Eng- notice into which he and his writings have been lish, while words easily construed into French or brought. Certainly, whether the style be changed Spanish are thrown into those languages for effect. or not, there is not so much pleasure in reading I remember that a conversation occurs in one of his latest as there was in reading his first producthese stories among certain Spanish sailors, where tions. His subjects, too, seem now to be chosen nearly everything is said in English except a few rather for their striking character than for the love Spanish words, on which the changes are rung their author has for considering them. with striking effect whenever those words can be employed. The Country Parson quotes with skill and propriety.

I must devote a little space to a few other passages from The Recreations of a Country Parson, that I may do some justice to the energy of his style. I cannot select amiss in his essay "Concerning Giving Up and Coming Down":

If this be so, we have yet the previous productions from his pen, and in them examples of a true and manly style, not devoid of faults, but one which is a model in its way to writers who work for the good of men.

For the Schoolmaster.
The Word "Way."

"By coming down I understand this: Learning from the many mortifications, disappointments and BUT little knowledge of foreign tongues is rerebuffs which we must all meet as we go through quisite to one method of contemplating our own life, to think more humbly of ourselves, intellec- language that is at once easy and profitable. I tually, morally, socially, physically, aesthetically: mean tracing out the applications of the more yet, while thinking thus humbly of ourselves and common root-words. An example at hand is the our powers, to resolve that we shall continue to do word [way]. our very best; and all this with a kindly heart and

Looking into Webster's Unabridged Dictionary,

a contented mind. Such is my ideal of a true and we shall find its origin to be Saxon. Its form in Christian coming down: and I regard as a true that language is [waeg]. hero the man who does it rightly."


A little thought will eliminate instances of its

"And what is giving up? Of course you un-use like these: derstand my meaning now. Giving up means that Always-all-ways, i. e., every way. Away-([a], when you are beaten and disappointed, and made Latin, away from, opposite to, contradictory to,) to understand that your mark is lower down than i. e., out of the way. By-way- -a path beside the you had fancied, you will throw down your arms main way. Highway-a high-way, i. e., a raised in despair, and resolve that you will try no more. way. As for you, brave man, if you don't get all you Then, less in general use, are lee-way, head-way, want, you are resolved you shall have nothing. If wayside, way-bill, wayward, waywise, wayfaring, you are not accepted as the cleverest and the waylay, all possessing the element way, which is greatest man, you are resolved you shall be no synonymous with path, road, track, street, route. man at all. And while the other is Christian com- What more appropriate, then, for the name of a ing down, THIS is unchristian, foolish, and wick-vehicle to pass upon the way than wagon; containedly giving up." ing the original element direct from the Saxon? Below is the conclusion of the essay, "Concern- The name expresses its office. The wagon is for ing Hurry and Leisure":

the waeg or way.

And hence come wagoner, milk-wagon, wagonwheel, and other words similarly compounded. Would the learner look still more carefully into

"Thus, at intervals through that bright summer day, did the writer muse at leisure in the shade; and note down the thoughts (such as they are) which you have here at length in this essay. The the character of this word? A little more delicate

examination shall detect its use in sway, to move straight across a boggy meadow a bee-line to a litback and forth in a constant direction, wag, to tle clump of white oaks on a low knoll. There, move the head from side to side, and hence the noun wag, signifying a funny fellow.

So even a boy may not only be instructed, but pleased, with these various forms of a single rootword, arising from its associations. Yet even a slight knowledge of Latin will detect a root of the same species, whence comes vehicle-root veho, to carry. Weigh comes from a similar stock, and even wave is of like origin.

