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BY PROF. E. D. SAYBORX.
from the New Hampshire Journal of Education. by satirists from the days of Juvenal to those Musings on the Triennial.
of Dickens. Horace smarted under the rod of Orbilius as Irving did under that of the pedagogue who was the prototype of Ichabod Crane.
But this clags of officials are more exposed to To H. E. SAWYER, Esq. :
public scandal than most others because they My Good Friend and Former Pupil :- The Tri
are never secluded. There is many a profesennial Catalogue of Dartinouth College is before us. It stands between the dead and the living, whom it may be said :
sional man who affects to be a village oraele, of a record of the past, a prophecy of the future.
** And still they gazed and still the wonder grew, It reveals the march of intellect and leaves the
That one small head should carry all he knew." highway of life strewn with dead. As in the progress of a conquering army many a strong But the powers of such great men are only taskman bites the dust, while the victors pass on ;ed on great occasions. They appear like frogs so, too, in the peaceful walks of literary life, after a shower. Professional life everywhere we often leave our prostrate brethren behind us; has a tendency to crystalize into forms, modes and of many a youthful student it may be said : and rules. Exelusive devotion to a single pur
suit narrows the mind, clips the wings of fancy, “ He the young and strong who cherished Noble longings for the strife,
dries up the sources of invention and makes a By the road-side fell and perished,
man a mere bundle of technicalities. IIe can Weary with the march of life."
talk only on one theme; on that he is always
fluent, always tiresome. Teachers are not pe. Dartmouth College has been in existence nine culiar in this respect; they are only more exty-two years. More than three thousand stu- posed. Like Spartans they bear the lash, bedents have received the honors of graduation.
cause they have been trained for that very purAlmost one-half of the whole number are dead;
pose. Juvenal compared the Roman teacher, only eighteen hundred and fifty-five survive.
worn out with the constant repetition of the Of these more than two-thirds have been my same thoughts, to “ a hashed cabbage,” which own pupils. I am beginning to feel that my
was neither savory nor nutritious. But all pupils may say to me, " What knowest thou
teachers are not men of routine any more than that we know not also ?" I have repeated my- all statesmen are men of "red tape,” or all self so often, that I almost fear to open my lawyers of the firm of “ Fog & Dodson,” who mouth in their presence, lest some one should
so sorely tried the equanimity of the Court in say, "I have heard that before ;” and proceed that famous breach of promise case, Bardell vs. to recite to his next neighbor, sotto voce, the an- Pickwick. Some teachers are progressive; they ecdote or apothegm which will be hung as a
move with the age ; study its wants, learn its pendant to my discourse. The success of his
history and promote its welfare.
Others compupils is the teacher's highest reward; and for
mence life with a small capital of cheap wares, myself, in looking over an assembly, at Com- and never replenish their stock : thus at the end mencement, who have mostly sat together be- of forty years, they possess less intellectual fore me in the recitation-room, some of whom wealth than when they began life. So a naturare already silvered with age, and many are alist may study the rocky tablets of our earth's conspicuous for their honors, I can say as Pyrr- history till he is himself petrified and has no hus used to say to his Epirotes, “ Ye are my more mental succulence than a fossil trilobite ; wings.” I would not wish to be classed with
or he may be so devoted to the flora of our those teachers who arrogate all the glory their
country as “to peep and botanize on his moscholars win to themselves,- men who know ther's grave,” and dry his gathered leaves and everything, teach everything, and, like the Bour. Aowers in huge herbariums till they turn the bons, never forget and never learn anything, tables upon him, and dry up all the juices of men who inspire " like Apollo and govern like his soul, and leave it as parched and withered Jɔve." So Phenis, in the Iliad, boasted that
as the last leaf of autumn that clings, with dyhis tutorship made the god-like Achilles. He
ing fingers, to the stock that bore it. So a physays :
sician may study the human frame with such " Great as thou art, my lessons made thee brave, exclusive zeal as to lose all consciousness of its A child I took thee, but a hero gave.”
