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wonted fervor. They may easily imagine them- Incidental to my last remark, allow me to reselves wronged by fellow-students or teachers, mind my fellow-teachers of the duty which they -perhaps they are, and for a time the atmos- owe to themselves as well as to their pupils, to phere of their little world is filled with mutter- keep themselves in the most vigorous bodily ings of the storm. In the midst of this com- health, in connection with this very matter of motion let the teacher enter. If self-possessed self-control. No man can easily control himand cool, he calms the tumult with scarcely the self whose nerves are shattered by disease. And utterance of a word. Like an iceberg floated if that ill-health be no more serious than a fit into tropical seas, he cools the fervid atmosphere of indigestion, or a temporary headache, or the by his presence. Such a man only, on the wider languid stupor arising from an indolent dislike field of states and empires, can " ride the whirl- to "air and exercise," there is even less excuse wind and direct the storm." Such a teacher for damaging your school with your nervous, only can maintain the control of the pupils who fretful or stupid mis-government. Wonder, I gather by scores in the district school-room, or know it is, that some teachers should wear so by hundreds within college walls. long and so well, in an employment which so But it is not mainly on the greater occasions, tasks every mental energy and bodily power. the crises of school-discipline, and in circum- And well may they claim the lenient regard of stances of unusual excitement, that the teacher, pupils and parents, if they should not always after all, most needs this power of self-control. possess themselves with calmness and patience A man may nerve himself for a great crisis, and in the discharge of their difficult and trying dube thus prepared to meet the ordeal with calm-ties. Nevertheless, they lie under a burden of ness and without loss of self-possession. It is in motives to keep their heads clear, their hearts the ordinary circumstances of every-day school-warm, and to bear a firm right hand in the dilife that he needs most to guard himself against rection and management of those who are inloss of command by giving way to fretfulness trusted to their care.

or passion. Recitations will not always be per- The work which you have undertaken as teachfect; pupils will not always be circumspect; ers is no ordinary employment. The health rethe atmosphere will sometimes be too cool and quired to sustain you in its duties is the best sometimes too hot. The teacher must guard you can purchase with whatever care and pahimself against yielding to the ill influence of

these minor trials.

tience you can command. And what you cannot find of motive to this end in the good of The little boys and girls of a country school your pupils and your duty towards them, you may have come a long mile through the mud may find in a proper regard for your own wastand slop of a March road; and they are wet,-ing powers.

and they are warm, and they are cold, — and

CHARACTER.

some wish to go to the fire, and some want a But the crowning element of authority, and window open, and some want to go out before the last to be named at this hour, is character ; they are fairly in, — and perhaps the teacher is such character as includes intellectual force and about to say that they all want a whipping! culture, energetic purpose and high moral tone. Not so, my brother. They want a little of your By intellectual force and culture I intend more cool, patient, good-natured assistance to bring than the mere mental equipment required in the them out of their troubles into happier moods. ordinary routine of recitations. Breadth and Or perhaps in the college recitation room, a scope and discipline, nerve and elasticity of instudent before you has forgotten, in an unfor- tellect, and the culture which only a mind of the tunate moment, the dictates of his higher manrequisite material can acquire, must go into that liness, and given you a reply which ill comports character to give it the desired fibre, strength with the relation of the parties. Be yourself and finish. unmoved, and so command his apology and his respect. Or perhaps the clearness of a recitation in Butler is obfusticated by too much beef and pudding at dinner; and the President's patience grows small by degrees, "according to the constitution and course of nature." My dear sir, in such moments of trial, endeavor to show that you, at least, are not digesting too

bountiful a dinner.

Unshaken purpose, a will that bends only when high considerations of duty require it to bend, and which holds a man firmly to the execution of his aim, amidst difficulties and clamors, must also go into the character of the comBut more than all, and above manding man. all, that character is made character by the royal attribute of high integrity. The influence of such

