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from Mrs. Johnson's, where he boarded, he to sit with him, and tell him, with an interest would be much obliged." So he wrote a list, which surprised myself, of the events of that and I took it to the store, and having done my little world, of the troubled or peaceful reign, own errands, came cheerfully back, glad that I of some touching or amusing incident! The carried in my hand two letters for Arthur. One children began to love me, and often brought had many stamps and marks on it, and I felt me tokens of their affection, in flowers and sure that it was from the artist-brother, and so fruit, which I brought, in my turn to Arthur; it proved. Arthur read me many extracts from and sometimes I took one of the little girls, who it, and I knew the two brothers were much alike, and worthy of each other.

The other was from his only sister, who was a great invalid, and had not been apprised of this accident.

had a very sweet voice, home with me, to sing to him, for I, alas! could not sing. How I envied that little one as she stood by his bedside and sang to him the hymns he loved, in her clear, childish voice, "On Jordan's stormy That night Sam Johnson brought the things, banks I stand," and "Jesus, lover of my soul," and I unpacked them from the basket in which while he drank in the sounds with a delight his mother had carefully placed them. There easily read in his rapt countenance. Ah! how were several books, two pictures, a pretty white swiftly those weeks flew by, while Arthur vase-It was my mother's,' Arthur said, as I Brownly staid with us. They are the sunshine took it out, and I sent for it to put your flow-of my memory, and all of gladness and of ers in, Miss Margaret'-a writing desk, and a pleasure that has flowed into my life since then few articles of clothing. The two pictures I had its source in those two months. have now, and as I gaze upon them, the happy I often read to him in the bible, and as he hours come back in which Arthur and I talked loved to hear a little at a time, and then to talk them over. One was a bright sunset, shining it over, it became to me a new book. It gained in a quiet valley, and touching every tree and a personal familiar character, as I saw how earock with tongues of flame. The still river was gerly he appropriated it to himself, how it susmolten gold, and the dark figures of the cattle tained and cheered him. One day, when I had grazing on the shore, and drinking a little way been reading in the fourteenth chapter of John, down the stream, relieved the dazzling water. of the peace which the world can neither give The windows of the village glistened back the nor take away, he raised his beautiful eyes to beams of splendor, and the purple clouds were mine and said: "Margaret, have you this fringed with gold. peace ?"

The other was a quiet, peaceful morning I burst into tears; and when he took my hand scene. The sky was blue, and varied here and in his thin fingers, and spoke tenderly of the there with soft white clouds. There was a peace which had so long been his, and of Him beautiful green meadow, with hills swelling up whom, as he said, he followed, "feebly and afar on either side, a few elms in the foreground, off," I begged him to lead me to those still waover-arching the picture with interlacing ters.


boughs, and far back mighty forests and cloud- From that time our intercourse was deeper capped mountains. The artist brother had and nearer. We read no more of poetry or painted them for Arthur ere he left home. The travels; the Bible and the Hymn-book were first was a view of their native village, the other our daily study. He was the teacher, and I a fancy; "The Land of Beulah," Arthur called was the scholar; and day by day as I drank from these living fountains he became more ex"How often, after that, I sat gazing on those alted in my eyes. Out of school hours I was pictures, and talked of them with Arthur! How ever at his side-by turns his scholar and his I loved them, as he pointed out to me beauties my nurse. In all this time he had many hours of unaccustomed eye had not at first discovered! pain, but was always so cheerful, that I do not How often we read those books together, some- think of them when I remember the heavenly times one, and sometimes the other, being read- days in which he sojourned with us. I grew er! How he led my soul upward through those daily more gentle and peaceful, and began to books, till my dull heart, fairly aroused, began care more for those around me. My mother to seek after the peace which was his anchor in was astonished at my happy but thoughtful his hours of pain! How much pleasanter was face, and I knew from the pleasant smiles that the school while I practiced there the lesson of were returned to my greetings, that my own patience and love he indirectly taught me; and had been warmer than of old. I now and then how gladly did I hasten home when it was over, went, at Arthur's request, to see some poor

