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from the New Hampshire Journal of Education. Musings on the Triennial.




by satirists from the days of Juvenal to those
of Dickens. Horace smarted under the rod of
Orbilius as Irving did under that of the peda-
gogue who was the prototype of Ichabod Crane.
But this class of officials are more exposed to
public scandal than most others because they
are never secluded. There is many a profes-
sional man who affects to be a village oracle, of
whom it may be said :

And still they gazed and still the wonder grew,
That one small head should carry all he knew."

My Good Friend and Former Pupil:- The Triennial Catalogue of Dartmouth College is before It stands between the dead and the living, a record of the past, a prophecy of the future. It reveals the march of intellect and leaves the highway of life strewn with dead. As in the progress of a conquering army many a strong But the powers of such great men are only taskman bites the dust, while the victors pass on; ed on great occasions. They appear like frogs Professional life everywhere so, too, in the peaceful walks of literary life, after a shower. we often leave our prostrate brethren behind us; and of many a youthful student it may be said: "He the young and strong who cherished Noble longings for the strife, By the road-side feli and perished,

Weary with the march of life."

has a tendency to crystalize into forms, modes and rules. Exclusive devotion to a single pursuit narrows the mind, clips the wings of fancy, dries up the sources of invention and makes a man a mere bundle of technicalities. He can talk only on one theme; on that he is always fluent, always tiresome. Teachers are not peDartmouth College has been in existence nine- culiar in this respect; they are only more exty-two years. More than three thousand stu- posed. Like Spartans they bear the lash, bedents have received the honors of graduation. cause they have been trained for that very purAlmost one-half of the whole number are dead; pose. Juvenal compared the Roman teacher, only eighteen hundred and fifty-five survive. worn out with the constant repetition of the Of these more than two-thirds have been my same thoughts, to "a hashed cabbage," which own pupils. I am beginning to feel that my was neither savory nor nutritious. But all pupils may say to me, "What knowest thou teachers are not men of routine any more than that we know not also?" I have repeated my all statesmen are men of "red tape," or all self so often, that I almost fear to open my lawyers of the firm of " Fog & Dodson," who mouth in their presence, lest some one should so sorely tried the equanimity of the Court in say, "I have heard that before;" and proceed that famous breach of promise case, Bardell vs. to recite to his next neighbor, sotto voce, the an- Pickwick. Some teachers are progressive; they ecdote or apothegm which will be hung as a move with the age; study its wants, learn its pendant to my discourse. The success of his history and promote its welfare. Others compupils is the teacher's highest reward; and for mence life with a small capital of cheap wares, myself, in looking over an assembly, at Com- and never replenish their stock: thus at the end mencement, who have mostly sat together be- of forty years, they possess less intellectual fore me in the recitation-room, some of whom wealth than when they began life. So a naturare already silvered with age, and many are alist may study the rocky tablets of our earth's conspicuous for their honors, I can say as Pyrrhistory till he is himself petrified and has no hus used to say to his Epirotes,


Ye are my more mental succulence than a fossil trilobite ; wings." I would not wish to be classed with or he may be so devoted to the flora of our those teachers who arrogate all the glory their country as "to peep and botanize on his moscholars win to themselves,- men who know ther's grave," and dry his gathered leaves and everything, teach everything, and, like the Bour-flowers in huge herbariums till they turn the bons, never forget and never learn anything; tables upon him, and dry up all the juices of men who inspire "like Apollo and govern like his soul, and leave it as parched and withered Jove." So Phenix, in the Iliad, boasted that as the last leaf of autumn that clings, with dyhis tutorship made the god-like Achilles. He ing fingers, to the stock that bore it. So a physays: sician may study the human frame with such "Great as thou art, my lessons made thee brave, exclusive zeal as to lose all consciousness of its A child I took thee, but a hero gave."

