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Brain and Thought.

RICHMOND mentions the case of a woman whose brains were exposed, in consequence of a removal of a considerable part of its bony covering by a disease.


Written Examinations.

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addrassed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

Examination of Candidates for the Dorchester (Mass.) High School, August, 1860.

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1. What are the four parts into which English Grammar is divided?

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2. What is a noun, and how many kinds are there? Tell what they are.

He says, he repeatedly made pressure on the brain, and each time suspended all feelings and intellect, which were instantly restored when the pressure was withdrawn. The same writer also relates another case, that of a man who had been trepanned, and who perceived his intellectual faculties failing and his existence drawing to a close every time the effused blood collected on the brain. Professor Chapman, of Philadelphia, mentions, in his lectures, that he saw an individual with his skull perforated, and the brain exposed, who was accustomed to submit himself to the same experiment of pressure as above, and who was exhibited was performed excellent well. by the late Professor Webster to his class. His intellectual and moral faculties disappeared on the a compound sentence, and give an example of

application of pressure to the brain: they were held under the thumb as it were, and restored to their own full activity by discontinuing the pressure. But the most extraordinary case of this kind within my knowledge, and one peculiarly interesting to the physiologist and metaphysician, is related by Sir Astley Cooper, in his physical lec


3. Write a sentence containing a noun in the nominative case, a relative pronoun in the objective case, one transitive and one intransitive verb. 4. Correct and parse the following sentence: The hall was lighted brilliant, and the exercises

5. Explain the difference between a simple and


6. Analyze the following sentence: "From the climes of the sun, all war-worn and weary, The Highlander sped to his youthful abode."

7. Tell what parts of speech the thats are in the following sentence: Is it true that that book that that young lady is reading, is a novel?

8. What is the rule for the comparison of ad

A man by the name of Jones received an injury jectives? Illustrate it by examples.

on his head while on board a vessel in the Medi

9. Write the three cases, in the singular and terranean, which rendered him insensible, from plural, of the following words: Man, ox, horse, pressure of the skull. The vessel soon after this lady, I, she, who. made Gibralter, where Jones was placed in the hospital, and remained several months in the same

10. Write the following verbs, with the pronoun, in the past or imperfect tense, first person singu insensible state. He was then carried on board lar: Be, begin, bite, buy, choose, do, flee, fly, lie the Dolphin frigate to Deptford, and from thence (to rest), see, sit, tear, write. For example, be, was sent to St. Thomas' hospital, London. He lay constantly upon his back, and breathed with

was, &c.


difficulty. His pulse was regular, and each time 1. A man has one billion dollars. He loses it beat, he moved his finger. When hungry or nine hundred ninety-nine million nine hundred thirsty he moved lips and tongue. Mr. Cline, the ninety-nine dollars, and then adds to the remainsurgeon, found a portion of his skull depressed, der six hundred and six dollars. How much has trepanned him, and removed the depressed por- he then? tion; immediately after this operation the motion 2. A lady has one ten-millionth of a pound of of his fingers ceased, and at four o'clock in the assafoetida. 'It all evaporates in six months. How afternoon, the operation having been performed at much evaporates per day, reckoning 30 days to the one, he sat up in bed, sensation and volition re- month? Give the answer in the form of a deciturned; and in four days he got out of bed and mal, and tell what kind of a decimal it is. conversed. The last thing he remembered was the circumstance of taking a prize in the Mediterranean. From the moment of the accident, thirteen months and a few days, oblivion had come 4. The distance around Dorchester is 20 miles, over him, and all recollection ceased. He had, 3 furlongs and 8 feet. How long will it take a for more than one year, drank of the cup of Lethe, snail to crawl around, crawling one inch per minand lived wholly unconscious of existence; yet ute? Give the answer in days, hours and minutes. upon removing a small portion of the bone which 5. A man sells cloth at $4 per yard, and by so pressed upon the brain, he was restored to the full doing loses 10 per cent. on the cost. What would possession of the powers of his mind and body.- he have gained or lost per cent., if he had sold it DR. BRIGHAM. at $8 per yard?

3. What is the sum of, of

24 92-5 - and -? 43

6. What is the interest of $500 5-100 from Feb. 2, 1863, to the date of this examination, at 7 per cent. ?

7. A man wishes to receive of a bank for 60 days, $500. Whst must be the face of the note ? 8. What is the 5th power of 1, the 7th power of 2, the 3d power of 3-7 of .0003 ?

