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as the duty of the school-room.

Such was the re- After the delivery of the lecture, a piquant discusmarkable scheme of Ignatius Loyola, who built an sion took place upon the subject of "What are the immense educational foundry, and attempted to order duties of teachers to their country at the present from any kind of ore, brass-faced statesmen, iron- time?" The speakers were Messrs. M. S. Greene, of hearted generals, and silver-robed saints. He had Westerly; Avery A. Staunton, of Voluntown; S. monarchs and people to assist him in his wily labors; Tillinghast, of Charlestown; I. F. Cady, of Warren; but he failed. A shout of execration finally came up J. Kimball, of Bristol; John H. Tefft, of Kingstown; against his system from every peasant's hut and from Ira O. Seamans, of Centreville; N. W. DeMunn and every gilded throne. We want the healthy growth J. J. Ladd, of Providence; and Rev. S. B. Bailey, of of all the mind, not the distortion of individual facul- Mystic, Ct.

ties. We want the young mind to grow in an at- The Institute adjourned at 10 o'clock, having spent mosphere of moral freedom, and not be poisoned by a most pleasant and profitable evening. The sudden breathing over again the stale prejudices of others. influx of so large a company of strangers into this Let our young plants be natural off-shoots, not costly sparsely settled region, and the life and animation exotics. which have been manifested in the different exer

The first suggestion offered by the speaker was that cises, have made quite a sensation among the denia lively and natural affection for children was indis-zens of Carolina and the neighboring villages, and pensable for the highest success in the profession of they have diligently improved the advantages for inthe teacher. The true born teacher must be an affec- tellectual culture which have been thus afforded them. tionate, earnest worker-not because of his monthly stipend, but from the pleasure he derived from the consciousness of the duty he was performing. Such men were Arnold and Fenelon of the old school, and such were the lamented Horace Mann and Dana P. Colburn, of America.

Secondly, the teacher should be master of a practical, mental philosophy. A preceptor who could detect human character at a glance, had a great advantage over one who had no power to analyse the secret workings of the human mind.

Thirdly, the power of observation ought to be more accurately exercised by teachers, in order that they might develope the same power in the scholar. This faculty was the foundation of the power of recollection. The more facts man could bring to his aid in the exercise of judgment, the more correctly would

his decision be formed.

SECOND DAY-SATURDAY, NOV. 23. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather on Saturday morning, sixty-six teachers met in the Freewill Baptist Church at Carolina Mills, where the exercises of the Institute were opened at 9 o'clock with prayer by the Rev. S. B. Bailey, of Mystic.

The Hon. Henry Rousmaniere, Commissioner of Public Schools in this State, submitted the following resolutions, which were adopted:

Resolved, That a contribution of one cent only be solicited by the teachers from each scholar in the public schools of this State, for the aid of our wounded and suffering soldiers.

Resolved, That these contributions be handed to local sanitary committees, or to the President of this Institute, to be by him transmitted to the general sanitary committee of the State.

Resolved, That the teachers inform the President of this Institute of the sums they have collected, and that the amount of the same be published in the RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLMASTER.

Fourthly, the speaker maintained that there were too many studies in our ungraded schools. In many branches, it was only the theory that children acquirThe arrangements for the morning embraced a ed, and not the practice. Many pupils displayed an conversational lecture, conducted by Joshua Kendall, intricate knowledge of Grammar, but nevertheless Esq., in which the comparative advantages of the talked and thought and composed, most ungramati- different modes of conducting recitations were discally.


