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down" everybody else at the "spelling match," The trophies of affection will not fail to give and went home with glory enough to last a life- delight when weightier honors press too heavily, time; when we were disgraced for telegraphing or more distinguished labors seem worthless. the geography lesson to Reuben Jackson, by be- Gladden the children with smiles, let them ing made to "sit at the boy's side;" and when nestle in your arms, be not above sharing their the grim "committee man" actually smiled up-joys or soothing their sorrows, bear with them on us through his spectacles, and at the "last patiently, guide them tenderly, and daily pray day," because we could give the latitude and to become "like one of these little ones;" for longitude of the Fegee Islands! did not our all-wise, loving Master say, "ExHow impressible were our hearts then; how cept ye become as a little child, ye shall not enquickly flowed the tears as soon as dried; how ter into the kingdom of heaven."

softly fell the tones of "Now I lay me down to sleep," at our mother's knee; how reverentially we looked into the starry sky, on awakening at the solemn midnight, and regarded it as the abode of Jehovah ; how we gazed, awe stricken, on the mysterious face of death, and how we sobbed out our broken prayers for forgiveness, when overtaken by our first falsehood!

Oh! parents, teachers, by these and thou-I sands of untold cherished memories, shall we not deal tenderly with the children? Shall we check their activity, stifle their honest curiosity, pour contempt upon their fancies, prove indifferent to their griefs, disregard their indefinable longings, and thus lay waste and barren the beauteous realm of childhood?

The Power of One Good Boy.

J. G. E.

"WHEN I took the school," said a gentleman, speaking of a certain school he once taught, "I soon saw there was one good boy in it. I saw it in his face. I saw it by many unmistakable marks. If I stepped out and came suddenly back, that boy was always studying, just as if had been there, while a general buzz and the roguish looks of the rest showed there was mischief in the wind. I learned he was a religious boy and a member of the church. would, he would be for the right.

Come what

"There were two other boys who wanted to behave well, but were sometimes led astray. These two began to look up to Alfred, and, I "I thank God," wrote a charming lady while saw, were much strengthened by his example. recounting the blessings of her life, -"I thank Alfred was as lovely in disposition as firm in God for the blessed gift of a happy childhood." principle. These three boys began now to creSo let us thank God for our sweet spring-time, ate a sort of public opinion on the side of good and strive to preserve its holy influences unsul- order and the master. One boy, and then gradlied, amid the cares and weariness of maturer ually another, sided with them. The foolish


pranks of idle and wicked boys began to lose It is refreshing, in this busy world, to meet their popularity. They did not win the laugh with those whose hearts are ever young. Child- which they used to. A general obedience and ish games grow unsuitable, and more serious attention to study prevailed. At last, the pubamusements occupy our hours of pastime; the lic opinion of the school was fairly revolutionjudgment becomes reliable with years; the mind ized; from being a school of ill-name, it beenlarges its scope, till its power puts to shame came one of the best-behaved schools anywhere the gods of ancient days. Reason asserts her about, and it was that boy Alfred who had the sway, and, at her touch, life assumes a practical largest share in making the change. Only four aspect, and vain Romance melts away. And or five boys held out, and these were finally exthis is well. But the well-spring within may pelled. Yes," said the teacher, "it is in the be kept fresh and full and pure, as in earlier power of one right-minded, right-hearted boy days. to do that. He stuck to his principles like a

One of the best means to attain this happy man, and they stuck to him, and made a strong end is by cultivating a warm, hearty spirit of and splendid fellow of him.” sympathy with children.

Let none fail to do

this, fearing his dignity will be endangered, or NEVER meet trouble half-way, but let him his mind too far occupied with trivial things. have the whole waik for his pains. Very likely The noblest, truest persons have often been re- he may give up his business in sight of the house. markable for this characteristic. It is better to

win hearts than battles, and the avenues of


THE expense of graduating at Oxford is ordiare oftenest found when love is our guide, narily about five thousand dollars.

For the Schoolmaster.
A Grammatical Query.

indefiniteness and variety, resulting in confusion, and in vagueness, and in frequent unprofitable and wordy discussions, actually exist, both among our most popular text-books and among our most popular schools.