filled with autumn leaves, sluggish and slow, shaded only by the sapling over its brink, at whose base rests a rude seat, lies the spring. Now, before we drink, as one clears the leaves out of that yellowed outlet, another marks an old cocoanut dipper some kind tourist placed for our benefit. Have you heard the fabulous stories concerning the efficacy of medicated waters? Spa, Sulphur, Seidlitz, Speltzer, whatever be their names, in favorable seaThe whole of these varying forms may be traced sons number their thousands of visitors, who come back to the primary root, that has in itself the sig- to them invalids and return strong men. There, nification of progress or passage, and this signifi-water nymphs soil not their delicate hands to fetch cation, if he be willing to examine it, he will be up water from the sparkling well, but gracefully pleased to find, runs through the whole of the dipping a silver cup, handed them by a visitor, inwords that come out of the original root in Saxon. to the magical liquid, return it as they receive it,

Natural Science.

on a slender rod. No kneeling on clean, smooth stones, no bowing of the uncovered head, as if in worship of the water-deity, while the happy visitant places his lips to the waters and imbibes out of

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be ad- the green and beautiful basin health and strength, dressed to I. F. CADY, Warren.

For the Schoolmaster.

Mineral Springs in the Vicinity of

as peace smiles about him and the voices of na-
ture assure him of returning vigor in the bright-
ening glow of his ruddy cheeks and the heighten-
ed sparkle of his eye reflected in the watery mirror.
This is no famous watering-place; its spring has
not even the honor of a well known analysis, as
Yet the walk is a plea-
have the Congress waters.
sant one from the village, consuming just an hour
including a little season for drinking the water.
The spring is called "Bagley's Spring." Some
curious chemist may one day choose to test the
chemical properties of the water and may desire to
compare it with the famous Congress Spring.

The latter, that is, the Congress Spring, in New York State, on analysis, reveals the following properties :

THE clear, cool air of autumn invites us to a walk in the woods to breathe the bracing breezes that come straight down from the northwest. It is always well to have an object for a walk. So, buttoning up overcoats and pinning shawls, we sally forth to visit two or three mineral springs a mile distant. With what a clear light the sun looks down upon the earth through the grayishblue sky, enlivening the many-hued leaves that hang pendulously from tree-twigs or flutter down to the ground, to scatter and rustle before the wind! Though we are no scientific naturalists, One gallon contains 385 grains of chloride of neither are we accomplished artists, yet who could sodium, 3 of hydriodate of soda, a little less than miss noticing the aspects nature exhibits all around 9 grains of bi-carbonate of soda, 95 or 96 of bius? As we pass through a grove of pines, a little carbonate of magnesia, 98 of carbonate of lime, 5 bird warbles a quaint strain — chick-a-dee-dee-dee? of carbonate of iron, 14 of silex, with a trace of Old-fashioned, is it not? That pond on our left hydro-bromate of potash, making a total of exactis silent-neither thronged as it will be a month ly 597.943 grains. or two hence with rosy-cheeked boys and girls, A sharp and cynical man might discover a good gliding on slippery skates, nor vocal with singing deal of salt in the Congress Water. The Seidlitz reptiles and swarming with insects, as it was a Spring shows a combination of the sulphate and couple of months ago. A little scale of crispy ice, carbonate of lime; muriate, sulphate and carbobroken by a wagon wheel, lies in the path. It is nate of magnesia; the sulphate of magnesia beprophetic of cold days and freezing nights, soon to ing present in the larger proportion. The Seltzer be ushered in by storms and snows. All around, Spring is mainly composed of muriate and carbosharply defined shadows lie stretched out on the nate of soda, with free carbonic acid, and is made grass, and deep shades of color mark the leaves up of sulphate and phosphate of soda, carbonate that still cling to the trees. Past a strip of newly of lime, carbonate of magnesia and silica. felled woods, up a sandy acclivity, along a high

My authority is a little book I borrowed of a

banked turnpike we go, then climbing a low fence druggist, that he receives with cases of Congress and skirting a deep, muddy ditch flanked by dry Water.

alders, startled as we walk by the precipitate plunge The spring now runs clearly.

It does

of a monstrous frog, we mount a rustic five-rail not seem very salt to the taste, but has a little flafence, follow a sandy roadway, and then strike vor of iron, with perhaps a spice of magnesia.