people whom he had aided, and carried them so sweet since I knew you-I had such bright his alms, and so learned to know the very poor, visions. We shall meet in heaven, shall we not, darling? I love you more than you know-but and give them such aid as my scanty purse I leave you in God's hands-He knows bestwould allow. And so they passed, those days love Him, and we shall meet, and never part, in of happiness, and I said to myself, with a thank- heaven." ful heart: "My cup runneth over." I could not answer, but bending down I kissBut sorrow was at hand, though my heart did flowing tears wet his cheek. He smiled so ed him passionately many times, while my fastnot feel its coming shadow. Love, strong and sweetly, and looked so like an angel as he lay true, had sprung up in my heart for him who there, that I could not stay. I went to my own lay helpless beneath our roof, yet in his help-room, and prayed in an agony for strength, till strength came. I sat with him all that night, lessness was so much stronger and wiser than but he seemed to sleep. As morning dawned, I. And no troubling doubts crossed my mind he roused again, and stretching out his arms to whether he loved me, as might have vexed me ine, said: "good bye, darling!" had he been well, and mingling in the society supernatural strength, then fell back on his pilof others. Now he was all my own, and I low. So he lay for some time, with my hand thought not of the days of separation that clasped in his, and then said softly, with a ramight come. At last the time came, and we diant smile:-"I will arise and go to my father! were severed, but not by his altered heart, nor then all was over. In my father's house are many mansions!" And forever.

For a moment he held me to his heart with

For a day or two I was very calm, but after the funeral was over, and the house was quiet For again, the loneliness seemed intolerable. life a terrible burden, but I repeated over and many weeks the world seemed very dark, and over to myself, Arthur's dear words. I read

Gradually the doctor grew graver when he came. Strange symptoms began to show themselves in Arthur. Though his limb healed, he seemed to gain no strength; his cough grew more alarming, and one morning the fit of again and again in the Bible the texts and pascoughing resulted in a violent hemorrhage. I was sages he loved, and at last a sweet peace enteraway at the time, and as I had tried to shut my troubles since then, but nothing could shake ed my heart, never to depart. I have had many eyes to his daily increasing weakness, which that abiding sense of rest. All seemed light afwas not so hard when the spirit within burned ter that one great sorrow, and life has never so bright, when the smile was ever ready on his been to me the gloomy, weary thing it was before I knew him. In living for others' comfort, lips, on my return, I was shocked at his pallor I have found happiness myself. He left me in and his prostrate condition. For several days his will (a few words written with difficulty, he was forbidden to speak, and I sat by him, while he was ill, but which no one disputed,) a while at home, with a heavy heart; though when small sum to carry out some charitable plans he he smiled his thanks for any little attention, I some time, which was very sweet, for it seemed had formed, and this gave me employment for forced myself to smile too. Once when he raised as if his spirit ever hovered over me, while I my hand to his lips, as I handed him a glass of fulfilled his wishes. My scholars were more inwater, I left the room, and in my own chamber teresting to me because he had cared for them, and all life seemed thus brightened with him. gave way to my uncontrollable grief. But How often I repeated to myself the words gravdreading to lose sight of him, I soon subdued en on his head-stone: "He being dead yet speakmy emotion, and returned again to minister to eth!" the patient and gentle sufferer.

And now I shall not wait much longer. I am not strong, and age creeps upon me fast. The For some time after he was allowed to speak. children whom Arthur knew are grown up now, He seemed to have something on his mind that and their children now fill the benches where he could not trust himself to say, but would they sat in my little school-room. With every follow me with his eyes around the room, or lay heaven. Mother went long ago, and I am only year that passes, I rejoice that I am nearer gazing at me as I sat at work, till it seemed as waiting the Lord's will, knowing I shall soon if I must give way to myself, and allow the see him I have loved so long. When I look pent-up feelings to burst forth. But I restrain back upon my life, I am thankful to God for ed myself for his sake. Only at night, when I that great joy which has left its shining through should have slept, watering my pillow with all my days, notwithstanding the dark cloud of tears, I besought God to spare him to me yet a sorrow that came with it. The cloud has grown little while. lighter with every passing year, and now, as I One afternoon I had thrown open the blinds come nearer to the brightness of heaven, the to let into his room the golden rays of the set-two glories meet, and life is a sweet peace, a ting sun, and resumed my place at his side, calm waiting. Thus I dwell in the land of Beuwhen he stretched out his hand for mine, and lah; feeling every night when I lie down, that holding it tenderly in his own, he said to me in ere the morning may come the summons, and broken sentences: every morning that the evening may find me Margaret, my sun is almost set. I am going lying on my death-bed. Then, then shall I fast. At first it seemed so hard-life has been find him waiting for me!-Knickerbocker.