In the fifth place, there was a necessity for more The interchange of views and experience upon frequent visits from parents to the schools attended matters connected with the drill of the school-room, by their children. No form of education which was was very general. Remarks and suggestions were much above or below the level of public opinion could made by a large proportion of the teachers present, exist in any community. A school-room that was and a grand diversity of opinion was elicited upon never touched by the passing shadow of father or of the following points, viz.: the necessity of the teachmother, was a gloomy institution. The teacher work- er's specially preparing himself for each exercise of ed without aid, grieved without sympa.hy, struggled instruction; the best method of calling out and of without blessing, and taught without gratitude. dismissing classes; the best position for scholars and The lecturer also submitsed some very valuable teacher during recitations; the propriety of arranging reflections upon the subjects of punishments in schools, classes according to the grades of proficiency of the the too crowded condition of school-rooms, the evils several scholars; the necessity of a system of credit of introducing an excessive number of scholars to a marks; the propriety of allowing the pupil to critisingle teacher, emulation, discipline, &c. cize, grammatically, the language used by the teachThe desire that the young mind has for knowledge er; the best way of awakening an interest in a school is of God. May the blessing of God rest upon those in regard to the science of language, &c., &c. teachers of the mind who sow in faith and reap in gratitude.

Classes were formed of a number of the teachers, and the several hints and suggestions made were il

lustrated in a practical manner. This discussion oc- they can leave undone with safety, their schools will

cupied the entire morning session. Owing to the early leaving of the train, the discussion of other topics which had been originally contemplated, was necessarily omitted.

At the close of the session, remarks were made by Mr. I. F. Cady, of Warren, by the Rev. Pardon M. Baker, pastor of the church in which the meeting was held, and by the President.

The following resolutions, offered by Mr. Cady, of Warren, passed unanimously:

inevitably show their want of fidelity to their trust. Some seem never to have been designed by nature to be teachers. They seem to have no tact or faculty to control children but with a rod in their hands, and with this they succeed most unfortunately for themselves and their pupils. Such should never be invested and should be employed only as assistants in impart with authority. They would be out of their sphere, ing instruction.

proving. He must avail himself of all the means and A teacher to be successful must be constantly im opportunities within his reach to increase his knowledge and to give vigor and life to his teaching. If he is indifferent to the onward progress of the cause of education and to the collected wisdom and experience Resolved, That we express our heart-felt sympathy of others, and is self-conceited or puffed up with his with the Hon. John W. Money in his present deep lating to schools that is worth knowing that he does own vast attainments, and thinks there is nothing reaffliction, occasioned by the sudden death of his wife, not know, he will most assuredly in process of time by which he and several of his friends have been become a fossilized pedagogue, and his school will be prevented from rendering those personal attentions remarkable for nothing but dullness and routine. to the members of the Institute which their kindness There is one subject to which I wish to call, at this and interest in the cause of education would have time, the special attention of the committee, which is been so prompt to afford; and that we fully and deserving of serious consideration. I refer to the boisterous and highly improper conduct of children gratefully appreciate the efforts which Mr. Money had around our school-houses, and when going to and realready put forth in our behalf before he was made so turning from school. This has become so great an evil severely to feel the afflicting hand of Divine Provi- that unless soon checked it will lessen, if not entirely dence. destroy, all confidence in our public system of educa tion. The courtesies of life and gentlemanly conduct form an essential part of a good education, and should mind. Nothing can supply their place. A rowdy, early and unremittingly be instilled into the youthful even with a liberal education, would be none the less a rowdy, and a disgrace to society.

Resolved, That we express our high appreciation of the advantages we have been permitted to derive from the various discussions of the Institute, and that we will endeavor to carry away with us the valuable hints and instructions we have received, and to make them the means of a higher and more worthy success in our several spheres of labor.

Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to Mr. Rousmaniere, School Commissioner of the State, and to Mr. Kendall, Principal of the State Normal School, for their valuable and instructive lectures; to the Freewill Baptist Association for the free use of their church building for the sessions of the Institute, to Mr. I. H. Tefft for his efficient general services, and to the citizens of Carolina Village who have so kindly welcomed us to the enjoyment of their hospitality, and so essentially contributed to our happiness during our visit to their pleasant village.

The following resolution, offered by Mr. Edwards, of East Greenwich, was also adopted, after which the Institute adjourned without day:

Resolved, That the duties of the teachers of Rhode Island to their country at the present time, are to awaken in their scholars a spirit of active benevolence in behalf of our wounded soldiers, to make all needful sacrifices themselves-and if necessary to pour out their blood in defence of those principles

which we cherish.