outward integuments and make his lectures This class of teachers have been hardly beset'mere anatomical preparations ; so that when we listen we mentally exclaim, “ Can these dry "grizzly ghosts" of the nether world, as to live bones live ?" I have heard of an eminent ma- to see our happy land bathed in fraternal blood. thematician, who, after reading Paradise Lost, The fountains of the great deep of human pasasked, triumphantly, “What does it prove ?” sions have been broken up; the food is rolling The disciples of Themis, too, sometimes become in upon us, and we do not yet descry any conprosy, dull, formal and repetitious, for that secrated ark riding upon its surges. It is far Old Time, the defendant, doth, with force and easier to demonstrate its cause than its cure. arms," invade their premises and “steal, take Physicians sometimes find it more convenient and carry away" the glory of their youth and to give the diagnosis of the disease than to prethe vigor of their manhood, and leave them on- scribe a remedy. So the sage Don Quixote realy “ wise saws and modern instances.” Teach- soned with his poor Esquire, smarting under ers, then, are not the only laggards, in the race his wounds : “ The reason, Sancho, why thou of life, though like the wheel-horses of a coach, feelest pain all down thy back, is that the stick they are often lashed for others' delinquencies. that gave it thee was of a length to that extent." An old divine once divided men into two great "Odds my life,” exclaimed Sancho, impatiently, classes, to wit: those who had attentively read " as if I could not guess that of my own head. his book and those who had not. I rather The question is, how am I to get rid of it." choose to describe teachers as the prophet did This is the problem with us. We all hope and the figs which he saw in vision, " the good, ve- pray for a speedy issue; but the great lesson ry good, the evil, very evil.”
that history teaches, is, that such civil wars usSocrates was a type of the “ very good.” He ually last as long as the generation lives that never grew old in feeling and sentiment. His originated them. The encouragement we de. great heart was always warm. He always loved rive from the teachings of history is, that the the society of youth. One day he met a youth- results of all these desolating conflicts alluded ful and beautiful stranger, and struck with his to, have been worth the expense of maintaining intelligent and sweet expression of face, he plac- them. We all have an abiding faith that truth ed his staff across the way and arrested him. and justice will ultimately triumph; but we A few questions and answers united in bonds must remember that justice is lame and tardy, of endearing affection the philosopher and Xe- and truth is the daughter of time. We do well nephon, the historian, who wrote, like Thucy- to be hopeful, to cherish the land of our birth; dides, for eternity. The demon which Socrates we do better to hold fast to the Union of these claimed as his private monitor was nothing but sister Republics, by whose mutual aid the great prudence, which, etymologically, is providence. temple of liberty has been reared, whose ample Socrates, in the civil wars of Greece, was a pa- arch shelters the oppressed of every land, and triot and a soldier. His history is eminently gives security to the arts of peace and sanctity suited to our times.
to the works of benevolence. We do BEST when It would be contrary to the most approved
we reverence the Constitution of the United usage in a letter for a public journal, or in an
States, as the noblest production of human wis.
dom, and the most beneficent form of governessay on any topic of general interest, not to
It has been our allude to the theme which occupies all minds, ment ever devised by man. distresses all hearts, and draws tears from all palladium for the larger part of a century; it
will, I trust, continue to be so in future years,eyes. We have all read history from our youth.
“That o'er each sister land, You and I have studied the graphic and sen
Shall lift the country of our birth, tentious descriptions which Thucydides and
And nurse her strength till she shall stand, Tacitus hare giv us of the civil wars of Greece
The pride and pattern of the earth. and Rome. We have also heard of the thirty
Till younger Commonwealths for aid,
Shall cling about her ample robe ; years' war in Germany, of the war of the Roses
And from her frown shall shrink afraid, in England, and of the bloody French Revolu
The crowned oppressors of the globe." tion, and we have regarded these instructive lessons of the past as somewhat mythological. Do not endeavor to shine in all companies. For myself I should as soon have expected Leave room for your hearers to imagine someJupiter to resume his throne on Olympus, or thing within you beyond all you have said. And Neptune to raise his trident in the Ægean sea, remember, the more you are praised, the more or Pluto to wield his iron sceptre over the you will be envied.
