Page images

But doubtless almost any of the most candid of years the Abbot of St. Peters, ruling it with devout teachers will admit that they had rather sit down care, and sharing in the fullest measure in the auto the performance of the dreariest example in the sterities which he enjoined, Not satisfied with most tedious arithmetic-to the involution by ac- this, the same active abbot, a few years later, tual multiplication of 9999 to the ninety-ninth founded also the monastery of St. Paul at Jarrow, power than to the correction of a dull, tiresome a few miles only from Wearmouth. These instiessay of four long, ill-written pages, that like a tutions he endowed with the most precious of all wounded snake drag their slow length along, as foundations, a costly library and rare works of art; did a certain species of poetical lines in the days of Pope.

[ocr errors]

The Venerable Bede.

for in frequent visits to Rome, and intimacies with the learned there, he had been taught to prize good books as well as a severe discipline. At St. Peter's, when only seven years old, Bede was entered on a

From an Article in the North American Review for July. life of religious services and diligent study. When

St. Paul's was built, he was transferred thither, Among the things that excite our interest in the and under its roof he passed his life. At the age Venerable Bede is the fact that we know so little of nineteen he was admitted to deacon's orders, of his personal history. Of the men of his day in and at thirty was raised to the priesthood. In his England, the name of none is so often spoken in early life he was trained by some of the most acmodern times. The sentiments of no other of the complished teachers of that day; and by the ardor series of learned and devoted men who did the of his own love of learning, aided by the excellent work of God in that realm and in that age, come libraries at his hand, he was soon enabled to take to us so impressive and weighty as his. Of those a high place among the most distinguished scholwho labored by his side in the cause of the Church, ars of his time. When the daily service of his of who stood in her high places, who perhaps looked fice was over, he seems to have devoted all his down upon, perhaps had never even heard of, the time to study and literary composition; as he himmonk of Jarrow, how few have any memorial of self states the fact, semper aut discere, aut docere, them, now within the reach of men, save in his aut scribere, dulce habui. There is no proof that pages! Of the bold barons, the wily politicians, he visited foreign countries, or even made many and the great men, who administered the affairs of journeys in his own; he was not, as some churchstate, and who might more justly than he, as world-men ther. were, the counsellor of princes, nor was ly men calculate such chances, have hoped for his aid or wisdom sought by those who manage the some permanent place in the world's memory, world's public interests; he seems not to have had most of us have less knowledge than we have even a wide range of correspondents, or to have been of him. Of all the movements of that day, its far- much disturbed by the visits of friend or stranger; reaching plans, its stirring adventures, its changes but in that remote seclusion he dwelt perpetually of dynasties, its invasions and repulses, its monu- within the precinct of the monastic house to which ments designed to last always, scarcely a trace has he was vowed, only passing from his cell to the choir, and back from the choir to his cell, chantThat the humble monk of Wearmouth and Jar-ing the hours as they occurred, and giving all his row, almost all whose days were passed within the other time to book and pen. In his unvarying walls of the monastery, and whose main singular-round unbroken, so far as the record showsity in the eyes of his fellow monks was, very like- were composed those works which gained for him ly, his fondness for the use of the pen and the the gratitude of the Church and the admiration of drudgery of composition, who mingled not at all the world; and in these quiet labors his allotted in public affairs, or so scantily as to leave no trace period of some sixty years passed away. of such agency, that such a one should have Many of our readers must be familiar with the gained an earthly immortality beyond any of his touching story of his death, told with such affectcompeers and contemporaries is a strange fact, ing simplicity by his pupil and friend, Cuthbert;and may well move our wonder. The precise pe-how, under the pressure of growing infirmity and riod of his life has not been certainly determined. disease, he still continued his favorite studies, and It is supposed that he was born A. D. 673, while always, in the intervals of pain and weakness, Northumberland was yet an independent kingdom, would dictate to his scribe, lest death should overand when Egfrid, son of Oswy, sat on its throne. take him with his task unfinished; how, when he The place of his nativity was probably the village could not dictate, he filled all the time with the of Jarrow, on the bank of the Tyne, near which chanting of psalms, and earnest prayers, and graalso all his years were spent, and where he died. cious words to the brethren around him; how in Just after his birth, a monastery was built and these days of mortal sickness he translated the dedicated to St. Peter, at Wearmouth, on the Gospel of St. John; how, on his last day, when north bank of the river Wear, by the pious zeal of one reminded him that still there was one chapter Benedict Biscop, once a brave and adventurous wanting, he answered, "Take your pen, and make warrior, now an earnest churchman, and for many ready, and write fast"; and how, as the evening

come down to us.