The next session of the Institute will be holden at Peacedale, at some time during the month of De


It is unfortunate for our schools that parental discipline is evidently becoming more and more lax. A respect for age and a reverence for authority in our youth, seems to be fast passing away: and young Am. erica, as it is called, is becoming rampant, and is rioting with excess in our streets and about some of our schools. It should be stopped at once. No greater curse can be inflicted on a community than rebellion against authority, whether it be parental or civil. It is becoming quite too common for children to assume the reins of government, and for them to announce to their parents what they intend to do, instead of asking the child is the father of the man, is true in more senses permission for what they may do. The proverb, that than one. This disregard of law and parental control is not confined to this city alone; it is one of the prevalent vices of the age, and if not eradicated will undermine the best fabric of human government. Much can be done both by parents, teachers and the guardians of the young, to stay the tide of anarchy and misrule that is threatening us. The future will be full of fearful forebodings, unless the youth of our land are taught a higher respect and reverence for those who should control their action.

Further legislation on this subject by the committee lance should be used by all. Parents should be appealat this time, may not be necessary, but greater vigi ed to from the pulpit and by the press, by all the argu. ments that can be drawn from parental affection; by all the sacred endearments of home and the undying love of country, to maintain their authority with Puritan firmness and decision. Teachers and committees should leave no means unemployed to arrest an evil of so great magnitude; and when all the arts of persuaof the committee should rigidly be enforced, and as a last resort, the city government should be appealed to for their aid and assistance.

Quarterly Report of the Superintendent of sion have been exhausted in vain, the whole authority

Public Schools, Providence.

PROVIDENCE, Nov, 22, 1861. Our schools have been unusually full the past term. To the School Committee of the city of Providence: The additional accommodations that have been recentGentlemen-There have been but few changes, either street houses, have been filled, and still there is need ly furnished by the enlarging of Benefit and Arnold in the internal or external condition of our schools, of more room. The Grammar School on Prospect the past term. The High and Grammar Schools main- street has been crowded, and arrangements should be tain their usual efficiency undiminished. Most of the made for scholars, and for another assistant teacher. Intermediate and Primary Schools are entirely satis- This can be done for the present by using one of the factory. Some few, however, are not, for some cause recitation rooms. or other, what they ought to be. They are deficient both in discipline and in thoroughness of instruction. is 220 more than were admitted last term. Of these, The whole number of pupils admitted is 7986, which The two permanent causes of the want of success in 326 have been received into the High School, 1975 into our schools are a lack of interest and faithfulness on the Grammar Schools, 2043 into the Intermediate the part of the teachers, and a natural inability to gov- Schools, and 3642 into the Primary Schools. ern children. Unless teachers are conscientious in the discharge of all their duties, and seek constantly how much they can accomplish, rather than how much!

All which is respectfully submitted.
DANIEL LEACH, Superintendent Public Schools.

Editors' Department.

THE ONE CENT CONTRIBUTION.-Will teachers please notice the resolution which was offered at the meeting of the R. I. Institute of Instruction by our worthy Commissioner, in regard to the penny contributions for the wounded and needy among our soldiers. Forward your collections, without delay, to the President of the Institute, Mr. J. J. Ladd, or the Sanitary Committee. As the sum is to be published in THE SCHOOLMASTER, the statement of the amounts collected by each should be sent, in all cases, to the President.

An Important Question.

AT the meeting of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction recently held at Carolina Mills, the following question was presented for discussion: "What are the duties of teachers to their country at the present time?"

success of the mob towards the accomplishment of their direful purposes causes joy in their hearts; exult over the disgrace of their fatherland; their sides shake while they hear of the dark fiend who is sapping the life-blood from the heart of the best government God ever gave to man. Sooner might we expect to see the infant at its mother's breast seize the throat of its nursing parent and throttle the breath of its only supporter. Shame on the poor wretch who can turn in his base treachery, and in the hour of adversity forsake his best friend.