outward integuments and make his lectures

This class of teachers have been hardly beset' mere anatomical preparations; so that when we

listen we mentally exclaim, "Can these dry “grizzly ghosts" of the nether world, as to live bones live?" I have heard of an eminent ma- to see our happy land bathed in fraternal blood. thematician, who, after reading Paradise Lost, The fountains of the great deep of human pasasked, triumphantly, "What does it prove?" sions have been broken up; the flood is rolling The disciples of Themis, too, sometimes become in upon us, and we do not yet descry any conprosy, dull, formal and repetitious, "for that secrated ark riding upon its surges. It is far Old Time, the defendant, doth, with force and easier to demonstrate its cause than its cure. arms," invade their premises and "steal, take Physicians sometimes find it more convenient and carry away" the glory of their youth and to give the diagnosis of the disease than to prethe vigor of their manhood, and leave them on- scribe a remedy. So the sage Don Quixote realy "wise saws and modern instances." Teach- soned with his poor Esquire, smarting under ers, then, are not the only laggards, in the race his wounds: "The reason, Sancho, why thou of life, though like the wheel-horses of a coach, feelest pain all down thy back, is that the stick they are often lashed for others' delinquencies. that gave it thee was of a length to that extent." An old divine once divided men into two great "Odds my life," exclaimed Sancho, impatiently, classes, to wit: those who had attentively read" as if I could not guess that of my own head. his book and those who had not. I rather The question is, how am I to get rid of it." choose to describe teachers as the prophet did This is the problem with us. We all hope and the figs which he saw in vision, "the good, ve- pray for a speedy issue; but the great lesson ry good, the evil, very evil." that history teaches, is, that such civil wars usSocrates was a type of the "very good." He ually last as long as the generation lives that never grew old in feeling and sentiment. His originated them. The encouragement we degreat heart was always warm. He always loved rive from the teachings of history is, that the the society of youth. One day he met a youth- results of all these desolating conflicts alluded ful and beautiful stranger, and struck with his to, have been worth the expense of maintaining intelligent and sweet expression of face, he plac- them. We all have an abiding faith that truth ed his staff across the way and arrested him. and justice will ultimately triumph; but we A few questions and answers united in bonds must remember that justice is lame and tardy, of endearing affection the philosopher and Xe- and truth is the daughter of time. We do well nephon, the historian, who wrote, like Thucy-to be hopeful, to cherish the land of our birth; dides, for eternity. The demon which Socrates we do better to hold fast to the Union of these claimed as his private monitor was nothing but prudence, which, etymologically, is providence. Socrates, in the civil wars of Greece, was a patriot and a soldier. His history is eminently

suited to our times.

It would be contrary to the most approved usage in a letter for a public journal, or in an essay on any topic of general interest, not to allude to the theme which occupies all minds, distresses all hearts, and draws tears from all


sister Republics, by whose mutual aid the great
temple of liberty has been reared, whose ample
arch shelters the oppressed of every land, and
gives security to the arts of peace and sanctity
to the works of benevolence. We do BEST when
we reverence the Constitution of the United
States, as the noblest production of human wis-
dom, and the most beneficent form of govern-
ment ever devised by man. It has been our
palladium for the larger part of a century; it
will, I trust, continue to be so in future years,—

"That o'er each sister land,
Shall lift the country of our birth,
And nurse her strength till she shall stand,
The pride and pattern of the earth.
Till younger Commonwealths for aid,
Shall cling about her ample robe;
And from her frown shall shrink afraid,

We have all read history from our youth. You and I have studied the graphic and sententious descriptions which Thucydides and Tacitus have given us of the civil wars of Greece and Rome. We have also heard of the thirty years' war in Germany, of the war of the Roses in England, and of the bloody French Revolution, and we have regarded these instructive lessons of the past as somewhat mythological. Do not endeavor to shine in all companies. For myself I should as soon have expected Leave room for your hearers to imagine someJupiter to resume his throne on Olympus, or thing within you beyond all you have said. And Neptune to raise his trident in the Egean sea, remember, the more you are praised, the more or Pluto to wield his iron sceptre over the you will be envied.