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For the Schoolmaster.

The Education of Children Under Five
Years of Age.

can tell in what studies the children from school

the important characteristics of a child's mind are fixed before it is four years old. Certainly that course of training that slaughters oneseventh of its subjects in one year, and twoTHE teacher of a high school knows what fifths in five years, which has enlisted into serqualifications are necessary for candidates for vice for its amelioration the energies of the most admission to his school, and he is familiar with distinguished teacher of modern times, and has the course of training to which they should be drawn from the leading educator of Great Bripreviously subjected. At the examination of tain the remarkable statement above quoted, the new class, or a few weeks afterwards, he has at least a claim on our attention. Let us, then, pass its important points in review, to A excel, or else are deficient, and in what those draw thence such useful deductions or timely from school B. So the teachers of the grammar warnings as we may. schools are aware that preparation is made in the primary schools, that there the elements of reading, spelling and arithmetic should be learned, the foundation of orderly and industrious habits laid; and they, too, can easily detect any deficiency in the preparatory studies and training. But the primary teacher, I fear, too often supposes that children have received no education before coming under her charge; that hitherto they have eaten, played and slept, but now their education really commences.

Yet there has been development before the fifth birth-day, training and education also; and I propose to consider, for a few moments, some of the more important features, to sketch the outlines of this five years' course, as a scholar at the blackboard maps out the broad surface of some great State, stretches out the chains of mountains, runs the courses of the rivers, and locates the important towns.

There has been development, for see there a child running hither and thither, gracefully moving its limbs and poising its body, showing signs of love and aversion, of joy and of sorrow, quick in its observations, having great powers of will, and wielding with more or less skill that subtle instrument, the English language. Five years ago it was helpless, scarcely exhibiting emotion, nearly regardless of the world about it, its will dormant and its tongue


Shall we divide education into mental, moral and physical, as many do? Perhaps it would be well, yet with this reservation; that the only education really existing, that by which only the child is affected, is not trine, made up of these three units, but an indivisible whole, whose leading characteristics, for our convenience and because of our imperfect powers, we study separately. So we study sepals, petals, stamens and pistils separately, neither of which is a flower; so the properties of sulphur, of oxygent of iron, but neither of these is copperas.

Which of our powers, the mental, moral or physical, shall be first considered? Is one set only developed during the first year, another later, and the third afterwards? No, all of these exist potentially, if not actually, from the time of birth; occasion or development is necessary to call them forth, so that we can easily discover

them. Does one receive far more of direct at-
tention from nature during the first five years
than the others? Yes, and that division, in
some respects the lowest, is the physical. And
yet nature gives this the more attention with an
eye to the welfare of the others, laying it down
as the basis on which only it can safely and
surely rear its perfected fabric, a well-poised
human soul.

natural education of the muscles, and at what
What are some of the important steps in this
age are they generally taken ? Crying, as soon
as born; then kicking and sprawling; sitting
up, at six months; creeping, eight months;
standing, eleven; walking, twelve to fifteen;
till the age of five.
then incessant playing, alternating with sleep,

This period in the life of the child has also been considered as an impoftant one, by those acknowledged wise and humane. Miss Nightingale says that of the infants in England one in seven dies before the end of the first year, and that, in London, two out of five die before the end of the fifth year. Pestalozzi thought Two points are to be noticed in the above dethis period so important that he devoted velopment. 1. Certain muscles, those of the of the best and ripest of his years to investigat- chest and some others, are used in crying, a very ing and explaining the best methods of rightly good and a pretty violent exercise. Others are improving it. Lord Brougham is reported to used in the motions of the arms and legs; those have said, at a recent educational meeting, that of the back in sitting, and so on through creep


ing, standing and running.