Written Examinations.

came on, after a brief pause, the boy said again, "Dear master, there is yet one sentence not written," and he replied, Write quickly"; and soon after the boy said, "It is finished," and he answered, "It is well, you have said the truth, It is finished"; and so, on the pavement of his little cell, singing "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost," when he had named the Holy Ghost he breathed his last, and departed FOR ADMISSION TO THE HIGH SCHOOL, CHICAGO,

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addressed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

Questions Submitted to the Candidates



to the heavenly kingdom. Surely there must have been in the hearts of his brethren who stood around him in his last hour a deep love for Bede, if one of them, in his account of that event, could say of it 1. Find the sum of the following numbers: in behalf of them all, "By turns we read, and by two hundred and two trillions, one hundred milturns we wept, nay, we wept always while we read." lions, one thousand and two. Nine hundred and Within the walls of the same monastic house nine billions, nine hundred and nine. Eighty trilwhere he had so long labored and prayed, and lions, seventy-five millions, two hundred thousand, which his writings and his virtues had already one hundred and five. Nine trillions, nine billions, made famous, his body was laid to rest. On the nine millions, nine thousand and nine. Seven south porch, which covered his remains, his name hundred billions, two hundred millions, four hunwas inscribed; and admiring pilgrims came from dred thousand, three hundred. far-off regions, as to a place of especial sanctity,| to pay their devotions there. Soon men began to esteem him a saint, and altars were erected to his 3. Find the weight of water in a vessel 8 feet memory. Even while he was yet living, his homilies were read in the churches, and pious und learn-long, 6 feet wide, and 4 feet deep; a cubic foot of water weighing 62 lbs. ed men sent from the Continent for copies of his works. Ere long miracles were wrought at his tomb, and sinful men openly prayed there for the benefit of his intercession; and at length his name was enrolled on the calendar of those whom the

2. Multiply twenty-six millions by twenty-six millionths.

4. A person wishes to make a strawberry bed length being 16 rods? containing one acre. What must be its width, its

5. A house containing 50 windows, each 6 feet

Church then taught her faithful children to hold by 4 feet, is to be glazed with lights 12 inches by 8 inches, at the rate of 16 cents per square foot, no allowance being made for sash. What is the cost of glazing?

in devout and reverent remembrance. The 27th of May was assigned to him, to be, as every year returns, a perpetual memorial of his services and worth. Under that southern porch at Jarrow his bones reposed in undisturbed quiet for nearly three hundred years, when Alfred, a priest of Durham,

urged by a vision, as he said, carried away secretly the hallowed remains to his own church of Durham. Here they lay for five hundred years more, in a richly jewelled shrine of gold and silver, with the bones of St. Cuthbert, in the Galilee of the

entire cost after payment of duty to be $9,142.50. 6. Bought laces for $7,618.75, and found the What is the rate of duty?

8,000 payable in eight months; if money is worth 12 per cent. per annum, which offer is to be preferred, and what will be the difference at the end

7. I can sell property for $7,500 cash, or for

of the 8 months.

8. If 18 tons of merchandize can be transportcathedral, till the destroying angel of the Refor-ed 49 miles for $42, how many tons can be trans

mation cast them out from the church as worthless and unclean things.

MUNIFICENT DONATION.-It was announced at the late meeting of the Alumni of Yale College, that the Scientific Department of that Institution had received during the collegiate year a second donation of $50,000 from Joseph E. Sheffield, Esq., of New Haven. The course of education in this

ported 54 miles for $36 ?

9. A bankrupt's estate is worth $16,000; his debts $48.000. What is paid on $1; and what does A get whose claim is $3,650 ?

10. What is the square root of eight thousand, eight hundred and ninety-four hundred thou


All solutions should be fully written out, that the me


Department is essentially that of the Polytechnic thod may be clearly seen.
Schools of Europe, and is designed to fit young
men for commercial and other practical pursuits,
as well as for the direct applications of science.

