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as the duty of the school-room.

The Institute adjourned at 10 o'clock, having spent

Such was the re- After the delivery of the lecture, a piquant discusmarkable scheme of Ignatius Loyola, who built an sion took place upon the subject of "What are the immense educational foundry, and attempted to order duties of teachers to their country at the present from any kind of ore, brass-faced statesmen, iron- time?" The speakers were Messrs. M. S. Greene, of hearted generals, and silver-robed saints. He had Westerly; Avery A. Staunton, of Voluntown; S. monarchs and people to assist him in his wily labors; Tillinghast, of Charlestown; I. F. Cady, of Warren; but he failed. A shout of execration finally came up J. Kimball, of Bristol; John H. Tefft, of Kingstown; against his system from every peasant's hut and from Ira O. Seamans, of Centreville; N. W. DeMunn and every gilded throne. We want the healthy growth J. J. Ladd, of Providence; and Rev. S. B. Bailey, of of all the mind, not the distortion of individual facul- Mystic, Ct. ties. We want the young mind to grow in an atmosphere of moral freedom, and not be poisoned by a most pleasant and profitable evening. The sudden breathing over again the stale prejudices of others. influx of so large a company of strangers into this Let our young plants be natural off-shoots, not costly sparsely settled region, and the life and animation exotics. which have been manifested in the different exerThe first suggestion offered by the speaker was that cises, have made quite a sensation among the denia lively and natural affection for children was indis-zens of Carolina and the neighboring villages, and pensable for the highest success in the profession of they have diligently improved the advantages for inthe teacher. The true born teacher must be an affec- tellectual culture which have been thus afforded them. tionate, earnest worker-not because of his monthly stipend, but from the pleasure he derived from the consciousness of the duty he was performing. Such men were Arnold and Fenelon of the old school, and such were the lamented Horace Mann and Dana P. Colburn, of America.

Secondly, the teacher should be master of a practical, mental philosophy. A preceptor who could detect human character at a glance, had a great advantage over one who had no power to analyse the secret workings of the human mind.

Thirdly, the power of observation ought to be more accurately exercised by teachers, in order that they might develope the same power in the scholar. This faculty was the foundation of the power of recollection. The more facts man could bring to his aid in the exercise of judgment, the more correctly would

his decision be formed.

SECOND DAY-SATURDAY, NOV. 23. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather on Saturday morning, sixty-six teachers met in the Freewill Baptist Church at Carolina Mills, where the exercises of the Institute were opened at 9 o'clock with prayer by the Rev. S. B. Bailey, of Mystic.

The Hon. Henry Rousmaniere, Commissioner of Public Schools in this State, submitted the following resolutions, which were adopted:

Resolved, That a contribution of one cent only be solicited by the teachers from each scholar in the public schools of this State, for the aid of our wounded and suffering soldiers.

Resolved, That these contributions be handed to local sanitary committees, or to the President of this Institute, to be by him transmitted to the general sanitary committee of the State.

Resolved, That the teachers inform the President of this Institute of the sums they have collected, and that the amount of the same be published in the RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLMASTER.

Fourthly, the speaker maintained that there were too many studies in our ungraded schools. In many branches, it was only the theory that children acquirThe arrangements for the morning embraced a ed, and not the practice. Many pupils displayed an conversational lecture, conducted by Joshua Kendall, intricate knowledge of Grammar, but nevertheless Esq., in which the comparative advantages of the talked and thought and composed, most ungramati- different modes of conducting recitations were discally.