From the New York Teacher.
Object-Teaching. The use of slang so prevalent among the halfeducated and fast portions of the community, is
INTRODUCTORY. pretty well hit off in the following paragraph :
In compliance with the announcement made “ If you wish to be an · A No. l' woman, in the last pumber of the Teacher, we comyou have got to 'toe the mark,' and be less 'high- mence, with the present volume, a series of arfalutin.' • You may bet your head on that.' You ticles on the above named subject, which is now may sing • slightually like a martingale;' you attracting much attention among the leading may.spin street yarn' at the rate of ten knots educators of the country. As an evidence of an hour; you may talk like a book ;' you may the importance with which it is regarded, we dance as if you were on a 'regular break down,' quote briefly from recent letters, etc. : and play the piano "mighty fine, but I tell “ The most important movement now in proyou what' you can't come to tea.' • You may gress for the benefit of schools in this country, is be handsome, but you can't come in.' You unquestionably, the introduction of object-teach. might just as well i cave in' first as last, and ing' into primary classes.”—W. H. Wells, Esq., absquatulate,' for you can't put it through Supt. Putlic Schools, Chicago, II.
“ The need of some guide in object-teaching, is • any way you can fix it.' If you imagine that
|keenly felt. The importance of a radical change you may 'go it while you are young, for when
in our common methods of primary instruction, is you are old you can't,' 'you don't come it' by now generally admitted. The great desideratum, a long chalk.' Own up,' now and do the is to know what this change must be, and how to straight thing,' and I'll • set you down' as 'one effect it.” – Dr. Thomas Hill, President of Anof the women we read of. If you don't come tioch College, Ohio. up to the scratch," why I must • let you slide.' · Nothing in modern times has done more to But if you have a “sneaking notion' for being drive the absurd, and almost barbarous, tread-mill a regular brick,' there is no other way- - not system out of the schools, than the introduction
of familiar lessons upon the ten thousand objects as you knows on' no siree, hoss!' If a
of real life."-PROF. J. L. TRACY, Assist. Supt. of young man should • kind o' shine up to you,' Schools, St. Louis. and you should cotton to him,' and he should
“ Teachers everywhere are beginning to realize hear you say, by the jumpin' Moses,' or • by that children are capable of learning vastly more the living jingo,' or my goodness,' or • I vow,' than they are generally taught.” – Prof. J. P. or ·go it, Betsey, I'll hold your bonnet,' or WICKERSHAM, Prin. State Normal School, Millers• mind your eye,' or • Fit 'im agin,' or take me ville, Pa. away,' or dry up, now,' or draw your sled,' Object-teaching is a subject of great interest or 'cut stick,' or 'give him particular fits,' he to me."-Hox. N. Bateman, Supt. Public Instrucwould pretty certainly evaporate.'
Object-teaching is a subject of great interest Music's MORAL AND MEDICINAL INFLUENCE,- and importance." - Rev. GORHAM D. ABBOTT, Luther says, in his - Table Talk": :- " Music Springler Institute, N. Y. is one of the fairest and best gifts of God; and We might add many other extracts of the Satan hates it, nor can he bear it, since by its same tenor, but these will show that the purmeans we exorcise many temptations and wick- pose of devoting a few pages monthly to this ed thoughts. Music is one of the best of the important department of school training is in arts. The notes breathe life into the words. It response to a demand from teachers and promichases away the spirit of melancholy, as we nent educators. Of course it will not be expectmay see by the case of King Saul. Some of our ed that a full presentation of this subject can nobility think they have done some great thing, be given in so limited a space as we shall be able when they give three thousand gulden yearly to devote to it in these articles, but it shall be toward music, and yet they will throw away, our aim here to present briefly some of the leadwithout rcruple, perhaps, thirty thousand on follies. Kings, princes and lords must main- ing principles, and show the mode of their aptain music, (for it is the duty of great poten- plication by means of model lessons, adding tates and monarchs to uphold excellent liberal such suggestions as may seem suited to the subarts, as well as laws,) inasmuch as the common
ject. people and private individuals desire it, and
WHAT IS OBJECT-TEACHING ? would have it if their means were sufficient. Music is the best solace to a wearied man ;
Perhaps we can not do a better service, in through it the heart is again quieted, quickened this introductory article, than to answer briefly and refreshed."
the question, " What is Object- Teaching?"