A schoolmaster requesting a little boy who had been whispering to step into the next room, is wittily spoken of as "starting on a whaling expedition."

1. What are the different parts of Grammar? Define each.

2. When are w and y consonants? How do nouns in y form their plural?

3. What are the different ways of expressing the distinctions of sex? Give illustrations of each?

4. Give the objective case, both singular and plural of the personal pronouns.

5. Give the rules for the comparison of adjectives, with examples of each.


COMMUNICATIONS for this Department, if relating to the higher branches, should be addressed to J. M. Ross,

6. Give the synopsis of sit, ind. mode, third Lonsdale; otherwise to N. W. DEMUNN, Providence. person of both numbers.

7. What are the different uses of that? Give examples of each.

8. Give the rules for the agreement of the verb with its subject.

9. Analyze

"Who has no inward beauty, none perceives, Though all around is beautiful."

For the Schoolmaster.
Extraction of Square Root.

By many teachers as well as authors the extraction of square root is explained geometrically instead of arithmetically, and all the different operations employed are presented to the child by means of blocks, which render the subject more difficult

10. Parse the italicized words in the above sen- to be understood. We do not object to the appli



1. Name the rivers of Russia flowing south. 2. Name and give the relative position of the grand mountain chains in Asia.

3. Name five of the most important manufacturing towns in New England;-five of the most important cotton ports in the Southern States.

4. What are the five largest German States and their capitals?

cation of square root to geometrical figures, but we think they should not be resorted to for the purpose of explaining an arithmetical principle.

To extract the square root of a number is simply to find one of the two equal factors which were multiplied to produce it. In other words, it is required to find a number which multiplied by itself will make the given number.

To determine the process of finding the number required, it is necessary to observe the partial results of multiplying a number by itself. The square

5. What are the chief exports from La., S. C., of a number consisting of tens and units will conIll., Mass., and Virginia?

tain three distinct parts, viz.: the square of the

6. Trace the shipment of grain from Chicago tens plus twice the product of the tens by the units to Montreal by water.

7. To what power does each of the Greater Antilles belong?

8. Draw an outline map of Illinois.

9. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude are the United States?

10. rica?

What British and French colonies in Ame


plus the square of the units.

By taking unity of the different orders of numbers we find that units squared produce units, tens squared produce hundreds, &c. For instance,

(1)2= 1, (10)2 = 100, (100) = 10000. In the square of a number there will be twice, or one less than twice, as many places as in the origiinal number. Hence, in the square root of a number there will be one-half, or one more than one

1. First provisions for education in Massachu- half as many places as in the original number.


To reverse the process of multiplication we be

2. Account of the confederation called the Uni- gin at the left-hand of the number. In the first ted Colonies of New England.

3. Dates of the settlement of the New England States except Vermont. Early history of Vermont

and admission into the Union.

4. What was the character of the early laws of Connecticut? What was the character of the early customs of New York?

5. Paul Jones and the Bon Homme Richard. 6. Account of General Hull.

7. Battle of New Orleans.

place we know that the left-hand period (one or two places) is made up either of the square of a figure, or the square of a figure plus a part of the double product of two figures, one of which is the square root of a certain part of the period. The question here arises, what part? It must be a part which is a square; but the period may be a number that can be separated in several ways. For instance, if the number forming the period is 11, it may be made up of 1 and 10, 4 and 7, 9 and 2. Now, which of these squares shall we take? We can easily determine by examining the squares of a few numbers. In the squares of 18 and 19 we find

8. Reduction of Vera Cruz by General Scott. 9. Name the Danish Kings of England. Who was the greatest Saxon King of England? 10. State briefly the causes which led to the ex- that the number added to the square of 1 is greatecution of Charles I.


Brilliant, hideous, tangible, prudential, attorney, exaggerate, piecemeal, grievous, satiate, recum


er than 1. In the squares of 17 and 29, we find that the number added to the square of the tens is equal to the square of the tens. In all other numbers the square of the tens is the greater part of the first, or left-hand period.

The difference between the squares of two con.

secutive numbers is twice the less number plus 4th. To square a mixed number whose fraction unity; from which principle it may be shown that is.