In the fifth place, there was a necessity for more The interchange of views and experience upon frequent visits from parents to the schools attended matters connected with the drill of the school-room, by their children. No form of education which was was very general. Remarks and suggestions were much above or below the level of public opinion could made by a large proportion of the teachers present, exist in any community. A school-room that was and a grand diversity of opinion was elicited upon never touched by the passing shadow of father or of the following points, viz.: the necessity of the teachmother, was a gloomy institution. The teacher work- er's specially preparing himself for each exercise of ed without aid, grieved without sympa.hy, struggled instruction; the best method of calling out and of without blessing, and taught without gratitude. dismissing classes; the best position for scholars and The lecturer also submitsed some very valuable teacher during recitations; the propriety of arranging reflections upon the subjects of punishments in schools, classes according to the grades of proficiency of the the too crowded condition of school-rooms, the evils several scholars; the necessity of a system of credit of introducing an excessive number of scholars to a marks; the propriety of allowing the pupil to critisingle teacher, emulation, discipline, &c. cize, grammatically, the language used by the teach

The desire that the young mind has for knowledge er; the best way of awakening an interest in a school in regard to the science of language, &c., &c.

is of God. May the blessing of God rest upon those teachers of the mind who sow in faith and reap in gratitude.

Classes were formed of a number of the teachers, and the several hints and suggestions made were il


lustrated in a practical manner. This discussion oc- they can leave undone with safety, their schools will cupied the entire morning session. Owing to the inevitably show their want of fidelity to their trust.

early leaving of the train, the discussion of other topics which had been originally contemplated, was necessarily omitted.


At the close of the session, remarks were made
Mr. I. F. Cady, of Warren, by the Rev. Pardon M.
Baker, pastor of the church in which the meeting
was held, and by the President.

The following resolutions, offered by Mr. Cady,
Warren, passed unanimously:


Some seem never to have been designed by nature to control children but with a rod in their hands, and be teachers. They seem to have no tact or tacuity to with this they succeed most unfortunately for themselves and their pupils. Such should never be invested with authority. They would be out of their sphere, and should be employed only as assistants in imparting instruction.

A teacher to be successful must be constantly im proving. He must avail himself of all the means and opportunities within his reach to increase his knewis indifferent to the onward progress of the cause of ledge and to give vigor and life to his teaching. If he education and to the collected wisdom and experience of others, and is self-conceited or puffed up with his Resolved, That we express our heart-felt sympathy own vast attainments, and thinks there is nothing rewith the Hon. John W. Money in his present deep lating to schools that is worth knowing that he does affliction, occasioned by the sudden death of his wife, not know, he will most assuredly in process of time by which he and several of his friends have been become a fossilized pedagogue, and his school will be There is one subject to which I wish to call, at this prevented from rendering those personal attentions remarkable for nothing but dullness and routine. to the members of the Institute which their kindness and interest in the cause of education would have time, the special attention of the committee, which is boisterous and highly improper conduct of children been so prompt to afford; and that we fully and deserving of serious consideration. I refer to the gratefully appreciate the efforts which Mr. Money had around our school-houses, and when going to and realready put forth in our behalf before he was made so turning from school. This has become so great an evil severely to feel the afflicting hand of Divine Provi- that unless soon checked it will lessen, if not entirely destroy, all confidence in our public system of educa tion. The courtesies of life and gentlemanly conduct form an essential part of a good education, and should mind. Nothing can supply their place. A rowdy, early and unremittingly be instilled into the youthful even with a liberal education, would be none the less a rowdy, and a disgrace to society.


Resolved, That we express our high appreciation of the advantages we have been permitted to derive from the various discussions of the Institute, and that we will endeavor to carry away with us the valuable hints and instructions we have received, and to make them the means of a higher and more worthy success in our several spheres of labor.

It is unfortunate for our schools that parental discipline is evidently becoming more and more lax. A youth, seems to be fast passing away: and young Am Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to respect for age and a reverence for authority in our Mr. Rousmaniere, School Commissioner of the State, erica, as it is called, is becoming rampant, and is riotand to Mr. Kendall, Principal of the State Normal ing with excess in our streets and about some of our It should be stopped at once. No greater School, for their valuable and instructive lectures; to schools. the Freewill Baptist Association for the free use of curse can be inflicted on a community than rebellion their church building for the sessions of the Institute, against authority, whether it be parental or civil. It to Mr. I. H. Tefft for his efficient general services, is becoming quite too common for children to assume their parents what they intend to do, instead of asking and to the citizens of Carolina Village who have so the reins of government, and for them to announce to kindly welcomed us to the enjoyment of their hospi- permission for what they may do. The proverb, that tality, and so essentially contributed to our happiness the child is the father of the man, is true in more senses than one. This disregard of law and parental control during our visit to their pleasant village. valent vices of the age, and if not eradicated will unis not confined to this city alone; it is one of the predermine the best fabric of human government. Much can be done both by parents, teachers and the guardians of the young, to stay the tide of anarchy and misrule that is threatening us. The future will be full of fearful forebodings, unless the youth of our land are taught a higher respect and reverence for those who should control their action.

