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as the duty of the school-room. Such was the re- After the delivery of the lecture, a piquant discusmarkable scheme of Ignatius Loyola, who built an sion took place upon the subject of “What are the immense educational foundry, and attempted to order duties of teachers to their country at the present from any kind of ore, brass-faced statesmen, iron- time?” The speakers were Messrs. M. S. Greene, of hearted generals, and silver-robed saints. He had Westerly; Avery A. Staunton, of Voluntown; s. monarchs and people to assist him in his wily labors; Tillinghast

, of Charlestown; I. F. Cady, of Warren; but he failed. A shout of execration finally came up J. Kimball, of Bristol; John H. Tefft, of Kingstown; against his system from every peasant's hut and from Ira 0. Seamans, of Centreville; N. W. DeMunn and every gilded throne.

We want the healthy growth J. J. Ladd, of Providence; and Rev. S. B. Bailey, of of all the mind, not the distortion of individual facul- Mystic, Ct. ties. We want the young mind to grow in an at- The Institute adjourned at 10 o'clock, having spent mosphere of moral freedom, and not be poisoned by a most pleasant and profitable evening. The sudden breathing over again the stale prejudices of others. influx of so large a company of strangers into this Let our young plants be natural off-shoots, not costly sparsely settled region, and the life and animation exotics.

which have been manifested in the different exerThe first suggestion offered by the speaker was that cises, have made quite a sensation among the denia lively and natural affection for children was indis- zens of Carolina and the neighboring villages, and pensable for the highest success in the profession of they have diligently improved the advantages for inthe teacher. The true born teacher must be an affec- tellectual culture which have been thus afforded them. tionate, earnest worker-not because of his monthly stipend, but from the pleasure he derived from the

SECOND DAY-SATURDAY, nov. 23. consciousness of the duty he was performing. Such Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather on men were Arnold and Fenelon of the old school, and Saturday morning, sixty-six teachers met in the such were the lamented Horace Mann and Dana P. Freewill Baptist Church at Carolina Mills, where the Colburn, of America.

exercises of the Institute were opened at 9 o'clock Secondly, the teacher should be master of a practi- with prayer by the Rev. S. B. Bailey, of Mystic. cal, mental philosophy. A preceptor who could de- The Hon. Henry Rousmaniere, Commissioner of tect human character at a glance, had a great advan- Public Schools in this State, submitted the following tage over one who had no power to analyse the secret resolutions, which were adopted: workings of the human mind.

Resolved, That a contribution of one cent only be Thirdly, the power of observation ought to be more solicited by the teachers from each scholar in the accurately exercised by teachers, in order that they public schools of this State, for the aid of our wounded might develope the same power in the scholar. This

and suffering soldiers.

Resolved, That these contributions be handed to faculty was the foundation of the power of recollec- local sanitary committees, or to the President of this tion. The more facts man could bring to his aid in Institute, to be by him transmitted to the general the exercise of judgment, the inore correctly would sanitary committee of the State.

Resolved, That the teachers inform the President of his decision be formed.

this Institute of the sums they have collected, and Fourthly, the speaker maintained that there were that the amount of the same be published in the too many studies in our ungraded schools. In many

RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLMASTER. branches, it was only the theory that children acquir- The arrangements for the morning embraced a ed, and not the practice. Many pupils displayed an conversational lecture, conducted by Joshua Kendall, intricate knowledge of Grammar, but nevertheless Esq., in which the comparative advantages of the talked and thought and composed, most ungramati- different modes of conducting recitations were discally.

cussed. In the fifth place, there was a necessity for more The interchange of views and experience upon frequent visits from parents to the schools attended matters connected with the drill of the school-room, by their children. No form of education which was was very general. Remarks and suggestions were much above or below the level of public opinion could made by a large proportion of the teachers present, exist in any community. A school-room that was and a grand diversity of opinion was elicited upon never touched by the passing shadow of father or of the following points, viz.: the necessity of the teachmother, was a gloomy institution. The teacher work- er's specially preparing himself for each exercise of ed without aid, grieved without sympa.hy, struggled instruction; the best method of calling out and of without blessing, and taught without gratitude. dismissing classes; the best position for scholars and