In the study of grammar, is not an exact nomenclature a necessity? What has contributed more to the advancement of the science of chemThese observations may readily be illustrated istry, or, at least, to the facility of mastering it, than its admirable nomenclature? And though and their justice tested, by referring to the terms in some sciences a much more simple nomen"proposition," "sentence," "compound senclature will suffice, still, will not that simple tence," and others closely related to them. Now the "sentence" is the formula for the expresone be equally serviceable in its own sphere ? sion of a thought, or a fact, however compliThe last twenty years have witnessed a great cated or however conditioned. This application advancement in the science of grammar. The of the term "sentence" has been universally analysis of the sentence into the subject and recognized from time immemorial, and is the the predicate and their modifiers, as the basis, only term by which that formula is known. perhaps we may say, the epitome, of the science, Now, all language is made up of sentences. is an immense improvement on the old method, And, since the structure of the "sentence" is and has happily become very general among us. essentially the same in all tongues, and must be Still, is there not some needless confusion in so everywhere and always, from the very nature the use of terms, and some needless indefinite- of the human mind; and since the grammatical ness in the analysis of sentences? It is not, in- connection of a word cannot be known except deed, desirable to introduce technical terms be- by its relations as a constituent part of a senyond the limit of real and essential differences tence; is it not essential to a knowledge of gramin things. Let distinctions without differences mar, that the nature and structure of the "senbe persistently ignored. For it is not the pur-tence" be first distinctly comprehended ? pose of our educational system to produce artful cavilers and acute sophists. And there are, surely, real distinctions enough, without resorting to the artificial and the merely curious, for sharpening the wits of our youth. Still, as long as it is a prime object of education to cultivate habits of accurate observation and sharp discrimination, and since the study of language is admirably adapted to cultivate such habits, is it not in a high degree desirable to render the study exact, by giving distinctive names to really and essentially distinct things? If distinct things are not recognized by distinct names, is there not danger that the pupil will often lose sight of the distinction itself?

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But in some text-books we find no attempt at a distinctive definition of the "sentence," and in some, none which is at all adequate. The "proposition" has a perfectly distinct and acknowledged application. Yet, by some, the confounded with the "sentence." The term, term is practically ignored; and by others it is compound sentence," is restricted by some, to cases of a perfectly distinct and uniform character; by others it is allowed to include another class of cases very materially different. The terms "phrase" and "clause" are used by some in no very definite sense, and even as interchangeable; by others they are applied to certain well known forms of expression.

Is not uniformity also desirable? - not uni- Suppose, for example, the following sentence to formity of method in teaching and discipline, be under consideration: "It rained heavily, and but uniformity of terms and definitions? Who the good man was wet through and through." would think it advisable to produce variety by The pupil describes it as "a compound sentence, introducing a new system of terms and defini- composed of two simple sentences." This cantions in mathematics, or geography, or chemis- not be objected to, whatever definition of a try? The demonstrations and illustrations may" compound" sentence be adopted. But the well vary. The more, the better, perhaps. But pupil proceeds to analyze "the first sentence," in the matter of terms and definitions, it will and the second sentence." This may be perscarcely be denied that the utmost exactness fectly clear. Still, may there not be an improveshould be sought, and the most complete uni- ment on the method of analyzing a sentence into formity should be encouraged. Hence, it might sentences? After stating that two sentences seem that to raise a query on the subject, even have been combined into one, will it not conin the department of grammar, were but set- tribute to perspicuity to speak of these original ting up a man of straw, but for the fact, that elements no longer as distinct sentences, but

rather as independent propositions, or clauses, independent sentence," and "a compound senor members, of the sentence? Has not a sen- tence"; yet there are but two sentences; and, tence ceased to exist as a sentence, when, by finally, there is but one. Is there not a better combination with another, the two have become way? welded into one, even though that one be compound?


In regard to this distinction between sentences which Prof. Greene denominates "compound" But, take a more decided case. The follow- and "complex," it is certainly very clear and ing sentence is to be analyzed: "If pride leads very broad, and will prove of great value to the the van, beggary brings up the rear." The pu- pupil; and there are few distinctions in lanpil proceeds as before, "This is a compound guage which he will take a more lively interest sentence, and it consists of two simple senten- in discovering. Hence, may it not be well to The first sentence, Pride leads the van,' direct special attention to this point, and to renis conditional and dependent; the second, Beg-der it still more definite and fixed in his mind, gary brings up the rear,' is independent.'" Are by the use of distinctive terms? there not several objectionable features in this Other terms and distinctions might be disstatement? First, it is called a "compound cussed. But enough. It is not any particular sentence," and this, according to the rather system or set of terms and definitions that is to general usage, is approved; not, however be- be urged, but precision in definitions, definitecause it contains more than one "sentence," ness and significance in terms; and then, unibut because it contains more than one "propo- formity in their adoption. If the thoroughly sition." But this sentence is essentially differ- systematic and consistent work of Prof. Greene ent in its character from the one previously cited. on "the Analysis of Sentences" is thought too That contained two distinct and grammatically rigidly technical, the same principles and forms independent statements. This contains but one will be found stated with great accuracy and statement, with a condition subjoined. The ac- with certainly little enough of technicality, in cidental form of the "proposition," in which Mr. Tower's last and greatly improved Common that condition appears, alters neither its relation School Grammar. nor its nature. It might have taken a different But is there not an undue dread of "techniform, even that of a single word. It is a mere cal terms"? Do not teachers themselves often modifier, in its office, an adverb. What is reject a new term, as well as a new method, bethe significance of the term " compound sencause it is unfamiliar to themselves, without tence," as applied to it? Why not call it a giving due weight to its merits? But it must simple sentence, containing a clausal modifier, be remembered that a term, old and familiar to or modifying proposition? or, which perhaps is the teacher, may be just as new and outre to the still better, give it the distinctive and truly sig- child, as another term new and technical to the nificant name of "complex sentence "? teacher, though perhaps a great deal better. Is But again, the sentence under consideration, it the names of things clearly perceived, that it is said, "consists of two simple sentences." puzzle and confound our pupils? or, abstracThis statement can be justified only by con- tions, and words without a clear and definite founding the "sentence" and the "proposi-significance in their minds? If you tell a child tion," an error which scarcely deserves a se- that "a verb is a word that signifies to be, to rious refutation. The proposition, "If pride do, or to suffer," he can use these individual leads the van," can only become a sentence by words wel! enough; but, taken in this combithe removal of the connective "if," thus destroying its relation to the sentence, and depriving it of its significance, in fact subverting the meaning of the sentence itself.

