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The Sewing Machine.
From the Massachusetts Teacher.
School Goes Wrong,--- Where's the Blame ? PRAY, have you seen, The Sewing Machine,
In many cases, surely, the teacher causes the Jogging, and jogging, and jogging all day, school to “ go wrong." This will happen so Pecking, and pecki ig, and pecking away, long as unsuitable persons are employed to Very much like a steam-chicken at play? teach.
The cure is — be wiser next year. But, paraOh, if you have n't, just listen to me! Oh! if you haven't, you've something to see;
doxical as it may seem, schools do sometimes Useful, perhaps, but decidedly queer,
" go wrong," simply because the teacher goes Yes, and you'll find that you've something to hear; right. Clickety! Clickety! Clickety! Click !
In proof of this let us not some of the Ever and aye, till you're weary and sick.
" wrongs," which the teacher, if fit for his
work — knows ought to be righted. First, then, Bring your work with you, dear ladies, and come !
no sane or sensible man, needs to have it prov. Lay over the hem with your finger and thumb; Don't be afraid, though the needles look spiteful, to him, that habitual tardiness and irregularity And sting it to death with an insolent air ;
of attendance, are evils in theinselves sufficient There! it has finished one side! how delightful!
to sap the thrift from any school. Scores of And now -oh! it's pecking away at the air ! our schools are yearly crippled, and rendered It's work is all done,
nearly worthless, from this cause. How shall And it's now making fun!
this wrong be righted ? It does n't care what, and it does n't care which To take a case. A band of strays come loung. So it's stitching like mad, without ever a stitch!
ing in, mayhap, in the midst of a recitation. You may be weary, or you may be sick,
The teacher asks : “ Moses, why are you late?" But still it goes on with its clickety, click !
With a prodigious longitudinal extension of No longer “in poverty, hunger and dirt,"
the face, Moses whines out: “ I come as soon Hood's mournsul maiden shall sing of the shirt. as I coo-ud;” and an equally gratifying re. But “wearily" 0!
sponse comes from Sam and Bill and Mary Jane Shall be cheerily 0!
and somebody's “ dear Mehitable." I think I For our blithe machine, if you properly watch it, hear some one say — who knows all about it, Will not fall asleep o'er your linen or botch it;
why don't you demand excuses from the parents? But 0! if you don't
- I can call spirits from the vasty deep," said a (And there's many that won't,) Lock-stitch will lock up your waistbands and hem
famous brag, of whom we read, to which, you ming,
will recollect, the shrewd rejoinder was, '. But Start off with a fury there's no hope of stemming. will they come when you do call for them!” And body and sleeves will be stopped in a minute ; " Aye, there's the rub!” Will the excuses So that when it is done you can never get in it, come when called for? It is one thing to deAnd you'll have to unpick it, and once more begin it. mand them, quite a different to get them. It is
a mournful fact, to which every teacher of exBut there's this to be said: You have only to find
perience can bear witness, that parents are often The end of your thread,
too indifferent to the welfare of the school even Should you be so inclined,
to write excuses for their children. Here then, And pulling it gently, a wavelet will run is one reason why the school “goes wrorg." Through the length of the seam till the whole is The teacher cannot correct the evil, “ where's undone!
Habitual absence is another evil equally fatal To CLEAR THE Eve or Dust. — When the and common, and for which the parent is whol. eye is irritated by dust, or intrusive particles of ly responsible. As a general rule, the parent any kind, the proper practice is to keep it open, has no moral right to keep his children from as if staring; a sort of rotary movement of school a single day. A term of school is like a the ball takes place, the surface becomes cover- ladder, of which each day is a round. When ed with water, the particle is gradually impell you have struck one-half the rounds from your ed to the corner of the cye, and is there floated child's ladder, do you expect him to climb ? out, or can be easily removed, without any of Again, if the teacher is fit for his work, his the disagreeable consequences that attend shut. constant aim will be to transform disorder and ting and rubbing.
sloth into strictest order and cheerful work.