The following resolution, offered by Mr. Edwards, of East Greenwich, was also adopted, after which the Institute adjourned without day:

Resolved, That the duties of the teachers of Rhode Island to their country at the present time, are to awaken in their scholars a spirit of active benevolence in behalf of our wounded soldiers, to make all needful sacrifices themselves-and if necessary to pour out their blood in defence of those principles

which we cherish.

The next session of the Institute will be holden at Peacedale, at some time during the month of December.

Further legislation on this subject by the committee at this time, may not be necessary, but greater vigi lance should be used by all. Parents should be appealed to from the pulpit and by the press, by all the argu ments that can be drawn from parental affection; by all the sacred endearments of home and the undying love of country, to maintain their authority with Puritan firmness and decision. Teachers and committees should leave no means unemployed to arrest an evil of so great magnitude; and when all the arts of persua

Quarterly Report of the Superintendent of sion have been exhausted in vain, the whole authority

Public Schools, Providence.

of the committee should rigidly be enforced, and as a last resort, the city government should be appealed to for their aid and assistance.

Our schools have been unusually full the past term. PROVIDENCE, Nov, 22, 1861. The additional accommodations that have been recently furnished by the enlarging of Benefit and Arnold To the School Committee of the city of Providence: The Grammar School on Prospect Gentlemen-There have been but few changes, either street houses, have been filled, and still there is need in the internal or external condition of our schools, of more room. the past term. The High and Grammar Schools main- street has been crowded, and arrangements should be Most of the made for scholars, and for another assistant teacher. tain their usual efficiency undiminished. Intermediate and Primary Schools are entirely satis- This can be done for the present by using one of the factory. Some few, however, are not, for some cause recitation rooms. The whole number of pupils admitted is 7986, which or other, what they ought to be. They are deficient both in discipline and in thoroughness of instruction. is 220 more than were admitted last term. Of these, The two permanent causes of the want of success in 326 have been received into the High School, 1975 into our schools are a lack of interest and faithfulness on the Grammar Schools, 2043 into the Intermediate the part of the teachers, and a natural inability to gov- Schools, and 3642 into the Primary Schools. ern children. Unless teachers are conscientious in the discharge of all their duties, and seek constantly how much they can accomplish, rather than how much

All which is respectfully submitted.
DANIEL LEACH, Superintendent Public Schools.

Editors' Department.

success of the mob towards the accomplishment of their direful purposes causes joy in their hearts; exTHE ONE CENT CONTRIBUTION.-Will teachers ult over the disgrace of their fatherland; their sides please notice the resolution which was offered at shake while they hear of the dark fiend who is sapthe meeting of the R. I. Institute of Instruction ping the life-blood from the heart of the best govby our worthy Commissioner, in regard to the pen- ernment God ever gave to man. Sooner might we ny contributions for the wounded and needy among expect to see the infant at its mother's breast seize our soldiers. Forward your collections, without the throat of its nursing parent and throttle the delay, to the President of the Institute, Mr. J. J. breath of its only supporter. Shame on the poor Ladd, or the Sanitary Committee. As the sum is wretch who can turn in his base treachery, and in to be published in THE SCHOOLMASTER, the state-the hour of adversity forsake his best friend. ment of the amounts collected by each should be sent, in all cases, to the President.

An Important Question.

AT the meeting of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction recently held at Carolina Mills, the following question was presented for discussion: "What are the duties of teachers to their country at the present time?"