The crowned oppressors of the globe."

Slang Phrases.

From the New York Teacher.


THE use of slang so prevalent among the halfeducated and fast portions of the community, is pretty well hit off in the following paragraph: In compliance with the announcement made "If you wish to be an A No. 1' woman, in the last pumber of the Teacher, we comyou have got to 'toe the mark,' and be less high- mence, with the present volume, a series of arfalutin.' You may bet your head on that.' You ticles on the above named subject, which is now may sing slightually' like a martingale;' you attracting much attention among the leading may spin street yarn' at the rate of ten knots educators of the country. As an evidence of an hour; you may talk like a book;' you may the importance with which it is regarded, we dance as if you were on a 'regular break down,' quote briefly from recent letters, etc. :

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and play the piano mighty fine,' but I tell you what you can't come to tea.'

"The most important movement now in pro

You may gress for the benefit of schools in this country, is

be handsome, but you can't come in.' You unquestionably, the introduction of 'object-teachmight just as well cave in' first as last, and ing' into primary classes."-W. H. WELLS, ESQ., Supt. Public Schools, Chicago, Ill.


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"The need of some guide in object-teaching, is keenly felt. The importance of a radical change you may go it while you are young, for when in our common methods of primary instruction, is you are old you can't,' you don't come it' by now generally admitted. The great desideratum. a long chalk.' Own up,' now and do the is to know what this change must be, and how to set you down' as 'one effect it."-DR. THOMAS HILL, President of AnIf you don't come tioch College, Ohio.

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straight thing,' and I'll of the women we read of.' up to the scratch," why I must let you slide.' Nothing in modern times has done more to But if you have a sneaking notion' for being drive the absurd, and almost barbarous, tread-mill a regular brick,' there is no other way not system out of the schools, than the introduction as you knows on'-'no siree, hoss!' If a young man should kind o' shine up to you,' and you should cotton to him,' and he should "Teachers everywhere are beginning to realize hear you say, by the jumpin' Moses,' or by that children are capable of learning vastly more the living jingo,' or 'my goodness,' or I vow,' than they are generally taught."-PROF. J. P. orgo it, Betsey, I'll hold your bonnet,' or WICKERSHAM, Prin. State Normal School, Millers'mind your eye,' or hit 'im agin,' or take me ville, Pa.

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Object-teaching is a subject of great interest or cut stick,' or give him particular fits,' he to me."-HON. N. BATEMAN, Supt. Public Instrucwould pretty certainly evaporate.' tion, Illinois.

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MUSIC'S MORAL AND MEDICINAL INFLUENCE,Luther says, in his Table Talk":"Music is one of the fairest and best gifts of God; and We might add many other extracts of the Satan hates it, nor can he bear it, since by its same tenor, but these will show that the purmeans we exorcise many temptations and wick- pose of devoting a few pages monthly to this ed thoughts. Music is one of the best of the important department of school training is in arts. The notes breathe life into the words. It response to a demand from teachers and promichases away the spirit of melancholy, as we nent educators. Of course it will not be expectmay see by the case of King Saul. Some of our ed that a full presentation of this subject can nobility think they have done some great thing, be given in so limited a space as we shall be able when they give three thousand gulden yearly to devote to it in these articles, but it shall be toward music, and yet they will throw away, our aim here to present briefly some of the leadwithout scruple, perhaps, thirty thousand on


follies. Kings, princes and lords must main- ing principles, and show the mode of their aptain music, (for it is the duty of great poten-plication by means of model lessons, adding tates and monarchs to uphold excellent liberal such suggestions as may seem suited to the subarts, as well as laws,) inasmuch as the common people and private individuals desire it, and would have it if their means were sufficient. Music is the best solace to a wearied man; through it the heart is again quieted, quickened this introductory article, than to answer briefly and refreshed."