True object-teaching is a means of mental dis- for what it is used — to do all this is not objectcipline. It trains the eager inquisitiveness of teaching. It may put the child in possession of children, so as to increase the appetite for know- certain words, which, if remembered, will enaledge. It stimulates the desire to know, and ble it to answer your questions: What is this thus removes the tedium of learning. It is a substance called ? To what kingdom does it systematic exercise of the senses which encour- belong? Where is it obtained? What quality ages the budding intelligence of the young mind. does it possess ? For what is it used? The
Many suppose that object-teaching consists child may be able to answer all these questions, in the giving of desultory and promiscuous les- and yet its mind not be trained so as to enable sons about the common things of every day life, it to take up any other object and discover for embracing all manner of subjects, animal, vege- itself any of its qualities. Such a process is table and mineral, from Adam to the Slavery merely an exercise of the memory, without de. Rebellion — given without a definite purpose, velopment of the other powers of the mind. arrangement or well-defined end, except it may
In giving an object lesson on lead, the teacher be the vague idea that this conglomeration will would first let the pupil take the lead into its somehow or other turn into instruction. It is own hands, examine it, tell how it looks, how of vital importance that this matter be well un- it feels, what is its color, whether heavy or light, derstood at the very outset. Instruction is not whether it will bend easily, and to mention all the chief aim in object-teaching, it is rather that the uses that he knows for lead. When the of development. Instruction is only the means child says the lead is easily bent, the teacher employed for developing the child's mind; and tells him that we say, lead is flexible because it the teacher should have far less concern about may be bent easily. He then prints the word the amount of instruction communicated to the flexible on the blackboard so that al: the pupils child, than for the discipline of the mind in ob- can see it, read it, and spell it; then with a strip serving, thinking and expressing. Development of tin, paper or whalebone, he shows the same is a gradual process, and can not be produced quality in other objects. by experimental jerks with lessons on all kinds When the idea of flexibility is clearly underof objects; it is attained by steady, uniform and stood, the teacher proceeds to explain fusible in systematic progression.
a similar manner. A piece of the lead is melted The child's mind is bewildered and weaken
in the fire or by the candle. The word is printed, rather than developed and strengthened, by
ed on the board as before ; then other objects desultory and promiscuous lessons. His desire
are shown to be fusible by melting them, as wax, to know is not fostered by showing him through
After this the teacher adds those a whole museum of unconnected things; but
facts which the child cannot learn by examinrather by leading him to observe attentively ing the object itself, as, for what it is used, the wonders of one class at a time. Constant
where and how it is obtained, etc. variety, with no cor.nection between the objects,
This process is object-teaching, and it will prohibits clearness of conception and depth of
readily be perceived how it would soon form knowledge. Exact and clear knowledge of a
such habits of systenratic observation as would
enable the child to take up similar objects, and few things makes the possessor more intelligent than a vague and shallow knowledge of many
by its own experiments, learn all their leading things.
qualities. This process does not depend chiefly Object-teaching is leading the child so to ob- upon the memory of words for retaining the serve whatever is about him, that he will gain
knowledge, but upon the memory of the thing knowledge by seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting,
itself, which will readily call up all the facts as
sociated with it. This process puts the child smelling and the muscular sense, at the same time training him to represent through writing,
in possession of the real knowledge, and also drawing, acting and speaking, whatever is thus enables it to remember the needful words more learned. Object-teaching is not so much the easily. This process interests the child, awakteaching of science, as it is scientific teaching.
ens a desire to learn, and develops its powers of
mind. To show a child a piece of lead and tell him that it is called a metal, or mineral; that it be
In our next article we shall endeavor to show
how object-lessons should be graduated, so as longs to the mineral kingdom ; that it is obtained from deep holes in the ground, called mines; stages of development, illustrating it with two
to adapt them to pupils of different ages and that it is fexible, heavy and fusible, and then or three lessons.