As teachers, as citizens, then, we should settle the question at once, on whose side we are to stand; if we are a friend to the liberties which we have so long enjoyed, then let us put forth every effort, however laborious, to crush the present unrighteous rebellion. As teachers we must more and more impress upon our pupils the love of ests; a more thorough knowledge of the genius country; a more earnest devotion to all her interintricate civil machinery. The Constitution should of her government; the various workings of our become a daily text-book. The early struggle of who have arisen and fallen like gigantic waves of our Fathers for liberty, the history of other nations ocean; the causes of their prosperity, the sins hich brought their ruin and final overthrow should be as familiar as household words to every American child.

the rising race who shall scorn the traitor, who
well as for what it has done for him.
shall love his country for its worth to others as


At such a crisis of our national affairs it is well to examine each his own relation to the country, and his real principles in regard to it. None can assume a neutral attitude; we are either directly aiding and assisting in the promotion of right and justice, or we are acting directly in an opposite course. We are all, without regard to place or circumstance, either rebels and traitors, or loyal citizens. A citizen who can stand by and see his We ought, by example as well as precept, to flag-which has ever thrown its protection over keep ever alive on the altar of the heart the fires him and his; which has carried the sea-voyager into all ports in safety; which has been striped with shall make us ready at any hour to run to the cry of an enlightened and honest patriotism, which the blood of sires long sleeping,- torn and tram- of endangered liberty. Let us favor obedience to pled in the dust by a reckless mob, and not pour all laws, a jealous observance of public rights and out his blood, if need be, in its defence, ought not injunctions, then shall we soon have a people in to take the flattering unction that he is still a friend to his country. Nay, rather, he who in silence can suffer this, is at heart a traitor, and ought so to be considered, and for such "neutrality," as he may call it, should meet the traitor's doom. It matters not what feuds, or what especial change special attention of the teachers of Rhode Island in the political horizon may have caused the attack to the advertisement in this number of the above upon his government; it matters not under whose Institute. We have long known the gentlemen administration, or what sort of President may have who have charge of this Institute, and can heartiheld the office at the breaking forth of a volcanic ly recommend them to the confidence of teachers crater in civil affairs; he is more of a coward who and school committees. The intimate acquainthides his diminished head 'neath such slimsy sub-ance they have with the schools of our entire counterfuges. He who will not put forth every effort try, and the success which has thus far attended within his reach to maintain his own laws and con- the enterprise, are ample evidences of the value stitution, to stay the parricidal hand which is put of such an Institute, both to teachers and school forth for its destruction, 'is in no way entitled to officers. the protection of his own life, or that of his friend, from the knife of the midnight asssassin, or the torch of the incendiary, or the arrest of the highwayman. At the present time, in this the deepest LIVE TEACHERS.By the efforts of Mr. Tefft, and foulest rebellion since heaven was invaded by in Kingstown from week to week, when the variand others, meetings are held at the school houses the hosts of Satan, men walk our streets and count ous items of interest pertaining to the profession over their hordes of paltry dollars, which their ex- are discussed, and a pleasant interchange of excellent government and its free institutions have perience enjoyed. We must award all praise to many teachers of Washington County. In no given them: lying down at night in calm repose part of the State do we find more gratifying eviunder the constant vigils of the law, while every dence of life than there,

The Educational Herald, published by the Institute, should be read by all teachers.


tion toward America, as defined by the Queen's

[WRITTEN for a composition by a young lad in proclamation, received by us a few months since.

the Providence High School: ]

I well recollect, while studying the history of my country, the impressions I received of England and France. I regarded England as a haughty and tyrannical master. I looked upon France as a faithful and true friend and ally.

Not daring openly to recognize the Southern Con-
federacy, and being unwilling to support the North,
she takes (I should say, professes to take) a neu-
Such a position is
tral position. Neutrality!
worthy of England, and is just as much to be des-