The lecturer also submitsed some very valuable teacher during recitations; the propriety of arranging reflections upon the subjects of punishments in schools, classes according to the grades of proficiency of the the too crowded condition of school-rooms, the evils several scholars; the necessity of a system of credit of introducing an excessive number of scholars to a marks; the propriety of allowing the pupil to critisingle teacher, emulation, discipline, &c.

cize, grammatically, the language used by the teachThe desire that the young mind has for knowledge er; the best way of awakening an interest in a school is of God. May the blessing of God rest upon those in regard to the science of language, &c., &c. teachers of the mind who sow in faith and reap in Classes were formed of a number of the teachers, gratitude.

and the several hints and suggestions made weré illustrated in a practical manner. This discussion oc- they can leave undone with safety, their schools will cupied the entire morning session. Owing to the inevitably show their want of tidelity to their trust.

Some seem never to have been designed by nature to early leaving of the train, the discussion of other be teachers. They seem to have no tact or taculty to

control children but with a rod in their hands, and topics which had been originally contemplated, was with this they succeed most unfortunately for them. necessarily omitted.

selves and their pupils. Such should never be invested At the close of the session, remarks were made by and should be employed only as assistants in impart

with authority. They would be out of their sphere, Mr. I. F. Cady, of Warren, by the Rev. Pardon M. ing instruction, Baker, pastor of the church in which the meeting proving. He must avail himself of all the means and

Å teacher to be successful must be constantly im. was held, and by the President.

opportunities within his reach to increase his knew. The following resolutions, offered by Mr. Cady, of ledge and to give vigor and life to his teaching. If he

is indifferent to the onward progress of the cause of Warren, passed unanimously:

education and to the collected wisdom and experience Resolved, That we express our heart-felt sympathy of others, and is self-conceited or puffed up with his with the Hon. John W. Money in his present deep lating to schools that is worth knowing that he does affliction, occasioned by the sudden death of his wife, not know, he will most assuredly, in process of time by which he and several of his friends have been become a fossilized pedagogue, and his

school will be prevented from rendering those personal attentions remarkable for nothing but dullness and routine. to the members of the Institute which their kindness There is one subject to which I wish to call, at this and interest in the cause of education would have time, the special attention of the committee, which is been so prompt to afford; and that we fully and deserving of serious consideration. I refer to the gratefully appreciate the efforts which Mr. Money had around our school-houses, and when going to and re already put forth in our behalf before he was made so turning from school. This has become so great an evil severely to feel the afflicting hand of Divine Provi- that unless soon checked it will lesson, if not entirely dence.

destroy, all confidence in our public system of educaResolved, That we express our high appreciation of tion. The courtesies of life and gentlemanly conduct the advantages we have been permitted to derive form an essential part of a good education, and should from the various discussions of the Institute, and that mind. Nothing can supply their place. A rowdy,

early and unremittingly be instilled into the youthful we will endeavor to carry away with us the valuable even with a liberal education, would be none the less a hints and instructions we have received, and to make rowdy, and a disgrace to society., them the means of a higher and more worthy success It is unfortunate for our schools that parental disciin our several spheres of labor.

pline is evidently becoming more and more lax. A Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to respect for age and a reverence for authority in our Mr. Rousmaniere, School Commissioner of the State. youth, seems to be fast passing away: and young Am. and to Mr. Kendall, Principal of the State Normai crica, as it is called, is becoming rampant, and is riot

ing with excess in our streets and about some of our School, for their valuable and instructive lectures; to schools. It should be stopped at once. No greater the Freewill Baptist Association for the free use of curse can be inflicted on a community than rebellion their church building for the sessions of the Institute, against authority, whether it be parental or civil. It to Mr. I. H. Tefft for his efficient general services, is becoming quite too common for children to assume and to the citizens of Carolina Village who have so the reins of government, and for them to announce to kindly welcomed us to the enjoyment of their hospi- their parents what they intend to do, instead of asking tality, and so essentially contributed to our happiness the child is the father of the man, is true in more senses during our visit to their pleasant village.