9. A man has a strip of land 20,000 rods long, and 50 rods wide. How many rods of fence will And how many rods would it strip of land were in the shape

it take to fence it? take, if the same of a square?

10. A man has a cistern in the shape of a cube, 10 feet deep. How many cubic feet of water will it hold?


1. What is longitude, and from what point is it reckoned?

2. Name the divisions of British America and their Capitals.

For the Schoolmaster.

Solution of the Clock Problem in the December Number.

It would be well for the pupil to form a diagram showing the position of the hands.

QUESTION 1. At twelve o'clock the hour, minute and second hands are all on the XII. mark.

Let the distance which the hour-hand travels to

obtain its required position be represented by one space. Then, as the minute-hand travels twelve times as fast, it will be twelve spaces distant from the XII. mark when it obtains its required position. And, as the second-hand travels seven hundred and twenty times as fast as the hour-hand, it will be seven hundred and twenty spaces past the XII. mark when it has obtained the required position.

Again, as the hour-hand has travelled one space and the minute-hand twelve spaces, the minutehand is eleven spaces past the hour-hand, but ac

3. Draw an outline map of Massachusetts, with cording to the conditions of the question that is the rivers and principal towns.

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one-half of the distance that the second-hand lacks of being up to the XII. mark.

hundred and twenty spaces and is yet distant from the XII. mark twenty-two spaces, the whole distance around the dial is seven hundred and fortytwo spaces. Then make the proportion - as the number of spaces the hour-hand would travel in going around the dial, is to the number of spaces it does travel to obtain the required position, so is the number of seconds in time it would take it to travel around the dial to the number of seconds it does take it to obtain the position required.

Therefore as the second-hand has traveled seven


742:1:: 43200; 58 - Answer, 58

past twelve o'clock.


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- seconds 371

The answer to the second question, which I get

1. When and under whose patronage did Columbus sail on his first voyage to America? Where did he land? To whom did he apply for assistance to be 57- seconds past twelve o'clock, is obtained in vain ?

2. Who was King Philip? plans, and what his fate?



What were his upon the same principle.
Slatersville, R. I.

3. When and by whom was Maryland first settled ?

4. Give an account of William Penn, his acts and his character.

5. State the objects and result of Braddock's expedition.

6. What events occurred in Boston in March, 1775?

7. In what year did the Revolutionary War commence, and when and where was the treaty of peace signed?

A. F. K.

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8. When and by whom was the Constitution P. Hale, John A. Dix, and Alpheus Felch, were framed ?

fellow-pupils in Exeter Academy, under the tuti

9. What was the cause and what the date of lage of Dr. Abbott. It was often observed of the our last war with England? old preceptor, after these had found their way into 10. Which of the Presidents of the United the United States' Senate, that he had "five boys States have died in office? in the Senate, and pretty good boys, too."

Our Book Table.

We need not call the attention of the reading public to such journals as the INDEPENDENT, CoxGREGATIONALIST, and WATCHMAN AND REFLEC TOR. Who can get along without them?

KENDRICK'S LIFE AND LETTERS OF EMILY C. JUDSON. Sheldon & Co. [From Snow & Greene. Whether as Emily Chubbuck, the faithful, deTHE JOURNAL OF PROGRESS comes to us this It numbers voted teacher; Fanny Forrester, the child of geni- month in a new and attractive form. us and popular authoress, or Mrs. Judson, the among its contributors many of the first educators sacrificing missionary, her life is worthy the study of Ohio. Subscription price, $1.00.

of all. This book is peculiarly valuable from the fact that it lets her tell her own story in her inimitable way. It is her inner life, her heart, and not so much her works, that we are made acquainted with. To our female readers we especially commend it and the lessons such a life should teach.



says it will visit, monthly, all who send to the publisher $3.00, and take along Harper's or Atlantic Monthly.

PETERSON'S MAGAZINE for January is unusually attractive. As the opening number of the year it offers great inducements to subscribers. $2.00 a year.

FROM Snow & Greene we have received the third volume of ABBOTT'S AMERICAN HISTORY - The THE PENNSYLVANIA JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Southern Colonies. Sheldon & Co. All of our is welcomed as one of the growing jouruals in edyoung friends are too well acquainted with Abbott's ucational matters. books to need anything more than the announcement of this one completed. There are too many useless books for children, and we are glad to see the dawn of a brighter day. We cheerfully recommend this series of American Histories as peculiarly adapted to fill a deficiency in our juvenile reading.