These early im- pised as her tyranny. I said that she professes to
be neutral. Read the proclamation carefully and
see to what side it inclines and whom it favors.
we can now see how vain has been her friendship.
What cares she for America as an independent

pressions, formed, no doubt, by prejudice, have never been weakened nor even shaken; for, no matter how impartially I read history, I continually find new evidences of the haughtiness and oppression of England. Therefore, instead of being Notice the interest which England takes in weakened, these impressions are daily strength- America's welfare. While America is struggling, ened; and I would not have them taken from me, not only for constitutional liberty, but also, for unless I wished to have wrong supersede right. We have only to look at England's doings, and very existence, England puts on the garb of neutrality merely as a cloak to hide her real intention. at what she has done in past years, in order to see Her intention is the recognition of the Southern the correctness of these impressions. Look at her Confederacy, which, should the South succeed, continual aggressive warfare, of which her enorwill pave the way for her acquisition of this contimous national debt bears testimony; at her connent. Her cloak is very ingeniously made and duct at the wars in India, especially at her worse But it does not hide all of the ugly form than barbarous treatment of the Sepoys; at her put on. it intends to conceal. Enough of it is seen to cruel oppression of Ireland, and at her murder of Robert Emmett; at her severe taxation of the judge of the character of the whole. But it seems as though there would be a change. Canadas; at her interference in the French Revolution, and at her conduct toward Napoleon Bona- Look at the extensive military operations of France, parte, which conduct is all the more unjust and as well as England. Look at the navy of France, mean, because it was unprovoked; -look at these once small and insignificant, but within the past few years grown so large as to surpass in numbers few cases enumerated and see if they do not bear and power the navy of England. Surely such operations betoken war. Indeed, each arrival of the

very good evidence of her haughtiness, tyranny

and oppression.


England has regarded America with amounting to hatred ever since she had the extreme ill-luck of being forced from America. She professes to be America's friend; but we can sometimes see the inconsistency of her friendship, as she brings to light the concealed hatred.

steamer brings fresh rumors of the certainty of an early war. This war has been expected for the last few years, and I would not wish it to come; but should it come, I should be far from wishing England success. France has a debt to cancel. I would not wish it to be a war of retaliation; yet I do hope that France's bravest sons, remembering The loss of her most flourishing colonies, the disgraceful defeat of her arms, and the removal of England's conduct toward her, and England's unthat title which she had so proudly and trium- just treatment of Napoleon, would go to battle phantly borne for hundreds of years, viz., "The with firm hearts and strong arms to punish this abusive treatment. May they, at least, wipe out Mistress of the Seas," were wounds that would the stains of Waterloo and Trafalgar. never heal over. Though peace and amity were But France would not fight her battles alone. Iredeclared, yet how soon did England's haughtiness break the professed friendship existing between land, remembering the murdered Emmett, would them. New defeats and new disgraces were suf- rush to arms to join the standard of one who was fered by the would-be Mistress of the Seas. She fighting against the oppressor of her country. And I should hope that America, unlike her hidden foe was compelled to retire a second time without efat the present time, would not take a neutral posifecting her object. tion; but I rather should hope that she would unite with one who has ever been a true friend and ally, in humbling one who has ever been an enemy to her people and a foe to her liberties.

October 14th, 1861.

Wise would it be for England, if she would profit by these two failures, and not attempt a third time the execution of a plan which she can never accomplish while there remains one lover of constitutional liberty or one hater of British oppresTHE ORIGINAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENsion. But from this extreme folly she reaps nothing but folly. Still she dreams on, and longs for DENCE, AND CONSTITUTION OF THE U. STATES.the day when America shall be under her oppres- We find on our table a beautiful copy of these important documents. In these times that try men's sive sway. One very good evidence of England's professed souls the glorious old Declaration of Rights must friendship and hidden hatred is seen in her posi- not be forgotten. The first inspiration of truth

recorded there is the fundamental axiom in all good systems of government: "All men are created equal and independent; that they are endowed with certain inalienable rights." In this copy may be found a fac-simile of the original Declaration, which gives it new interest; a sketch of the lives of the signers, to which is added the Constitution, which perfectly harmonizes with the Declaration of Independence. You can buy the whole at N. Bangs Williams', 133 Westminster street, for twenty-five cents.

WE copy from the Boston Journal the following notice of the resignation of a highly successful teacher. May every worthy teacher be as fully appreciated by those who have been the recipients of his well-directed efforts:


COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addressed to N. W. DEMUNN, Providence.

For the Schoolmaster.
Teaching Arithmetic.