a character, interfusing itself among the other your professional training. True, though it is, elements of authority, gives to them all new that the highest success in governing is based vigor and effectiveness. The other qualifications upon qualities to which the teacher is born, it is of the commander, however valuable in them- not less a truth that the careful study of the selves, arise and shine in the light of this. Dig- elements of successful authority, and a diligent nity itself becomes more dignified, urbanity effort to include the requisite traits in your own more urbane, and the highest graces of learning character, will go far toward compassing the receive an added grace. The effect of high mor- end in view. It was no part of my purpose at al character upon the governing power of the this time, to suggest methods of school manageteacher is two-fold. It acts first in the con-ment, or the details of successful government. sciousness of the teacher himself. Charged These will occupy hours devoted to more familwith such responsibilities as rest upon him, and iar conference and discussion. The art of govaware, as he must be, that thorough moral in- erning well must maintain its coëqual importegrity is expected in him and needed to the tance with the high art of skillful teaching, and proper discharge of his duties, if his own con- the one as truly as the other, has its theory as sciousness convicts him of the fatal destitution, well as its practice-its principles and their how can he stand in his place, strong and un- application. Along the paths indicated by the fearing? The moral blight in his soul creeps suggestions of a true philosophy, let us seek to along every fibre of his being, and unnerves the find our way to the highest practical success. arm of his power.

ANOTHER LAURA BRIDGMAN.-A corresponAgain, as viewed objectively by his pupils, dent of the Detroit Advertiser states that Abby that same high character is in itself authority. A., a daughter of C. C. Dillingham, of Fall Even the child is gifted with the power to disRiver, Mass., is one of the wonders of the age. cern, and cannot but reverence, moral worth. She is deaf, dumb and blind; her right limbs The pupil regards the pure intention and adare paralyzed; she is confined to her bed; canmitted integrity of his teacher as a guaranty not be moved much without being thrown into that nothing unjust or ungenerous will be re- a fit yet she will converse fluently with the quired of him. He yields a willing obedience mute alphabet, writes very legibly with her left when he is sure that such obedience is required hand, and reads common writing on a paper or to promote his own highest good. A naked and slate, or print (if the book be not too much cold authority standing above an abject and worn), by passing her fingers over the words. trembling obedience, is one of the most pitiful She will also distinguish the different colors of a exhibitions of poor human nature. That auvariegated dress in the same way. She has thority must be clothed upon with the graces of wrought several pieces of crewel work that goodness, and its lineaments glow with the suf- would be a credit to any girl of her age, selectfusion of a holy love, before it can reach the ing and arranging all the colors by feeling, and high standard of a divine and godlike attribute. using only her left hand. She plays draughts Such is the authority of the Divine Father; and and backgammon expertly. She knows when likest unto it is the authority of our fathers in any one comes into the room by the jar of the the flesh; and both command our obedience bed (on which she constantly lies), and can in most promptly, when we recognize in them most this way distinguish the different members of clearly the blending of perfect rectitude with the family. perfect love.

AN OLD MAN.-What I call an old man, is Be, then, the teacher upright in his life and single in his endeavor, if he would make his one who has a smooth, shining crown and a character most commanding in the empire where fringe of scattered white hairs; seen in the he rules. By such a character his authority is streets on sunshiny days, stooping as he walks, arched and crowned. Other elements, laid up bearing a cane, moving cautiously and slowly, stone upon stone, however fitly and firmly, in the structure which he builds, will fail to stand secure, until, as a wise master-builder, he brings forth this key-stone and top-stone to its place, and thus binds them together.

Ladies and gentlemen, accept these hints toward the attainment of an important point in

telling old stories, smiling at present follies, living in a narrow world of dry habits; one that remains waking when others have dropped asleep, and keeps a night-lamp flame of life burning year after year, if the lamp is not upset, and there is a careful hand held round it to prevent the puffs of wind from blowing the flame out. That's what I call an old man.-HOLMES,

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For the Schoolmaster.

The Rate at which Waves Travel.

No one is ignorant of the apposite illustration of the widening ripples of water, made by dropping a stone upon the placid surface of an unrufled lake. Every one, in boyhood, has watched such advancing waves as they expanded in ever increasing circles and finally broke in rapid succession upon the shore and were lost.

Observing, thoughtful lads have often noticed the time requisite for each wave to reach the near and the distant shore.

Every teacher has impressed the importance of right action by the thought of the ever widening circles of influence. We are often reminded that each act of one's life is so interwoven and interlocked with all his other acts, and so influences some act of another, which in turn exerts its power upon all the acts of that other's subsequent life, and so on ad infinitum, that the effects of any act of life are infinite in extent, like the waves produced by ruffling the waters of the great Pacific. We are told that if a stone were dropped from a ship's side in the middle of that great sea, the waves would go on widening, until they should reach the shore on every side, and then returning, again and again repeat their backward and forward motion to the end of the world.