than one. This disregard of law and parental control The following resolution, offered by Mr. Edwards, is not confined to this city alone; it is one of the preof East Greenwich, was also adopted, after which the dermine the best fabric of human government. Much Institute adjourned without day:


be done both by parents, teachers and the guardi

ans of the young, to stay tho tide of anarchy and misResolved, That the duties of the teachers of Rhode rule that is threatening us. The future will be full of Island to their country at the present time, are to fearful forebodings, unless the youth of our

land are awaken in their scholars a spirit of active benevo- taught a higher respect and reverence for those who lence in behalf of our wounded soldiers, to make all should control their action. needful sacrifices themselves--and if necessary to

Further legislation on this subject by the committee pour out their blood in defence of those principles lance should be used by all. Parents should be appeal.

at this time, may not be necessary, but greater rigi. which we cherish.

ed to from the pulpit and by the press, by all the argu. The next session of the Institute will be holden at ments that can be drawn from parental affection; by Peacedale, at some time during the month of De- love of country, to maintain their authority with Puri

all the sacred endearments of home and the undying cember.

tan firmness and decision. Teachers and committees should leave no means unemployed to arrest an evil of

so great magnitude; and when all the arts of persusQuarterly Report of the Superintendent of sion have been exhausted in vain, the whole authority Public Schools, Providence.

of the committee should rigidly be enforced, and as a last resort, the city government should bo appealed to

for their aid and assistance. PROVIDENCE, Nov, 22, 1861. Our schools have been unusually full the past term. To the School Committee of the city of Providence:

The additional accommodations that have been recent. Gentlemen—There have been but few changes, either ly furnished by the enlarging of Benefit and Arnold in the internal or external condition of our schools, of more room.

street houses, have been filled, and still there is need the past term. The High and Grammar Schools main street has been crowded, and arrangements should be

The Grammar School on Prospect tain their

usual efficiency undiminished. Most of the made for scholars, and for another assistant teacher. Intermediate and Primary Schools are entirely satis. This can be done for the present by using one of the factory. Some few, however, are not, for some cause recitation rooms. or other, what they ought to be. They are deficient both in discipline and in thoroughness of instruction. is 220 more than were admitted last term. Of these,

The whole number of pupils admitted is 7986, which The two permanent causes of the want of success in 326 have been received into the High School, 1975 into our schools are a lack of interest and faithfulness on the Grammar Schools, 2043 into the Intermediate the part of the teachers, and a natural inability to gov. Schools, and 3642 into the Primary Schools. ern children. Unless teachers are conscientious in the discharge of all their duties, and seek constantly how

All which is respectfully submitted. much they can accomplish, rather than how much! DANIEL LEACH, Superintendent Public Schools.


Editors' Department.

success of the mob towards the accomplishment of

their direful purposes causes joy in their hearts; exTHE ONE CENT CONTRIBUTION.-Will teachers ult over the disgrace of their fatherland; their sides please notice the resolution which was offered at shake while they hear of the dark fiend who is sapthe meeting of the R. I. Institute of Instruction ping the life-blood from the heart of the best govby our worthy Commissioner, in regard to the pen-ernment God ever gave to man. Sooner might we ny contributions for the wounded and needy among expect to see the infant at its mother's breast seize our soldiers. Forward your collections, without the throat of its nursing parent and throttle the delay, to the President of the Institute, Mr. J.J. breath of its only supporter. Shame on the poor Ladd, or the Sanitary Committee. As t'e sum is wretch who can turn in his base treachery, and in to be published in THE SCHOOLMASTER, the state- the hour of adversity forsake his best friend. ment of the amounts collected by each should be

As teachers, as citizens, then, we should settle sent, in all cases, to the President.

the question at once, on whose side we are to stand;

if we are a friend to the liberties which we An Important Question.