[MESSRS. EDITORS: - Will you afford room in your valuable journal for the following hints on teaching arithmetic, given by a distinguished English teacher? They appear to me to be worthy of the attention of every teacher in this country.


"Many important advantages would accrue to beginners, as well as to advanced students, if arithmetic were regarded more as a branch of ma"TESTIMONIAL TO A VETERAN TEACHER.-We thematical science, and less as a mere system of have before mentioned the resignation of Mr. John practical rules. The art of computation is unF. Emerson of his position as Principal of the High doubtedly of much value in the business of life; School in New Bedford, a position he had held but the habit of investigating the principles on which this art is based, is not of inferior imporfrom the establishment of the school in 1837. His tance. The first gives to the student a mastery of resignation took effect on Wednesday last, when figures, which will be serviceable in commercial the semi-annual exhibition was given. At the and scientific pursuits: the second tends to conclose of the exhibition Mr. Phipps, the Superin- abstraction and accurate thought; to familiarize centrate his attention; to induce habits of patient tendent of Schools. alluded, in an appropriate him with the laws of reasoning, and to compel him manner, to Mr. Emerson's retirement. One of the to examine well the grounds of every inference he young ladies of the school presented to Mr. Em- draws, Such habits as these will be invaluable in every pursuit and duty of life, for they will help to erson a valuable gold watch, as a token of the es- make him a sounder and more modest reasoner, teem of the pupils. The school committee, at a and therefore a wiser man. special meeting, passed a resolution highly commendatory of Mr. Emerson's long and useful labors in the cause of education in their city. The New Bedford Mercury, in speaking of Mr. Emerson's retirement, says:- Thus closes the profes sional career of one who has so long "gone in and out" among us as a faithful, honored, successful teacher, and who carries with him into his retirement the gratitude of the hundreds who have been privileged to enjoy his instructions, the warm personal regard of a'l who have been associated with him, and the most earnest wishes for his future prosperity and happiness.'

By the following it will be seen that our old, tried and true friend Pierce has turned his attention to shooting something besides young ideas. He has always aimed high in his profession as a school teacher, but when he aims at the rebels may he "fire low." All praise, noble fellow, for your patriotism. The Woonsocket Patriot says:

"The value of the exact sciences as instruments of mental discipline has long been recognized. To omit them from any scheme of instruction, however humble, is to allow an important class of the mental faculties to remain untrained. In the limited curriculum of our common day schools, arithmetic holds a place analagous to the mathematics of a university course.

"It is the only one of the pure sciences usually admitted into such a school, and the only instrument there available for severe and systematic logical training. To degrade arithmetic into a mere routine of mechanical devices for working sums,' is, even in a school for young children, to commit as grave and mischievous a mistake as if our university professors were to permit the rules of mensuration to supersede the study of Euclid, or to displace the rigid analysis of the calculus and the higher trigonometry, in order to make room for land surveying, the rules of navigation, or the construction of tide tables.

It is only when looked at in this higher respect that arithmetic can become an efficient instrument for disciplining the judgment and improving the ed a science at all, so long as it is limited to ciphermental powers; indeed, it has no right to be calling on a slate, and does not include a systematic "The Fifth Company of Woonsocket Volun-acquaintance with principles as well as rules. To teers, under command of Capt. Grant, left this village for Providence on Tuesday. The ranks were not full, but will be filled elsewhere. H. R. Pierce, the Principal of our village High School, goes as First Lieutenant of this Company. Many regret to part with him as teacher, but all honor and necessarily. him for his patriotism, and anticipate that he will "A few principles, thoroughly sifted and undermake an efficient and gallant officer. An elegant stood, will be found to form a better substratum sword was presented to him by his pupils on Wed- for future mathematical or commercial attainment nesday. The scene was both interesting and af- than all the rules of a book, if studied apart from fecting." those principles."

promote such a knowledge of principles, something more is necessary than a theoretical treatise on the one hand, or a book of rules, with explanations appended, on the other. In a text-book on arithmetic, therefore, the principles should, in then the rules shown to follow from them naturally every case, be first explained and illustrated, and

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