There is progres- soft to bear the weight of his body. But they sion from few to more; the exercises are so might have been made strong enough. What, graded as to keep bringing into play fresh mus- then, is the final cause? cles. 2. It is easily seen that there is progression, from less to more difficult. So that nature, in her first lessons, lays down two important fundamental rules in education: from less to more, from simple to complex.

Let us call the self, the person and the sum total of his powers, "the I"; the rest of the universe "the Not-I." Now as adults, hitherto blind, when sight is suddenly bestowed on them, do not readily distinguish between the I and the Not-I, so is it with all in infancy. The Not-I is harsh and inexorable; incapable of affection, it has no consideration for the feelings of others. It is antagonistic to the life of the child, until it has learned to extract its sting by acting in obedience to its laws. If fire, it says

What end has nature in view, when she keeps this young being in continual motion, except in sleep, gradually increasing the number and the complexity of her exercises? The final cause, if final causes we can comprehend, is to secure a well-developed physical nature, so that in after life not only may no sickly body dwarf the to the child, I will burn you; if water, I will soul's stature, but when great crises come, when drown you; if cold, I will freeze you; if the a great grief impends, or a great pecuniary loss hard floor, I will thump you; if sharp corners, is threatened, and the mental powers are strain- I will blind you; if the open window, I will ed, or the body taxed, to the utmost, neither dash you in pieces, until my secret is learned; may break down through the weakness of the after that I will be the ready servant of your latter. Two days' work in one is at times im- will. posed on every man; weeks of mental agony seem crowded into hours. How fortunate is it then to be borne up by a vigorous physical constitution.

Now, if the babe, in its ignorance, with the full force and command of its physical powers, should rush against these agencies, life would be ended, ere its first hour is past, development But what means does nature employ to keep would be arrested, nature's plan frustrated. As the child in motion? For the object nature has it is, with feeble strength, it, at first, tries them; in view, is not comprehended by it. It is im- receives here a scratch, there a thump, a knock, pelled to ends and by means that it knows not a burn, a fall. It is experimenting; these are the experiments of its nursery, important and practical ones, too, which we, by a strange caprice, spell and pronounce experience. By harsh trials the properties and more common laws of


Matter, we see, is still, unmovable, except when some force is applied to it. Here is a ball at rest; it does not move; give one stroke, it goes to the right; another, it goes to the left, matter are learneŭ, and it governs itself accordand when the force is spent rests as before. From repeated observations we at last get to the belief that matter moves not except when acted on by some force, and the force originates in our spirit, or in some other spirit.

ingly. Nature grants it its physical powers in proportion as she gives it skill and caution in the use of them. The final cause sought for then, is, that power to rush into extreme danger may not be granted anterior to experience, Spirit is also acted on by what are called mo- this latter not being needed by animals, who tives, active powers,-1. The appetites; 2. The have, in instinct, a perfect guide, yet one incadesires; 3. The affections; 4. Self-love. But pable of progress.

besides these there is the pleasure that the young The growth of the body and exercise, one of all animals feel, that arising from physical through need of material, and the other through exercise, which, in part, accounts for the glad-waste of it, demand aliment, nourishing food some bounding of a child as well as for the play- and drink. The increase of the size of the body ful gambols of the kitten. Nature, by means of in infancy is rapid, and, in the earlier years of the pleasure accompanying muscular action, se- childhood, the waste, from continuous motion, cures, when other agencies fail, physical development.