have so long enjoyed, then let us put forth every

effort, however laborious, to crush the present unAt the meeting of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction recently held at Carolina Mills, the righteous rebellion. As teachers we must more

and more impress upon our pupils the love of following question was presented for discussion : " What are the duties of teachers to their country ests ; à more thorough knowledge of the genius

country; a more earnest devotion to all her interat the present time ?” At such a crisis of our national affairs it is well intricate civil machinery. The Constitution should

of her government; the various workings of our to examine each his own relation to the country, become a daily text-book. The early struggle of and his real principles in regard to it. None can

our Fathers for liberty, the history of other nations assume a neutral attitude; we are either directly who have arisen and fallen like gigantic waves of aiding and assisting in the promotion of right and

ocean; the causes of their prosperity, the sins justice, or we are acting directly in an opposite hich brought their ruin and final overthrow should course. We are all, without regard to place or cir- be as familiar as household words to every Americumstance, either rebels and traitors, or loyal citi

can child. A citizen who can stand by and see his

We ought, by example as well as precept, to flag - which has ever thrown its protection over

keep ever alive on the altar of the heart the fires him and his; which has carried the sea-voyager in- of an enlightened and honest patriotism, which to all ports in safety; which has been striped with shall make us ready at any hour to run to the cry the blood of sires long sleeping, - torn and tram- of endangered liberty. Let us tavor obedience to pled in the dust by a reckless mob, and not pour all laws, a jealous observance of public rights and out his blood, if need be, in its defence, ought not

injunctions, then shall we soon have a people in to take the flattering unction that he is still a the rising race who shall scorn the traitor, who friend to his country. Nay, rather, he who in si- shall love his country for its worth to others as lence can suffer this, is at heart a traitor, and ought well as for what it has done for him. 80 to be considered, and for such “neutrality," as he may call it, should meet the traitor's doom.

AMERICAN SCHOOL INSTITUTE. — We call the It matters not what feuds,or what especial change special attention of the teachers of Rhode Island in the political horizon may have caused the attack to the advertisement in this number of the above upon his government; it matters not under whose Institute. We have long known the gentlemen administration, or what sort of President may have who have charge of this Institute, and can heartiheld the office at the breaking forth of a volcanic ly recommend them to the confidence of teachers crater in civil affairs; he is more of a coward who and school committees. The intimate acquainthides his diminished head 'neath such slimsy sub-ance they have with the schools of our entire coun. terfuges. He who will not put forth every effort try, and the success which has thus far attended within his reach to maintain his own laws and con- the enterpri-e, are ample evidences of the value stitution, to stay the parricidal hand which is put of such an Institute, both to teachers and school forth for its destruction, 'is in no way entitled to officers. the protection of his own life, or that of his friend, The Educational Herald, published by the Instifrom the knife of the midnight asssassin, or the tute, should be read by all teachers. torch of the incendiary, or the arrest of the highwayman. At the present time, in this the deepest LIVE TEACHERS. — By the efforts of Mr. Tefft, and foulest rebellion since heaven was in vaded by in Kingstown from week to week, when the vari

and others, meetings are held at the school houses the hosts of Satan, men walk our streets and count ous items of interest pertaining to the profession over their hordes of paltry dollars, which their ex. are discussed, and a pleasant interchange of ex

We must award all praise to cellent government and its free institutions have perience enjoyed.

many teachers of Washington County. In no given them: lying down at night in calm repose part of the State do we find more gratifying eviunder the constant vigils of the law, while every'dence of life than there,



tion toward America, as defined by the Queen's [WRITTEN for a composition by a young lad in proclamation, received by us a few months since. the Providence High School :)

Not daring openly to recognize the Southern ConI well recollect, while studying the history of my

federacy, and being unwilling to support the North, country, the impressions I received of England and she takes (I should say, professes to take) a neuFrance. I regarded England as a haughty and

tral position. Neutrality! Such a position is tyrannical master. I looked upon France as a

worthy of England, and is just as much to be des. faithful and true friend and ally. These early im- pised as her tyranny. I said that she professes to pressions, formed, no doubt, by prejudice, hare

be neutral. Read the proclamation carefully and never been weakened nor even shaken; for, no

see to what side it inclines and whom it favors. matter how impartially I read history, I contin-We can now see how vain has been her friendship. ually find new evidences of the haughtiness aud op

What cares she for America as an independent pression of England. Therefore, instead of being

country? weakened, these impressions are daily strength

Notice the interest which England takes in ened; and I would not have them taken from me,

America's welfare. While America is struggling, unless I wished to have wrong supersede right.