nation they are as indigestible in his mind, as a few simple elements, combined into the form of leather, would be in his stomach. But he will not find much difficulty with the word NebuThe remainder of our "pupil's" statement chadnezzar, when he has heard the story of is objectionable only as repeating the preceding Nebuchadnezzar, and knows who he was. His error. It may perhaps be said to render per-tongue may stagger under it, but his memory fectly clear the preceding part of the statement, will hold it fast. Is there any inherent difficuland so to remove all objection to the method of ty in the word "proposition," more than in the analysis adopted. But, viewed in the most fa-word Methuselah? or in the words "coördivorable light, is there not still some jumbling nate" and "subordinate," more than in the here? Here is a dependent sentence," " an words Philadelphia and San Francisco, and

Abraham Lincoln ? Yet who would own a of nature, the worst we can have the heart to child of ten or twelve years who could not in- wish him is that the musquitoes, ticks, sand-flies telligibly name the oldest man, the city of Penn, and cross dogs may bite, and the fishes not. And the mart of gold, and the President of the Uni- please remember, dear Bob, in all your fishing ted States? No, it is not names, but abstrac- experiences, that the devil is the chief of fishertions, that puzzle children. Give them clear men, and that you are his Bob. ideas, and a name for every one, and as long as the ideas retain a lodgment, the names will vindicate their rightful claims on the memory.

N. B. C.

From the Louisville Journal.
Prentice on his Brother "Bob."

Our neighbor Bob McKee, the very smart editor of the Courier, as soon as he learned the re

PROFESSOR O. M. MITCHELL has made an observation of the new comet at the Dudley Observatory, and offers the following explanation of its sudden appearance:

“If it be permitted to hazard a conjecture, we may account for the sudden splendor of this grand object by supposing that during its approach to the sun it has been above the horizon

sult of Monday's election, started off upon a fish-only during daylight, and hence escaped detec

ing excursion. When the twelve disciples were in great trouble and perplexity as to what they should or could do next, Simon Peter, with his

tion; that on passing its perihelion, or nearest point from the sun, the direction of the orbit was such as to sweep it rapidly from that luminary and to bring it in a very few days to the region of the heavens now occupied. This con jecture is based on the general fact that comets do not commonly throw off such immense trains of light until after their perihelion passage. Un

usual facility of resource, said, "I go a fishing," and Bob said so too. He was so appalled by the popular vote, that he at once bounded from poll to pole. Finding that in political conflict he was out of his element, he went to see whether he til a sufficient number of observations have been couldn't haul a few pike, bass and catfish out obtained to render it possible to compute the of theirs. Realizing that he could no longer cheat the people, he lowered his pretensions maelements of its orbit, it will be impossible to terially, and undertook to retrieve his self-esteem decide whether this is its first appearance or by fooling the poor simple fishes. Unable to lead whether it be the return of a comet that may voters by the nose, he thought he would try to have startled the world ages ago."