We have received the Ohio Edueational Monthly; A Journal of School and Home Education; Edited and published by F. W. Hunt & Co.: Columbus.

If the present number is a fair specimen of what the journal is to be, we gladly welcome its appearance as a valuable auxiliary to the means which are now being so actively used to improve the social and intellectual condition of the young.

The January number of the LADIES REPOSITORY fully sustains its high reputation among the monthlies.


THE Publishers of THE RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLMASTER are authorized to make the following offer: A copy of WEBSTER'S UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY, on fine, sized and calendered paper, in English calf binding, as a premium for the best Essay on the IMPORTANCE OF THE DICTIONARY IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM, its more general use, not only as indispensable to a correct knowledge and use of language, but in its relation to all the studies of LEWIS' NEW GYMNASTICS for Ladies, Gentlemen and Children, and Boston Journal of Physical the school,-grammar, arithmetic, reading, spellCulture. The above is the rather long title of a ing, composition, etc., and the advantage to each new monthly by Dio Lewis, M. D., at $1.00 per pupil of being possessed of a suitable school die. year, in advance. Volume I. commenced last tionary of his own.

month. The contents are varied and instructive. We need such a journal.

The essays to be submitted to the Board of Editors of this journal- not to exceed three pages of WE have received HARPER'S and the ATLANTIC monthlies for January. Their tables of contents the journal - the prize essay to be published in are more than usually diversified and interesting. the journal, any others offered at the discretion of They well deserve the favor which they have so the editors, giving or withholding the author's long received at the hands of the reading public.

In addition to these, by way of exchanges we notice the MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY, Sever & Francis, Cambridge, Mass. A valuable magazine, conducted with ability, and should be in the hands of every teacher.

MERRY'S MUSEUM, just the book for boys and girls these long evenings, and only $1.00.

name, at the author's desire, except in the case of the prize essay, where the name is to be given. Essays to be sent in by the first of March. It is not desired that partisan ground be taken in regard to any particular dictionary.

THE RHODE ISLAND INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION will hold a meeting at Centreville, commencing

THE HOME JOURNAL is among our favorite ex- Jan. 18th, and continuing through the following changes,

day. See notice on second page of cover,

The R. J. Schoolmaster.





THOMAS DAVIS and A. J. FOSTER, Editors for the Month.

For the Schoolmaster.
Government of Children.

NO. 2.

pline will never be required at the hands of others. But in the school-room the child has for the time an adopted parent in the person of THE ancient sages and law-givers considered the teacher. What, therefore, the natural pathe proper education of youth of the utmost rent has failed to do the adopted parent must importance. Indeed, whatever there is of ex- endeavor to accomplish, according to the best cellence in a civilized when compared with a of his ability. Friendly, mutual consultation barbarous community, consists in the right between the natural parent and the adopted patraining of its individual members. Ours is rent is always exceedingly desirable. Yet let called an age of improvement; in many things it not be forgotten that the natural parent has it may be. But it is to be regretted that false no more moral or legal right to go into the notions have crept into the minds of some in school-room and dictate the teacher in reference the community on the subject of discipline. to the arrangement and discipline of the school, The discipline used by some parents, and the than the teacher has to enter the houses of the only discipline which they seem to justify at district and dictate their occupants in reference home or in the school, is indulgence, not cor- to the management of their families. The natrection. Petted children, children disciplined ural parent may, if he chooses to do so, retain by candy, are very soon discovered in the school- the exclusive control of his child and the whole room by their peevish and insubordinate habits, responsibility of his education. But if a part and these are, in general, the only individuals of the parent's responsibility is to be borne by who make the government of a school a difficult and unpleasant task. It should be remembered that few things are perfect of themselves. A There are few evils which fall upon the young tree must be trimmed and trained into shape, more destructive to their highest good than haotherwise it will offend by its deformity, rather bitual indulgence. Poverty, excessive labor, than please by its beauty. An animal must be disappointments, are considerable evils; yet the broken to his business or he never will be of character formed under their influence may beany service to his owner. Human nature, as we come, like the oak that was nurtured through usually find it, certainly cannot claim to be many a storm, deeper rooted and stronger to more free from tendencies to error than vegeta- endure. But what permanent good is mere inble or animal nature. It is not more certain dulgence fitted to secure? One act of selfthat he who spares the knife will spoil the tree denial is worth a thousand of self-indulgence. than he who spares the rod will spoil the This world is so constituted that the business child." The training of the young belongs pri- and experience of human life is to yield rather marily to the parent, and to him this responsi- than to reign. Obedience is, therefore, the first bility may be most safely intrusted. It may be thing to be required of the young, — first in assumed as a general truth, that if the parent time and first in importance. Submission is does his whole duty, severe measures of disci-easy to the young, but failing to acquire the

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the teacher, it is obvious that a parent's right of control must be surrendered to the teacher.