As teachers, as citizens, then, we should settle the question at once, on whose side we are to stand; if we are a friend to the liberties which we have so long enjoyed, then let us put forth every effort, however laborious, to crush the present unand more impress upon our pupils the love of As teachers we must more righteous rebellion. ests; a more thorough knowledge of the genius country; a more earnest devotion to all her interof her government; the various workings of our become a daily text-book. intricate civil machinery. The Constitution should

The early struggle of

who have arisen and fallen like gigantic waves of our Fathers for liberty, the history of other nations ocean; the causes of their prosperity, the sins hich brought their ruin and final overthrow should be as familiar as household words to every American child.

At such a crisis of our national affairs it is well to examine each his own relation to the country, and his real principles in regard to it. None can assume a neutral attitude; we are either directly aiding and assisting in the promotion of right and justice, or we are acting directly in an opposite course. We are all, without regard to place or circumstance, either rebels and traitors, or loyal citizens. A citizen who can stand by and see his We ought, by example as well as precept, to flag-which has ever thrown its protection over keep ever alive on the altar of the heart the fires him and his; which has carried the sea-voyager into all ports in safety; which has been striped with shall make us ready at any hour to run to the cry of an enlightened and honest patriotism, which the blood of sires long sleeping,- -torn and tram- of endangered liberty. Let us favor obedience to pled in the dust by a reckless mob, and not pour all laws, a jealous observance of public rights and out his blood, if need be, in its defence, ought not injunctions, then shall we soon have a people in to take the flattering unction that he is still a the rising race who shall scorn the traitor, who friend to his country. Nay, rather, he who in si- shall love his country for its worth to others as lence can suffer this, is at heart a traitor, and ought well as for what it has done for him.

so to be considered, and for such "neutrality," as he may call it, should meet the traitor's doom.


It matters not what feuds, or what especial change special attention of the teachers of Rhode Island in the political horizon may have caused the attack to the advertisement in this number of the above upon his government; it matters not under whose Institute. We have long known the gentlemen administration, or what sort of President may have who have charge of this Institute, and can heartiheld the office at the breaking forth of a volcanic ly recommend them to the confidence of teachers crater in civil affairs; he is more of a coward who and school committees. The intimate acquainthides his diminished head 'neath such slimsy sub-ance they have with the schools of our entire counterfuges. He who will not put forth every effort try, and the success which has thus far attended within his reach to maintain his own laws and con- the enterprise, are ample evidences of the value stitution, to stay the parricidal hand which is put of such an Institute, both to teachers and school forth for its destruction, is in no way entitled to officers. the protection of his own life, or that of his friend, from the knife of the midnight asssassin, or the torch of the incendiary, or the arrest of the highwayman. At the present time, in this the deepest LIVE TEACHERS.-By the efforts of Mr. Tefft, and foulest rebellion since heaven was invaded by in Kingstown from week to week, when the variand others, meetings are held at the school houses the hosts of Satan, men walk our streets and count ous items of interest pertaining to the profession over their hordes of paltry dollars, which their ex- are discussed, and a pleasant interchange of excellent government and its free institutions have perience enjoyed. We must award all praise to given them: lying down at night in calm repose part of the State do we find more gratifying evimany teachers of Washington County. In no under the constant vigils of the law, while every'dence of life than there,

The Educational Herald, published by the Institute, should be read by all teachers.


tion toward America, as defined by the Queen's

[WRITTEN for a composition by a young lad in proclamation, received by us a few months since.

the Providence High School: ]

Not daring openly to recognize the Southern Confederacy, and being unwilling to support the North, she takes (I should say, professes to take) a neutral position. Neutrality! Such a position is worthy of England, and is just as much to be des