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So, questioning where we do not find complete information, shall we proceed to visit further the mineral springs in this vicinity.

There are two others a quarter of a mile distant.

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Gaining the "tow-path" of the old Blackstone within a few years to test the value of the camel canal, we follow its course over a foot-bridge and as a beast of burden in some portions of our own past the remains of the locks now spoiled to fur-country, those of a Mr. Julius Boardman, of California, as detailed in a recent paper of that State, nish material for a new stone dam at Central Falls, seem to promise very encouraging success. Mr. and crossing the "Log Bridge Road," pass along Boardman obtained ten Bactrian camels, which beneath the dark shade of a steep hill, under the were imported from Siberia, and from various trials deep shadow which the pines cast over the path, till we come through an open field to the Mineral is convinced that they can be made very serviceable for packing over mountains and plains." Spring Turnpike. There, a few rods above the canal bridge, is situated a large edifice, under They easily carry a burden of from six to seven which are the now neglected springs. Once, this hundred pounds each, and are said to be capable place was a resort for tourists in search of health, of thirty miles per day. They are said to be "very of carrying one thousand pounds each a distance and this great house was built for their accommodation. The grounds were pleasantly arranged, healthy, ugly and tractable; -models of temperand a neat stairway led down to the spring beneath ance, rising at four, retiring at sunset, drinking the house, where seats and drinking glasses were water only, and that once in ten days." They are furnished, and where fountains, out of which flow-contented with a diet of thistles, and require, at ed cooling streams, were often, perhaps daily, vis- their infrequent potations, only two buckets of waited by invalids. One is still accessible, and by borrowing a drinking vessel from the family above ANIMAL FOOD. It is a well-established fact stairs, the waters can still be tasted. The water is that, among those classes who get the least aniclear at first, but as it pours itself from an outlet mal food, mortality is greatest and disease is most in the wooden box, it falls upon a basin lined with rife. One of the most common forms of disease a yellowish powder, deposited there by the sur-generated by an exclusively vegetable diet is scrof charged liquid. The water, in taste, is quite differ- ula, and when traceable to this cause the most ent from that at the other spring, and is probably speedy remedy is the addition of animal food to of different quality. It is rather less pleasant to the diet. There are also many other forms of disthe taste. The other spring is still different, being ease produced by the want of animal food, which possessed of a sulphury flavor, though perhaps the require for their cure but an abundant supply of name of the first-the iron spring-and that of the needed material. the second-the sulphur spring are merely indicative of imaginary qualities.


ter, each.

Our Book Table.

CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPÆDIA. A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People. On the Basis of the Latest Edition of the German Conversations Lexicon. Illustrated by Wood Engravings and Maps. Published in Parts. Price fifteen cents each. To be completed in six or seven volumes, similar in appearance to the volumes of Chambers' Encyclopædia for the People. We have received the first and second volumes

But the sun is now fast withdrawing his light from the valley, and the woods in the west are all aglow with his last and most brilliant beams. It will very soon be dark. We have no bag of " cimens" to carry, and the road is direct and straight to the village. Yet one sip more from this fountain, and a hurried glance at the sunlight. streaming down the road, and we turn our faces homeward, briskly walking down the road which for years has been known as the "Spring Pike," and pass, on our way, a high enclosure known as a Riding Park, and still further on a neat new of the above work, and have examined with care fence, opposite a little clump of trees that stand the contents. The execution, both as to matter by the roadside. The fence encloses the sleeping- and manner, is admirable, containing as it does, place of the dead. This, too, receives its name an amount of information truly amazing. "It is from the "springs," for a few years ago the town a bridge from the learned world to the masses of "fathers" directed that the name, "Mineral Spring men." It is melting down the labor of ages and Cemetery," should be painted on the principal bringing it to the door of every man. Every gate. The direction was never carried out. teacher should have it.

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