pull fishes by the lip His present employment is decidedly the less scaly of the two, and we BALZAC, the novelist, was an eccentric genius. hope he will have few hills and mountains to When composing, his house door was closed to scale, and a good many fishes. It is highly pro- everybody except the publisher and printer, and bable that his finny victims will swallow his bait his costume was changed to a loose white robe of more readily than his readers have swallowed his the sort that is worn by the Dominican monks. statements. We protest against his using nets; This singular writing dress was fastened round let him take his fish as his Southern friends took the waist by a chain of Venetian gold, to which their forts, arsenals, mints and revenue cutters-hung little pliers and scissors of the same preby hooking them. We commend him to the fish-cious metal. White Turkish trowsers and red ing-rod, and we commend the rod to him, for we morocco slippers, embroidered with gold, coverknow of no editor that more deserves it or de- ed his legs and feet. On the day when he sat serves more of it. In case he drops a line to a down to his desk the light of heaven was shut fine pike just to tell him he would like to see him out, and he worked by the light of candles in to dinner, he may, if his liquors are good, drop us superb silver sconces. a line of like import. If at any time the question shall be whether he shall pull a big fish out, or SWEARING CHEAP.-" What does Satan pay the big fish shall pull him in, both parties will you for swearing?" said a gentleman to one please remember that we are a strict neutrality whom he heard using profane language. "He man. If he shall get into the rfver and be de- don't pay me anything," was the reply. "Well, voured by the inhabitants of the flood, we hope you work cheap enough, to lay aside the charache will agree with them better than he has ever ter of a gentleman, to inflict so much pain on agreed with any patriotic party. We presume, your friends and civil people, and to risk losing however, there is no danger of his drowning, else your own soul, (gradually rising in emphasis,) there is no truth in old adages. If he does not and all for nothing! You certainly do work

repent of his sins amid the calm and quiet scenes cheap-very cheap, indeed.”

From the Maine Teacher.
The Schoolmaster.



worshippers. The learned and the ignorant, the polished and the rude together, are fired by its burning utterance or soothed by its liquid harmonies.


The ordinary school-room is not, of course, I name, as a fourth requisite to efficient govthe place for oratory in its highest flights. No save on Wedernment, promptness and felicity of address. declamation is demanded there, In this matter there is every grade of style and nesday afternoons! The teacher, in his familiar success. There can be, of course, no exact mealectures or friendly counsels, will rarely reach sure of this element of authority. A happy an impassioned style of utterance. But the skill style of utterance may vary in its character be- needed, the tact, the fluency, the quickness and tween wide extremes of fluency and deliberate- vivacity, are hardly less difficult to attain, and ness, boldness and modesty, force and gentle- no less admirable in their place. Let the teachness. But there should be a combination of er, then, aim at great readiness of speech, qualities in the style of a teacher's speaking clear and simple flow of language; but not, the when he addresses his school, which will bear rapid and rushing, voluble and wordy speech, somewhere facetiously called a diarrhea verborum. He should speak with point, precision and force, but not with the great swelling words of vanity, which sometimes struggle from a windy orator's lungs.

to be called felicitous.


Boorish, ungrammatical, low, or rough in speech, he cannot be, and expect to command well. Hesitant, dull, stammering, or mumbling, he cannot draw his pupils after him with a living and responsive interest. He needs not to be an orator in the platform sense, but he is required. The modes of the teacher's admust use the tongue of a ready speaker. A dress should vary with the phases of his everSometimes his pupils are promptness that shall summon the hearer quick-varying audience.

But the mere command of words is not all that

ly to the matter in hand, a vivacity which shall dull, and need rousing; sometimes discouraged, quicken slumbering thought, a ring in the tone and need reanimating, — sometimes in a storm, which indicates true metal in the man, -all and need, not a counter storm, but a gentle these are needed in the teacher who stands be- breeze from off shore to calm the surging waves. fore his school with the hope of controlling Rarely a sharp rebuke or stern command is required by the necessity of the hour. But of

them at his will.

The man who aims to mold other men to his tener a calm appeal to the reason or sense of own views and purposes, whether it be from the propriety will be more effectual than a mere mastump, the stage, or the platform, whether in gisterial dictate. His judgment will guide his church or in state, must possess the ability to utterance, but in all these varying circumstances present his views clearly and forcibly. In the he must know how to speak and what to say, if legislative hall and the political caucus, from he would succeed in the perfect command of his the pulpit and the teacher's desk, he exerts the school.

most commanding influence, other things being


equal, who can address those before him with Again the teacher, like every other person the most felicity and power. The advocate at in command, must be able to control himself. the bar, or the orator before the people, is most The commander of an army, the presiding offisuccessful, who, with the other requisites to cer in a deliberative assembly, or the captain of success, is most commanding in speech. This a ship, begins to succeed when he stands before is no less true now, than when Demosthenes his subordinates under perfect self-control. Let prevailed by the cogency of his eloquence, and a teacher stand in the presence of his pupils, Plato captivated by his persuasive tongue, and shaken by some agitating passion, and the right Paul made even governments tremble by the arm of his authority is palsied. His self-posfervor of his impassioned speech. Now, as session gone, he is shorn of half his power. Esthen, the tongue, though a little member, con- pecially if those with whom he is dealing are trols alike the ship of state and the lesser ship themselves excited does it become the teacher, in which the teacher embarks his noble enter- by his own calmness, to allay the gathering prise. The eloquent tongue still thrills and cap- storm. In their youth and lack of experience tivates, whether on the field of battle, the arena and self-discipline, a company of students may of political strife, or in the assembly of God's be sometimes expected to wax warm with un

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