is great. Hence, the appetites, hunger and thirst, are at that period keen. It might, perhaps, have Ducks waddle and paddle about, and fishes been left to our observation, to learn from the swim, as soon as they are born. Why has not the sensations of weakness and prostration, at man as full possession of his bodily powers at what times it is desirable to take food; and birth? Some may say that the structure of his good sense, in some, might have prescribed rebody does not allow it, that his bones are too gular periods for taking it, without the spur of

the appetites. But how often, in the most me- this drug, which destroys the young man, is ofthodical of individuals, would engrossing plea- ten implanted in his system in infancy. As sure, or the press of business, or intense love of tonished neighbors and weeping friends wonder study, put off the regular meal, and both mind that the boy should take to so evil courses; his and body thereby suffer. Often, too, some is the most of the suffering, but his not wholly younger and more dependent one among us or chiefly the blame. Truth points out for remight perish, did not appetite, by its sharp de- proach and warning, those guardians of the mands, loudly make known to us its wants. young, who, for the sake of an extra leisure Nature has, therefore, wisely implanted in us the hour, or to be present at the evening party, twin appetites, hunger and thirst, which, taking stilled his cries, or hushed him early to slumber, their rise from the body, and recurring at regu- by the use of narcotics. A mother, who, unlar intervals, are allayed by the food they crave for.

er than nature has provided.

der such circumstances, would administer opiates to her babe, is unworthy the glorious gift of How appropriate is the natural food of the a child. Something in excuse, indeed, might be infant. Could some wise chemist, on analyzing pleaded by the tired washer-woman, and jaded the human body, set aside separately the mate- seamstress; such are to be pardoned, not justirials of which it is compounded, the oxygen fied; their wearied bodies need rest; and they and nitrogen, the phosphorous and the sulphur, know not, perhaps, the harm they do. Those, and then cast about to compose some aliment, at least, are to be reproved who act thus to save which should contain all these elements in due an additional hour of watching and tending. proportion, and in a form palatable to the in- Not only have great geniuses, Coleridge and fant and easily taken, he could devise none oth- DeQuincy, Burns and Poe, been shorn of much of their power and happiness by alcohol and opiBut at the age of twelve or fifteen months and um, but their sad effects on households throughthereafter, what are the most appropriate food out all civilized communities are but too appaand drinks for the child? Water, bread and rent. Errors here in education, more harmful than in the after course of school studies, slay milk; the fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches their thousands. and grapes, ripe and uncooked; the berries, as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and curBut why were children made so helpless, so rants; juicy beef, rare; poultry, and well-cook-dependent on their parents for protection, sheled mutton; white bread and brown, with sweet ter, food and clothing? The helplessness of butter. All these articles of food are palata- infancy awakens all the tenderness of a mother's ble, easily digested and nutritious. But veal heart. The babe is watched, tended, cared for, and pork, preserves and pastry, cakes and can- played with; love more than repays the troudies are not to be recommended. Some child-ble, or rather there is no trouble. Through the ren are allowed to sit at table with their parents mutual exchange of kindly offices and of affecand eat everything that the parents do. I can- tion, of filial and maternal love, domestic bliss is not but think that roast pork and hot buck- increased. The affections which spring up in wheat cakes, mince pies and hot biscuits, are the sacred precincts of the family-circle, welloften the cause of convulsions in children ap- ing over, first reach the near relatives, then parently healthy, and of sudden and violent friends, towns-people, the State, one's country, and the world, in somewhat modified form paroxysms of sickness. But there is another class of substances often in each, so that Christian philanthropy embraadministered to babes and young children, by cing all our kind, the patriotism that is ready untrustworthy nurses and weak if not wicked to suffer and to lose all for country, may have mothers. I refer here not only to the gin and some of their sources in the weakness of babes whiskey rightly complained of, in former times, newly born. by the good Washingtonians, but to those per- The appetites are not susceptible of educanicious compounds, extracts of opium and tinc- tion in any proper sense of the term, except that tures of morphine, sold under the names of they are to be subjected to control. With this paregoric, carminative and cordial, combining proviso they should be left as nature gave them in one all the odious qualities of opium and of to us, only not perverted. Attention and edualcohol. The use of opium in these forms goes, cation divert them from their natural use, - to hand in hand, with that other increasing evil, warn us when the body needs nourishment,— opium eating. Undoubtedly, the hankering for and cause gluttony, drunkenness and misery.

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