Pull it Up by the Roots.

WE take the following anecdote from an old number of the Cincinnati Gazette. There is much in it for both parents and teachers:


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habit early it becomes more difficult as age ad- for we shall be "laborers together with him.” vances. To be allowed in youth to do as we First GOVERN, then INSTRUCT. Knowledge withwill is certainly not the way to become fitted out discipline is not education. for the time and circumstances when stern ne- Mere knowledge has no necessary connection cessity shall compel us to be and to do what with either virtue or happiness, but obedience we would not. Much has been said about the constitutes the essence of the one and the cerduty of teachers to study the peculiar disposi- tain antecedent of the other. The idea cannot tions of children and to select modes of disci- be too strongly set forth, that obedience to God, pline accordingly. The importance of this sug- obedience to parents, and obedience to teachers gestion, properly understood, cannot be too constitute the first and great lesson in the educahighly appreciated. But when it means that tion of childhood. And unless that lesson be teachers must be constantly careful to avoid then learned there is no reason to believe that contact with the unruly elements of a scholar's obedience to law will constitute any part of the character, the suggestion is unphilosophical and individual's character in after life. injudicious. The influence of the parent and teacher ought to reach every element of the child's character. The family is a world in miniature, so also is the school. They are the nurseries of the State. The powers of mind and elements of character which must be developed and have influence in their days of manPassing yesterday in the lower part of the hood ought to be developed and cultivated both city, we heard a father passionately command in the family and school in the days of their his son to pull up a dead tree by the roots. He youth. The necessity of early, strict discipline stood over him with a rod. The little fellow grows out of the inseparable connection and re- tugged away at it in no pleasant mood, eyeing lation existing between different events in the his father, as if he expected a blow. I can't,' successive stages of human life. Man cannot said the boy. You shall,' replied the father. be fitted to rule without having first learned to We came up just at that moment and seeing obey. Hence reason and Revelation have de- the father just about to strike, asked him who cided that an heir to the throne must be under owned the corner lot? I do.' Is it for sale?' tutors and governors until the time appointed. Yes, if I can get enough for it,' and we went Nature's first lessons are those of discipline. into a long palaver-for he was keen enough The weakness, helplessness, dependence, hun- about a trade. We found him a well meaning, ger, thirst, pain and pleasure of infancy and intelligent man, and when his passions cooled childhood, all teach at the very dawn of our ventured to say to him- That's a fine son of being the existence of law, and compel our obeyours, (and the father's pride kindled quickly) dience. With nature ignorance is no excuse and if you had tried kind means I think you for transgression. The penalty follows surely would have succeeded suppose we try: Well on the heels of sin. Is the law of matter more my son,' said we to the boy, we thought you fixed than the law of mind! The blind may were stronger than you are; why, we know mislead the blind with the utmost tenderness to smaller lads who could pull up that tree.' destruction. Nature compels the young to obey can do it,' said the little fellow, and he was as before she explains to them the reasonableness good as his word, for up came the tree at the of her commands. Her laws are explained by first effort. And why was not this done at first. being enforced, not enforced by being made The father's voice and manner wanted kindness; known; she first governs, then instructs; first he took it for granted his son wanted to foil him, aims to form proper habits, then to impart and he spoke angrily. The boy finding himself knowledge. And thus the character of the treated in this way resisted. How much do pachild is unavoidably moulded by every addi- rents and teachers loose of authority and respect tional ray of light which the child receives. In by this want of kindness. If they could pull seeking to educate the young, let the order of up these bad habits or passions by the roots, our efforts be the order of nature. Our Crea- their children would pull up dead trees by the tor's method of accomplishing anything we may roots easy enough when bidden. Kindness is be sure is easiest and best. Laboring accord- often better than the rod, and a kind word than ing to His law we may be certain of success, harshness."

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