not only for constitutional liberty, but also, for We have only to look at England's doings, and very existence, England puts on the garb of neuat what she has done in past years, in order to see

trality merely as a cloak to hide her real intention. the correctness of these impressions. Look at her Her intention is the recognition of the Southern continual aggressive warfare, of which her enor

Confederacy, which, should the South succeed, mous national debt bears testimony; at her con

will pave the way for her acquisition of this contiduct at the wars in India, especially at her worse

Her cloak is very ingeniously made aod than barbarous treatment of the Sepoys; at her put on. But it does not hide all of the ugly form cruel oppression of Ireland, and at her murder of it intends to conceal. Enough of it is seen to Robert Emmett; at her severe taxation of the judge of the character of the whole. Canadas; at her interference in the French Revo

But it seems as though there would be a change. lution, and at her conduct toward Napoleon Bona- Look at the extensive military operations of France, parte, which conduct is all the more unjust and as well as England. Look at the navy of France, mean, because it was unprovoked ; - look at these once small and insignificant, but within the past few cases enumerated and see if they do not bear few years grown so large as to surpass in numbers very good evidence of her haughtiness, tyranny rations betoken war. Indeed, each arrival of the

and power the navy of England. Surely such opeand oppression. England has regarded America with

steamer brings fresh rumors of the certainty of an

envy amounting to hatred ever since she had the ex

early war. This war has been expected for the treme ill-luck of being forced from America. She last few years, and I would not wish it to come; professes to be America's friend; but we can some

but should it come, I should be far from wishing times see the inconsistency of her friendship, as

England success. France has a debt to cancel. she brings to light the concealed hatred.

I would not wish it to be a war of retaliation; yet The loss of her most flourishing colonies, the

I do hope tha: France's bravest sons, remembering disgraceful defeat of her arms, and the removal of England's conduct toward her, and England's unthat title which she had so proudly and trium- just treatment of Napoleon, would go to battle phantly borne for hundreds of years, viz., “The with firm hearts and strong arms to punish this Mistress of the Seas,” were wounds that would abusive treatment. May they, at least, wipe out never heal over. Though peace and amity were

the stains of Waterloo and 1'rafalgar. declared, yet how soon did England's haughtiness

But France would not fight her battles alone. Irebreak the professed friendship existing between land, remembering the murdered Emmett, would them. New defeats and new disgraces were suf- rush to arms to join the standard of one who was fered by the would-be Mistress of the Seas. She fighting against the oppressor of her country. And was compelled to retire a second time without ef- I should hope that America, unlike her hidden foe fecting her object.

at the present time, would not take a neutral posiWise would it be for England, if she would pro

tion; but I rather should hope that she would unite fit by these two failures, and not attempt a third with one who has ever been a true friend and ally, time the execution of a plan which she can never

in humbling one who has ever been an enemy to accomplish while there remains one lover of con

her people and a foe to her liberties. stitutional liberty or one hater of British oppres

October 14th, 1861. sion. But from this extreme folly she reaps noth- THE ORIGINAL DECLARATION OF INDEPEXing but folly. Still she dreams on, and longs for DENCE, AND CONSTITUTION OF THE U. STATES.the day when America shall be under her oppres- We find on our table a beautiful copy of these im

portant documents. In these times that try men's One very good evidence of England's professed souls the glorious old Declaration of Rights must friendship and hidden hatred is seen in her posic'not be forgotten. The first inspiration of truth

sive sway.

recorded there is the fundamental axiom in all

Mathematics. good systems of government: “All men are created equal and independent; that they are endow- COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be aded with certain inalienable rights." In this copy dressed to N. W. DeMunn, Providence. may be found a fac-simile of the original Declaration, which gives it new interest; a sketch of the

For the Schoolmaster. lives of the signers, to which is added the Consti

Teaching Arithmetic. tution, which perfectly harmonizes with the Declaration of Independence. You can buy the whole [Messrs. EDITORS: — Will you afford room in at N. Bangs Williams', 133 Westminster street, your valuable journal for the following hints on for trenty-five cents.

teaching arithmetic, given by a distinguished Eng

lish teacher? They appear to me to be worthy of We copy from the Boston Journal the following the attention of every teacher in this country. notice of the resignation of a highly successful