But after all this constant use of the figure for illustration, it may be that not all have considered that the waves made upon the great Pacific do in truth and verity advance across the ocean. Yet this is a truth; and an interesting scientific truth it is. Many queries of an interesting character may be made which will form for the wide awake teacher an excellent set of topics for general exercise. One of the most interesting of these queries regards the time consumed by waves in crossing different bodies of water. Of course this depends very much upon the impulse at first given to the wave, the height of the wave at the outset, the distance passed over, and the condition of the water.

A few years since a paper was read by Prof. BE TRUTHFUL TO CHILDRen. Some people Bache before the American Scientific Associatell lies to children with a view of enjoying a tion, stating "that at nine o'clock on the mornlaugh at their credulity. This is to make a ing of the twenty-third December, 1854, an mock at sin, and they are fools who do it. The earthquake occurred at Simoda, on the island tendency in a child to believe whatever it is told, Niphon, Japan, and occasioned the wreck of the is of God for good. It is lovely. It seems a Russian frigate Diana, which was then in port. shadow of primeval innocence glancing by. We The harbor was first emptied of water, and then should reverence a child's simplicity. Touch it came an enormous wave, which again receded only with truth. Be not the first to quench that and left the harbor dry. This occurred several lovely truthfulness by falsehood. times. The United States government has self

acting tide-guages at San Francisco and at San dience was the one thing which the discipline of Diego, which record the rise of the tide upon the Roman law so sternly taught. And so in cylinders, turned by clocks, and at San Francis- the very presence of destruction, when the earth co, four thousand eight hundred miles from the rocked to its foundations and the heavens were scene of the earthquake, the first wave arrived black with volcanic cinders and smoke — when twelve hours and sixteen miuutes after it had re- the fiery lava-stream was already descending ceded from the harbor of Simoda. It had tra- upon the doomed city, and the frightened invelled across the broad bosom of the Pacific habitants were fleeing in helpless terror from the Ocean at the rate of six and a half miles a min- impending destruction, there that brave Roman ute, and arrived safely on the shore of Califor- sentinel stood unmoved at his post, fixed by the nia, to astonish the scientific observers of the single thought of duty, and there, buried in that ocean- surveying expedition. The first wave or living grave after centuries had passed over him, rising of the waters, at San Francisco, was the click of the spade discovered his still standseven-tenths of a foot in height, and lasted about ing skeleton a proud memorial for all coming half an hour. It was followed by a series of ages, of the noble fidelity of this humble Roother waves of less magnitude, at intervals of man sentinel to the single idea of obedience to an hour each. At San Diego similar phenome- duty and law.-New York Chronicle. na were observed, although, on account of the

greater distance from Simoda, (four hundred MAGNETIC MASKS.-In needle manufactories, miles greater than to San Francisco,) the wave the workmen who point needles are constantly did not arrive so soon and was not quite so exposed to the minute particles of steel and high."

The Post of Duty.

M.

dust which fly from the grindstones, and are inhaled with their breath. These will produce constitutional irritation, and sure to end in pulmonary consumption, insomuch that persons THE excavations that have been made in the employed in this kind of work scarcely ever atruined cities at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, tain the age of forty years. Many attempts have disclosed many strange and suggestive me- were made to purify the air before its entry inmorials of that "elder day" when the Roman to the lungs, by gauze or linen guards, but the government was still in the vigor of its life and dust was too fine and penetrating to be obstructpower. The traveller who treads those red ed by such coarse expedients, until some irgenpavements and wanders among those long bu- ious person bethought himself of the motions ried, but now exhumed remains, feels as though and arrangements of a few steel filings on a he were looking upon the very skeleton of a by- sheet of paper held over a magnet. Masks of gone world. Curious relics of a life and a civi- magnetized steel are now constructed, and lization that have passed away, appear on every adapted to the faces of the workmen. By these side. Although the museums of the world have the air is not merely strained, but searched in been enriched by contributions from this fertile its passage through them, and each obnoxious field, yet numbers of curious mementoes still atom of steel is arrested. remain.