I well recollect, while studying the history of my country, the impressions I received of England and France. I regarded England as a haughty and tyrannical master. I looked upon France as a faithful and true friend and ally. These early im- pised as her tyranny. I said that she professes to be neutral. Read the proclamation carefully and pressions, formed, no doubt, by prejudice, have see to what side it inclines and whom it favors. never been weakened nor even shaken; for, no We can now see how vain has been her friendship. matter how impartially I read history, I continWhat cares she for America as an independent ually find new evidences of the haughtiness and opcountry? pression of England. Therefore, instead of being Notice the interest which England takes in weakened, these impressions are daily strengthAmerica's welfare. While America is struggling, ened; and I would not have them taken from me, not only for constitutional liberty, but also, for unless I wished to have wrong supersede right. We have only to look at England's doings, and very existence, England puts on the garb of neutrality merely as a cloak to hide her real intention. at what she has done in past years, in order to see Her intention is the recognition of the Southern the correctness of these impressions. Look at her Confederacy, which, should the South succeed, continual aggressive warfare, of which her enormous national debt bears testimony; at her conwill pave the way for her acquisition of this continent. Her cloak is very ingeniously made and duct at the wars in India, especially at her worse than barbarous treatment of the Sepoys; at her put on. But it does not hide all of the ugly form it intends to conceal. Enough of it is seen to cruel oppression of Ireland, and at her murder of Robert Emmett; at her severe taxation of the judge of the character of the whole. Canadas; at her interference in the French Revo

But it seems as though there would be a change. lution, and at her conduct toward Napoleon Bona- Look at the extensive military operations of France, parte, which conduct is all the more unjust and as well as England. Look at the navy of France, mean, because it was unprovoked; -look at these once small and insignificant, but within the past few cases enumerated and see if they do not bear very good evidence of her haughtiness, tyranny and oppression.

England has regarded America with envy amounting to hatred ever since she had the extreme ill-luck of being forced from America. She professes to be America's friend; but we can sometimes see the inconsistency of her friendship, as she brings to light the concealed hatred.

few years grown so large as to surpass in numbers and power the navy of England. Surely such operations betoken war. Indeed, each arrival of the steamer brings fresh rumors of the certainty of an early war. This war has been expected for the last few years, and I would not wish it to come; but should it come, I should be far from wishing England success. France has a debt to cancel. I would not wish it to be a war of retaliation; yet I do hope that France's bravest sons, remembering The loss of her most flourishing colonies, the disgraceful defeat of her arms, and the removal of England's conduct toward her, and England's unthat title which she had so proudly and trium- just treatment of Napoleon, would go to battle phantly borne for hundreds of years, viz., "The with firm hearts and strong arms to punish this Mistress of the Seas," were wounds that would abusive treatment. May they, at least, wipe out the stains of Waterloo and Trafalgar. never heal over. Though peace and amity were But France would not fight her battles alone. Iredeclared, yet how soon did England's haughtiness break the professed friendship existing between land, remembering the murdered Emmett, would them. New defeats and new disgraces were suf- rush to arms to join the standard of one who was fered by the would-be Mistress of the Seas. She fighting against the oppressor of her country. And I should hope that America, unlike her hidden foe was compelled to retire a second time without efat the present time, would not take a neutral posifecting her object. tion; but I rather should hope that she would unite with one who has ever been a true friend and ally, in humbling one who has ever been an enemy to her people and a foe to her liberties. October 14th, 1861.

Wise would it be for England, if she would profit by these two failures, and not attempt a third time the execution of a plan which she can never accomplish while there remains one lover of constitutional liberty or one hater of British oppression. But from this extreme folly she reaps noth- THE ORIGINAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENing but folly. Still she dreams on, and longs for DENCE, AND CONSTITUTION OF THE U. STATES.— the day when America shall be under her oppres- We find on our table a beautiful copy of these imsive sway. portant documents. In these times that try men's One very good evidence of England's professed souls the glorious old Declaration of Rights must friendship and hidden hatred is seen in her posi- not be forgotten. The first inspiration of truth

recorded there is the fundamental axiom in all good systems of government: "All men are created equal and independent; that they are endowed with certain inalienable rights." In this copy may be found a fac-simile of the original Declaration, which gives it new interest; a sketch of the lives of the signers, to which is added the Constitution, which perfectly harmonizes with the Declaration of Independence. You can buy the whole at N. Bangs Williams', 133 Westminster street, for twenty-five cents.

WE copy from the Boston Journal the following notice of the resignation of a highly successful teacher. May every worthy teacher be as fully appreciated by those who have been the recipients of

his well-directed efforts:


COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addressed to N. W. DEMUNN, Providence.

For the Schoolmaster.
Teaching Arithmetic.