Multiply the whole number by the next

the part which is added to the square of the tens higher digit and annex to the product (=[}]}]2).

to make the period, must be less than twice the tens plus unity. Hence, the greatest square number in the period must be the square of the tens. After taking out this square of the tens, we have left the double product of the tens by the units plus the square of the units. By dividing the double product by double the tens, we find the units.

By inspection, we may often determine whether

a given number is a perfect square.

5th. To multiply by 25. Annex two ciphers to the multiplicand and divide by 4.

6th. To multiply by 123. Annex three ciphers to the multiplicand and divide by 8.

7th. To multiply by any number of 9's, annex to the multiplicand as many ciphers as there are 9's in the multiplier, and from the number subtract the multiplicand. E. g.,

725 x 999=725000—725 = 724275. 8th. To multiply by 3.

Annex to the multi

(1.) A number to be a perfect square must end plicand one cipher and divide by 3. E. g., 45 × 3§

in 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, or 9.

(2.) Every number must have for its last two figures, one of the hundred arrangements with repetitions that can be made with the ten digits. (3.) Of these arrangements the forty ending in 2, 3, 7, and 8, (ten of each) can not be perfect squares.

4503 150.

[blocks in formation]

72 × 163 72006 = 1200,

(4.) Since no perfect square can end with a to the multiplicand and divide by 6. E. g., single cipher, there must be deducted nine more of the arrangements, leaving only fifty-one as all the possible endings of a perfect square.

(5.) By inspection, we find that all the different endings of the first twenty-five perfect squares are: 01, 04, 09, 16, 21, 24, 25, 29, 36, 41, 44, 49, 56, 61, 64, 69, 76, 81, 84, 89, 96, 00.

(6.) These endings may be classified so as to be kept in the mind by observing that 1, 4, 9, are preceded by the even numbers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8; 6 is preceded by the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9; 5 by 2; and 0 by 0.

(7.) From the above we can often tell, at a glance, that a number is not a perfect square. If it ends in 2, 3, 7, or 8, it is not a perfect square; if it ends in 1, 4 or 9 preceded by an odd number, it is not a perfect square; if it ends in 6 preceded by an even number, it is no a perfect square; if it. ends in 5 not preceded by 2, it is not a perfect square; if it ends in 0 not preceded by 0, it is not a perfect square.

For the Schoolmaster.

Contractions in Multiplication.

1st. To multiply any number by 11. Where there are but two figures, add them and insert the sum between them. E. g., 63 x 11. 6+3=9; insert 9, and we have 693. Where the sum exceeds ten insert the units and carry the ten; 85x11 935.

12th. To multiply by 334. Annex two ciphers to the multiplicand and divide by 3. E. g., 69 × 33 6900 ÷ 3 = 2300.


TEACHERS, please give the following equations to your classes in algebra, and send us the solu tions for publication :


(1.) Given: x-
value of x.



(2.) Given



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[blocks in formation]
[merged small][ocr errors]


and y.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

to find the values of x and y.

2d. To multiply by 51. Take half the number and prefix it to itself: 86 x 51; take the half (43) Who will explain the reason? and prefix it to 86 4386. 98 × 51 = 4998.

Any quantities whatever, if not in the ratio of to, when substituted for and 3, will give the same answer.

SUPPOSE a body move eternally in the following

3d. To square any number ending in 5. Prefix to 25 (=52) the product of the left-hand figure or manner, viz: 20 miles the first minute, 19 miles figures multiplied by itself increased by unity. E. the second minute, 18 1-20 miles g., (85)2 = (8×9) prefixed to 25 = 7225. (145)2=on in geometrical progression. (14 X 15) prefixed to 25 = =21025.

most distance it can reach ?

the third, and so What is the ut

Editors' Department.

tance, we dip our oars in the swift water and sing a low song of "the girl we left behind us." Now we glide mid the far-famed thousand islands which so thickly stud the waters of the upper St. Lawrence. These islands are built upon solid rock, and most gorgeously clothed in trees and shrubs, while the water edge shows many a balmy wreath of natural flowers. Many of these islands are large, being several miles in length and breadth, whose sides are now gilded with the ripening harvest, or the sweet pasturage for the bleating herds.