A PROBLEM. An old paper puts forth the following problem for its mathematical readers : "A horse in the midst of a meadow suppose, Made fast to a stake by a line from his nose; How long must the line be that, feeding all around, Will permit him to graze just an acre of ground." To which another paper, not quite as old, made

But among all the strange discoveries which the spade of the excavator has laid bare, there is none more suggestive than that which discloses the discipline of the Roman army. While the remains of the inhabitants of the doomed city of Pompeii were found in such a posture as to indicate that they were overtaken by destruction in the very act of fleeing from the threatened danger, there was found to this one notable response:

exception. That was in the case of a Roman" It's a very plain case, if you'll only 'suppose' sentinel. There he stood at the city gate with That it's just seven feet from his tail to his nose? his hand still grasping his sword. He, too, For the line will be then (the rule cannot fail) might have fled. But he was at the post of duty. About seven feet less than if tied to his tail." To remain at that post unflinchingly was to Some apt Rhode Island scholar may perhaps obey the order of his superior in power. Obe-verify the solution.

For the Schoolmaster.
The Habit of Self-Reliance.

The object of relf-reliance is, by affording a fair field for the display of our powers, to enable us to obtain as great victories as we are caTHE habit of self-reliance may be defined as trusting to ourselves rather than to others, or, pable of gaining; and there is wisdom in conconfiding in our own resources, especially in sidering life as a warfare, wherein are encounemergencies, rather than expecting aid from tered sudden onsets, sharp contests, victory and

others.

defeat.

But how can this habit consist with wisdom? The direct result of self-reliance is to develop power, which is always desirable and is the What can justify it, what indeed excuse it? Self-reliance can properly result from three source of victory, while the opposite of selfreliance, enfeebles, humiliates, is insufferable. things only, — natural powers, early and conWhen a person determines to rely upon himself tinued training, and success as the guarantee of in overcoming an obstacle, his first effort is one the presence and the genuineness of both. For of the intelligence, to comprehend the difficul- a man to act at all he must have perception, motives, will. Where but little power is given, ties of the case. The perceptive faculties are at once at work, grasping the salient points of the though training is of some advantage, great success will not follow. Some men cannot easily problem; the judgment, aided by the memory, determines of what sort, and how great the hin- distinguish colors, or tones, cannot easily read drances are. Then comes the thought, mathematics, or resist certain temptations. Noshall I overcome these difficulties?" thing but conceit, or else vanity, could give such men confidence to sing, to paint, study the calpedient is proposed, and its workings carefully noted; if not approved of, another expedient is culus, or frequent the society of topers. mentioned until a choice is made. Now the But our powers can be preserved only by question becomes one of resources; "Are my careful use; to be developed they need persismeans, my executive capacities, my abilities, tent training. He then is over-confident, culsufficient to carry out this plan?" Ascertain ing which, I shall know whether it is better to risk or not, to dare or to forbear, to advance or to halt.

"How

An ex

pably so at times, who, without previous preparation, thinks to conquer, whether in the fields of physical, intellectual or of moral warfare, and prodigal of time and privileges is any one who neglects the advantages of a good training, who is an absentee, or a truant from a good school.

The action of the perceptive faculties, of the memory and the judgment, spoken of above, is favorable to their development. Moreover the judgment cannot act coolly, when the mind is But what shall prevent us from over-estimaunder the stimulus of fear, so that timid men, ting our powers and training, from relying too of how great powers soever, cannot rely upon confidently on ourselves? Success, which must themselves, and this, in political and moral crown our efforts. And yet the tendency of crises, as well as in moments of personal dan- success is towards arrogance, so that wise men ger. Self-reliant men also, knowing their own strive to be cautious and humble. The difficulstrength, should they ascertain the strength of ties perhaps were not so great as they seemed; the opposition, risk not defeat by over-daring, much is due to what is called chance. Early and so escape the imputation of being fool- training is due to friends; friends, powers, suchardy. cess even, are from God. Sometimes this is not To obtain frequent victories is a joy in itself, borne in mind, and men become presumptuous, but its chief use is in the confidence in one's as was Napoleon, while others, like Newton, ability which it gives, success always begetting retain their simplicity.

self-confidence, which, freeing the mind from all The Christian martyrs were strong, relying doubts and hesitations, gives our powers full on their faith in God. Luther and the great scope for action; while some diffident men, reformers, exiled patriots also and persecuted through mistrust of self, never become fully philosophers, have relied on the justness of their conscious of their own abilities. cause, and on the ultimate triumph of truth.

Self-reliance, then, developing power which These all, perhaps, were looked upon by some as results in victory, the latter bestows confidence, men strangely self-reliant, but whoever saw in and this releases the mind from the doubts that what they trusted, knew the secret of their had crippled it in regard to its executive capa- strength. city.

And it may be added, that exhibitions of self

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