[MESSRS. EDITORS: - Will you afford room in your valuable journal for the following hints on teaching arithmetic, given by a distinguished English teacher? They appear to me to be worthy of the attention of every teacher in this country.


"Many important advantages would accrue to beginners, as well as to advanced students, if

him with the laws of reasoning, and to compel him to examine well the grounds of every inference he draws. Such habits as these will be invaluable in every pursuit and duty of life. for they will help to make him a sounder and more modest reasoner, and therefore a wiser man.

arithmetic were regarded more as a branch of ma"TESTIMONIAL TO A VETERAN TEACHER.-We thematical science, and less as a mere system of have before mentioned the resignation of Mr. John practical rules. The art of computation is unF. Emerson of his position as Principal of the High doubtedly of much value in the business of life; School in New Bedford, a position he had held but the habit of investigating the principles on which this art is based, is not of inferior imporfrom the establishment of the school in 1837. His tance. The first gives to the student a mastery of resignation took effect on Wednesday last, when figures, which will be serviceable in commercial the semi-annual exhibition was given. At the and scientific pursuits: the second tends to conclose of the exhibition Mr. Phipps, the Superin- abstraction and accurate thought; to familiarize centrate his attention; to induce habits of patient tendent of Schools. alluded, in an appropriate manner, to Mr. Emerson's retirement. One of the young ladies of the school presented to Mr. Emerson a valuable gold watch, as a token of the esteem of the pupils. The school committee, at a special meeting, passed a resolution highly commendatory of Mr. Emerson's long and useful labors in the cause of education in their city. The New Bedford Mercury, in speaking of Mr. Emerson's retirement, says: " Thus closes the profes sional career of one who has so long "gone in and out among us as a faithful, honored, successful teacher, and who carries with him into his retirement the gratitude of the hundreds who have been privileged to enjoy his instructions, the warm personal regard of a'l who have been associated with him, and the most earnest wishes for his future prosperity and happiness.'

By the following it will be seen that our old, tried and true friend Pierce has turned his attention to shooting something besides young ideas, He has always aimed high in his profession as a school teacher, but when he aims at the rebels may he "fire low." All praise, noble fellow, for your patriotism. The Woonsocket Patriot says:

"The value of the exact sciences as instruments of mental discipline has long been recognized. To omit them from any scheme of instruction, however humble, is to allow an important class of the mental faculties to remain untrained. In the limited curriculum of our common day schools, arithmetic holds a place analagous to the mathematics of a university course.

"It is the only one of the pure sciences usually admitted into such a school, and the only instrument there available for severe and systematic logical training. To degrade arithmetic into a mere routine of mechanical devices for working sums,' is, even in a school for young children, to commit as grave and mischievous a mistake as if our university professors were to permit the rules of mensuration to supersede the study of Euclid, or to displace the rigid analysis of the calculus and the higher trigonometry, in order to make room for land surveying, the rules of navigation, or the construction of tide tables.

"It is only when looked at in this higher respect that arithmetic can become an efficient instrument for disciplining the judgment and improving the ed a science at all, so long as it is limited to ciphermental powers; indeed, it has no right to be calling on a slate, and does not include a systematic "The Fifth Company of Woonsocket Volun- acquaintance with principles as well as rules. To teers, under command of Capt. Grant, left this promote such a knowledge of principles, somevillage for Providence on Tuesday. The ranks thing more is necessary than a theoretical treatise on the one hand, or a book of rules, with explanawere not full, but will be filled elsewhere. H. R. tions appended, on the other. In a text-book on Pierce, the Principal of our village High School, arithmetic, therefore, the principles should, in goes as First Lieutenant of this Company. Many then the rules shown to follow from them naturally every case, be first explained and illustrated, and regret to part with him as teacher, but all honor and necessarily.

him for his patriotism, and anticipate that he will "A few principles, thoroughly sifted and undermake an efficient and gallant officer. An elegant stood, will be found to form a better substratum sword was presented to him by his pupils on Wed- for future mathematical or commercial attainment nesday. The scene was both interesting and af- than all the rules of a book, if studied apart from fecting." those principles."

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