D.] teacher. May every worthy teacher be as fully ap

Many important advantages would accrue to preciated by those who have been the recipients of

beginners, as well as to advanced students, if his well-directed efforts : “TestimonIAL TO A VETERAN TEACHER.-We thematical science, and less as a mere system of

arithmetic were regarded more as a branch of mahave before mentioned the resignation of Mr. John practical rules. The art of computation is unF. Emerson of his position as Principal of the High doubtedly of much value in the business of life ; School in New Bedford, a position he had held but the habit of investigating the principles on from the establishment of the school in 1837. His tance. The first gives to the student a mastery of

which this art is based, is not of inferior imporresignation took effect on Wednesday last, when figures, which will be serviceable in commercial the semi-annual exhibition was given. At the and scientific pursuits: the second tends to conclose of the exhibition Mr. Phipps, the Superin- abstraction and accurate thought; to familiarize

centrate his attention; to induce habits of patient tendent of Schools, alluded, in an appropriate him with the laws of reasoning, and to compel him manner, to Mr. Emerson's retirement. One of the to examine well the grounds of every inference he young ladies of the school presented to Mr. Em- draws, Such habits as these will be invaluable in erson a valuable gold watch, as a token of the es- make him a sounder and more modest reasoner,

every pursuit and duty of life. for they will help to teem of the pupils. The school committee, at a and therefore a wiser man. special meeting, passed a resolution highly com

“ The value of the exact sciences as instruments mendatory of Mr. Emerson's long and useful la- omit them from any scheme of instruction, how

of mental discipline has long been recognized. To bors in the cause of education in their city. The ever humble, is to allow au important class of the New Bedford Mercury, in speaking of Mr. Emer- mental faculties to remain untrained. In the limson's retirement, says :- - Thus closes the profes metic holds a place analagous to the mathematics

ited curriculum of our common day schools, arithsional career of one who has so long “gone in and of a university course. out” among us as a faithful, honored, successful “ It is the only one of the pure sciences usually teacher, and who carries with him into his retire admitted into such a school, and the only instru

ment there available for severe and systematic ment the gratitude of the hundreds who have been logical training. To degrade arithmetic into a privileged to enjoy his instructions, the warm per- mere routine of mechanical devices for working soual regard of a'l who have been associated with sums,' is, even in a school for young children, to him, and the most earnest wishes for his future commit as grave and mischievous a mistake as if

our university professors were to permit the rules prosperity and happiness.'”

of mensuration to supersede the study of Euclid,

or to displace the rigid analysis of the calculus and By the following it will be seen that our old, the higher trigonometry, in order to make room tried and true friend Pierce has turned his atten- for land surveying, the rules of navigation, or the tion to shooting something besides young ideas. construction of tide tables.

• It is only when looked at in this higher respect He has always aimed high in his profession as a that arithmetic can become an efficient instrument school teacher, but when he aims at the rebels may for disciplining the judgment and improving the he " fire low.All praise, noble fellow, for your ed a science at all, so long as it is limited to cipher

mental powers; indeed, it has no right to be callpatriotism. The Woonsocket Patriot says:

|ing on a slate, and does not include a systematic “ The Fifth Company of Woonsocket Volun- acquaintance with principles as well as rules. To teers, under command of Capt. Grant, left this promote such a knowledge of principles, somevillage for Providence on Tuesday. The ranks thing more is necessary than a theoretical treatise

on the one hand, or a book of rules, with explanawere not full, but will be filled elsewhere. H. R. tions appended, on the other. In a text-book on Pierce, the Principal of our village High School, arithmetic, therefore, the principles should, in goes as First Lieutenant of this Company. Many then the rules shown to follow from them naturally

every case, be first explained and illustrated, and regret to part with him as teacher, but all honor and necessarily. him for his patriotism, and anticipate that he will • A few principles, thoroughly sifted and undermake an efficient and gallant officer. An elegant stood, will be found to form a better substratum sword was presented to him by his pupils on Wed- for future mathematical or commercial attainment nesday. The scene was both interesting and af- than all the rules of a book, if studied apart from fecting."

those principles."

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