N. A. c.
For the Schoolmaster,
Thus is fostered the true republican feeling of The Military Element in School Discipline. brotherhood. While the most diverse elements
the town can furnish stand shoulder to shoulder, PATRIOTIC educators, both in this country and obedient to the same command, mutual trust in England, have recently been devising plans and respect, and an increased consciousness of for the introduction into the common schools, of strength, are produced. a permanent system of military drill. So great Not thus, however, is the war to teach its best an innovation will strike New England teachers and most lasting lesson. We all know how it with startling force. The plan has already been has quickened in us, individually, a sentiment submitted to the governors of several States, well nigh dormant, awakened a new conscious including Rhode Island, and it is, perhaps, rea- ness, and enlarged our sympathy, while wo sonable to expect that, when legislation on civil have learned the awful significance of national concerns can be resumed at the close of the war, life and integrity. We would not lend ourthe subject will be discussed, at least, by the selves to any cheap and trivial display of enthufathers of the Commonwealth.
siasm. We have been moved deeper than that. Meanwhile, what do we, the teachers, think Many of the expressions of patriotic warmth of the idea ? Imagine the sway, to a certain which have characterized the “ Uprising” of extent, of martial law within your precincts, the North will be ephemeral. When business and yourself ordering up some rude transgres- is good again, the mass of men will neglect all sor for a court-martial. Reörganize your school, else. But no one believes that the loyal States regardless of first, second and third classes, in-are to come out of this trial without a purificato squads and companies. Conceive yourself tion and a strengthening that shall descend to subordinated to some better-drilled school-mas- their remote posterity. What elements of perter, who shall be colonel of the juvenile battal. manence has this great wave of patriotism ? ion. Picture your boys in uniform, armed with What traces shall it leave on our nationality to genuine rifles, attaining proficiency in the move serve as high-water-mark, when the great rising ments and the manual, and becoming a power in of the waters shall have sunk to its ordinary the State.
level ? The projects already put forth include such We are henceforth to be a military people. results. Whether these projects are visionary Long used to the arts of peace, we were caught or practicable is by no means for us to decide. napping by conspiracy and treason. We must Their authors seem to write their views coolly learn the arts of war. We must be alert; our and earnestly, and to understand that of which young men must be trained, that the first alarm they write. They seem to have the welfare of may find them ready to grasp the rifle, to take the youth and the welfare of the State equally their places in the line, and offer their lives in at heart. They seem also to have had adequate the battle very dear. Treason and civil war are experience on a small scale, and to have wit- still possible in this nineteenth century. Let nessed effects satisfactory to themselves. Cer- the youth be educated to meet these as such tainly they offer to every teacher a topic which vital emergencies must be met. These are rude, he may ponder well.
brutal, tierce. Let the education strengthen the The war-spirit which now pervades the entire muscle, and make the sword and the cannon North, calling forth whatever of heroism is now familiar. We have talked of aesthetic culture. here extant, inflaming all with a noble ardor, We aimed at the apex of civilization. But there and allying itself with our highest duties, leaves are malarious swamps and infested jungles yet, hardly a single class of society untouched by its before we arrive thither. It is not our destiny influence. In dignified mockery of the real that we balloon ourselves over these. Where are work which our brave men are doing in the the hardy pioneers ? When rude work is to be field, the home-guards go through drill and pa- done, then they are heroic and virtuous who rade, and learn to know the musket, at least by can do it. In these last weeks, not so much sight. There is a feeling that even this is a the materials of war, as the necessary moral grave duty. How else should the uneasy dis- discipline has been found wanting. satisfaction, that we are idle in the presence of We are of those who have faith in the public a great task, express itself? The common long- schools as an agent for effecting any desired ing to bear a part unites all in the same ranks. change in the character of the popular educaThe command to “ Fall in!” is now the "one tion. This education demands that the militatouch of nature that makes the world kin."'ry element be so incorporated into it, that each