We give our editorial this month in the form of a spicy letter from "Her Majesty's Kingdom," which we have no doubt our readers will relish at this season of the year better than any suggestions we could offer them upon school topics. We congratulate our brother Editor upon his good time, and wish we had been there too. But somebody's "nose must be to the grind-stone," and we must take our turn with the rest. If the September We made a halt at a small farm house on Grenanumber of THE SCHOOLMASTER lacks any of its dier Island, to purchase some potatoes and other usual interest, we assure our readers it will be articles essential to a comfortable camp diet. We made up to them upon the return of the absent are sent to the potato patch with a fair Canadian one to his editorial chair. He has been studying maid, who carries the basket and leads the way, with the great teacher, Nature-reading such les- singing as she goes as fearless and free as the linsons as she teaches in the sublimity of Niagara, net down by the water cresses, near her own little and spreads out upon the open scroll of the migh-boat-landing. This same fair damsel often leaps ty St. Lawrence. We trust he will remember us, into her father's boat and alone rows far out on her and bring for our use some of the treasures with native river, and as she sweeps through the waters which he has been enriching his own mind.


On account of somewhat of fatigue in long journeys, sleepless nights in sleeping cars, restless nights on restive steamboats, napless days with napping stage drivers, my pen moves heavily and ideas become strangely sluggish.

[ocr errors]

and hides among the tiny isles, you dream of fairies, and wonder that humanity can be so like angelic purity. She is the light of that isolated home; she breathes the pure air of heaven; she smiles upon the tottering steps of her mother, and runs to clasp her father, returning from his toil, and laughs away his furrows. Her heart is generous and alive to the generous impulses of her naSay, ought they to send her to a boarding



Our quarters are now taken in the land of Queen Vic., "our most gracious Queen," as the loyal But we must leave with the new potatoes and a Canadians so fondly style her. Our windows look great bowl of cool milk, which the dairy affords. out on the noble waters of the St. Lawrence, which We take a farewell of the heads of the happy fam is from two to three miles in width, and bears up-ily, while with a scrap of memory we photograph on its emerald bosom mighty palace steamboats, the daughter, and sail away for the island where as well as craft of every description. In compli- our camp must be made; and, as the top of the hay ance with the invitation of two Canadian gentle-stack lingers in the mists of the after day, we pass men, whose tastes are decidedly congenial, I pre- around a light house, and had you been on the dispared myself a few days since for a trip far up to tant shore you might have caught the air, "Dethe pleasant isles of the Ontario. We were in parted Days." trim at an early hour; our red shirts, broad brim- We had passed but a few miles when a terrible med hats and thick boots told that we were to tempest arose in the west, and ere we could pitch cope with the coarse realities of camp life. Now our tent it was upon us. We made a landing and we are packed in two small sail-boats. Our friends drew our craft upon the rocks. Now the rain falls on the shore take a parting review of our outfit. in torrents, the wind howls among the dark green As we glide into the swift, deep current, waving kerchiefs and tender adieus come over the ripples like angel whispers.

pines of the island, our boats dash upon the rocks, threatening to break their frail sides. We put on a rubber macintosh, and by the lee of a cranberry On account of little Rhoda's late heroism, or her tree we await our doom. Now the rain is over, gallant Governor, or the reputation of her schools, the sun shines out, the wild loon screams a defior something, your humble coadjutor had a post of ance, and while he shakes the dew from his wings, honor, not at the helm, but between two oars, which, we proceed to pitch our saturated tent on a great being made of strong timber, could not easily be rock, and near a drooping camp fire we fall to broken. Our party was composed of three young sleep, with every thing save our fire tinder well men, one Yankee and two of John Bull's most wet by the shower. We dream of heavy dews, of hardy sons, and a more noble, energetic, unselfish Washingtonian societies, and it seems that we sleep couple I have never yet seen. Indeed, their pres- in the spray of Niagara and are ever drinking of ence was always to me a "Star" of "Hope," for those evanescent mists.

these were their names. As the tinned roofs and The morning dawns, the river bird makes his blue stone cottages of the town recede in nazy dis-early cry, the dripping trees glisten in the early

« PreviousContinue »