Perhaps we can not do a better service, in

the question, "What is Object-Teaching ?"

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True object-teaching is a means of mental dis- for what it is used to do all this is not objectcipline. It trains the eager inquisitiveness of teaching. It may put the child in possession of children, so as to increase the appetite for know- certain words, which, if remembered, will enaledge. It stimulates the desire to know, and ble it to answer your questions: What is this thus removes the tedium of learning. It is a substance called? To what kingdom does it systematic exercise of the senses which encour- belong? Where is it obtained? What quality ages the budding intelligence of the young mind. does it possess? For what is it used? The Many suppose that object-teaching consists child may be able to answer all these questions, in the giving of desultory and promiscuous les- and yet its mind not be trained so as to enable sons about the common things of every day life, it to take up any other object and discover for embracing all manner of subjects, animal, vegeitself any of its qualities. Such a process is table and mineral, from Adam to the Slavery merely an exercise of the memory, without deRebellion given without a definite purpose, velopment of the other powers of the mind. arrangement or well-defined end, except it may In giving an object lesson on lead, the teacher be the vague idea that this conglomeration will would first let the pupil take the lead into its somehow or other turn into instruction. It is own hands, examine it, tell how it looks, how of vital importance that this matter be well un- it feels, what is its color, whether heavy or light, derstood at the very outset. Instruction is not whether it will bend easily, and to mention all the chief aim in object-teaching, it is rather that the uses that he knows for lead. When the of development. Instruction is only the means child says the lead is easily bent, the teacher employed for developing the child's mind; and tells him that we say, lead is flexible because it the teacher should have far less concern about may be bent easily. He then prints the word the amount of instruction communicated to the flexible on the blackboard so that all the pupils child, than for the discipline of the mind in ob- can see it, read it, and spell it; then with a strip serving, thinking and expressing. Development of tin, paper or whalebone, he shows the same is a gradual process, and can not be produced quality in other objects. by experimental jerks with lessons on all kinds of objects; it is attained by steady, uniform and systematic progression.

The child's mind is bewildered and weakened, rather than developed and strengthened, by desultory and promiscuous lessons. His desire to know is not fostered by showing him through a whole museum of unconnected things; but rather by leading him to observe attentively the wonders of one class at a time. Constant variety, with no connection between the objects, prohibits clearness of conception and depth of knowledge. Exact and clear knowledge of a few things makes the possessor more intelligent than a vague and shallow knowledge of many things.

Object-teaching is leading the child so to observe whatever is about him, that he will gain knowledge by seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, smelling and the muscular sense, at the same time training him to represent through writing, drawing, acting and speaking, whatever is thus learned. Object-teaching is not so much the teaching of science, as it is scientific teaching.

To show a child a piece of lead and tell him that it is called a metal, or mineral; that it belongs to the mineral kingdom; that it is obtained from deep holes in the ground, called mines; that it is flexible, heavy and fusible, and then

When the idea of flexibility is clearly understood, the teacher proceeds to explain fusible in a similar manner. A piece of the lead is melted

in the fire or by the candle. The word is print-
ed on the board as before; then other objects
are shown to be fusible by melting them, as wax,
gum, etc.
After this the teacher adds those
facts which the child cannot learn by examin-
ing the object itself, as, for what it is used,
where and how it is obtained, etc.

This process is object-teaching, and it will readily be perceived how it would soon form such habits of systematic observation as would enable the child to take up similar objects, and by its own experiments, learn all their leading qualities. This process does not depend chiefly upon the memory of words for retaining the knowledge, but upon the memory of the thing itself, which will readily call up all the facts associated with it. This process puts the child in possession of the real knowledge, and also enables it to remember the needful words more easily. This process interests the child, awakens a desire to learn, and develops its powers of mind.

In our next article we shall endeavor to show how object-lessons should be graduated, so as to adapt them to pupils of different ages and stages of development, illustrating it with two or three lessons.

N. A. C.

For the Schoolmaster. Thus is fostered the true republican feeling of The Military Element in School Discipline. brotherhood. While the most diverse elements the town can furnish stand shoulder to shoulder, PATRIOTIC educators, both in this country and obedient to the same command, mutual trust in England, have recently been devising plans and respect, and an increased consciousness of for the introduction into the common schools, of strength, are produced.

a permanent system of military drill. So great Not thus, however, is the war to teach its best an innovation will strike New England teachers and most lasting lesson. We all know how it with startling force. The plan has already been has quickened in us, individually, a sentiment submitted to the governors of several States, well nigh dormant, awakened a new consciousincluding Rhode Island, and it is, perhaps, rea-ness, and enlarged our sympathy, while we sonable to expect that, when legislation on civil have learned the awful significance of national concerns can be resumed at the close of the war, life and integrity. We would not lend ourthe subject will be discussed, at least, by the selves to any cheap and trivial display of enthufathers of the Commonwealth. siasm. We have been moved deeper than that. Meanwhile, what do we, the teachers, think Many of the expressions of patriotic warmth of the idea? Imagine the sway, to a certain which have characterized the "Uprising" of extent, of martial law within your precincts, the North will be ephemeral. When business and yourself ordering up some rude transgres- is good again, the mass of men will neglect all sor for a court-martial. Reörganize your school, else. But no one believes that the loyal States regardless of first, second and third classes, in-are to come out of this trial without a purificato squads and companies. Conceive yourself tion and a strengthening that shall descend to subordinated to some better-drilled school-mas- their remote posterity. What elements of perter, who shall be colonel of the juvenile battal-manence has this great wave of patriotism? ion. Picture your boys in uniform, armed with What traces shall it leave on our nationality to genuine rifles, attaining proficiency in the move- serve as high-water-mark, when the great rising ments and the manual, and becoming a power in of the waters shall have sunk to its ordinary the State. level?

We are henceforth to be a military people.
Long used to the arts of peace, we were caught
napping by conspiracy and treason.
We must

The projects already put forth include such results. Whether these projects are visionary or practicable is by no means for us to decide. Their authors seem to write their views coolly learn the arts of war. We must be alert; our and earnestly, and to understand that of which young men must be trained, that the first alarm they write. They seem to have the welfare of may find them ready to grasp the rifle, to take the youth and the welfare of the State equally their places in the line, and offer their lives in at heart. They seem also to have had adequate the battle very dear. Treason and civil war are experience on a small scale, and to have wit- still possible in this nineteenth century. Let nessed effects satisfactory to themselves. Cer- the youth be educated to meet these as such tainly they offer to every teacher a topic which vital emergencies must be met. These are rude, he may ponder well. brutal, fierce. Let the education strengthen the

The war-spirit which now pervades the entire muscle, and make the sword and the cannon North, calling forth whatever of heroism is now familiar. We have talked of aesthetic culture. here extant, inflaming all with a noble ardor, We aimed at the apex of civilization. But there and allying itself with our highest duties, leaves are malarious swamps and infested jungles yet, hardly a single class of society untouched by its before we arrive thither. It is not our destiny influence. In dignified mockery of the real that we balloon ourselves over these. Where are work which our brave men are doing in the the hardy pioneers? When rude work is to be field, the home-guards go through drill and pa- done, then they are heroic and virtuous who rade, and learn to know the musket, at least by can do it. In these last weeks, not so much sight. There is a feeling that even this is a the materials of war, as the necessary moral grave duty. How else should the uneasy dis- discipline has been found wanting. satisfaction, that we are idle in the presence of We are of those who have faith in the public a great task, express itself? The common long-schools as an agent for effecting any desired ing to bear a part unites all in the same ranks. change in the character of the popular educaThe command to "Fall in!" is now the "one tion. This education demands that the militatouch of nature that makes the world kin." ry element be so incorporated into it, that each

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