How shall this be done? • By moral sua- the scholar, you cannot fix the degree of severision, of course,” our wiseacre replies. But ty of the master. Severity should be continued does not everybody know, that in most schools, until obstinacy be subdued and negligence be there will always be some scholars whom per- cured.” suasion and argument fail to reach; and to
When the long-looked-for Millenium dawns, whom all your words, kindly or otherwise, are 1 suspect corporal punishment may be properly but "mouthfuls of spoken wind ?" Such cases dispensed with. But, inasmuch as that delectnot unfrequently occur. Reluctantly and sor-able period would seem to be at least several rowfully, the teacher punishes some gross of years distant, is it not, on the whole, best to fender; straightway what a fluttering in the follow Solomon and common sense a little longfamily roost!
er ? Let me not be misunderstood. That teacher Down comes the enraged paternal, breathing is not fit to teach who relies mainly upon the rod out threatenings and slaughter, it may be, and to secure obedience. He should rule rather in after spewing out enough of his ire to afford the hearts of his scholars, than over them. He temporary relief, and having frightened (?) you should be a kind and genial man, ever ready to considerably with such phrases, as — "put you speak a pleasant word, to his pupils, but he through," -"extent of the law," and the like be an inflexible man, too, not allowing his reverbal trash, away he stalks, larding his con- quirements to be departed from the ninth part science with the pious reflection that he has of a hair,” with impunity. When compelled to “ done the district a great service."
punish, none will sorrow more than he. The In vain the teacher urges, that he only de- moral-suasion heresy not unfrequently breeds manded obedience to some reasonable regula- in this wise. A school has happened to be kept tion. Thenceforth, this man is the teacher's without the striking of a blow. It may or may foe, and will do him and his school what harm not have been a good school. Suddenly the he can. Of course, the school goes wrong. conclusion is drawn that corporal punishment Where's the blame? Illustrations might be is a “ relic of barbarism;" and that all schools multiplied showing how schools do sometimes can and ought to be governed by the sovereign "go wrong" in spite of the teacher. But power of love. “Lame and impotent concluenough. The fact is, the school should be a sion!' Domine Sampson would say, “ Prodi"company concern,” not a mill, where the teach-gious !" What successful teacher has not someer is hired and left to grind alone.
times kept a school “ without striking a blow?" Parents are, equally with the teacher, respon- The truth is, the teacher must be a man of sible for a good school; and there are communi- expedients. With one end in view, — the welties in which a really good school would scarce- fare of those committed to his charge,-- he must ly be tolorated. For instance, a good school can- wisely vary the means of accomplishing it, acnot be kept where the rank heresy prevails, that cording to the circumstances of the case. Coma teacher should not chastise the scholar. mitted to any special hobby of school govern
What treatment do these reformers suggest ment, he will speedily run off the track. for offenders ? for it must needs be that offen. Switches are as necessary in school economy, ces come." One offers expulsion ; but, is it not
as in railroading. Finally, if you would have better to save a limb than to amputate it a good school, get a teacher of ability, pluck Would you set this wilful lad or that silly miss and energy, work cordially with him, and the -just emerged into the awful dignity of teens, school won't - go wrong." adrift, when Solomon's receipt might save them: Another very wise man thinks "a school should
Ir is the proud prerogative of noble natures be made so attractive that the discipline will take that they retain their influence after death. The care of itself.” I have heard men who were lamps which guided us on earth become stars doubtless partially sane talk thus; but, if, as to light us from above, and the beneficent may Solomon says, “much study is a weariness of still claim our aspirations as the blessed the flesh,” I confess myself puzzled to see how species of apotheosis equally honorable to the it can be so fantastically tricked out, as to be living and the dead. come pastime for lazy boys and girls. There is much nonsense talked in relation to this matter. It is a pretty saying of an old writer, that Hear Dr. Johnson :
men, like books, begin and end with blank “Until you can fix the degree of obstinacy of leaves — infancy and senility,
A. H. D.
BY REV. HENRY 8. OSBORN.
From the Independent.
since returned to the dust; the very empire The Lily of the Feld.
whose glory they extolled has crumbled and perished; but that “short-lived lily" still decks
the fields and perfumes the air of Italy with unThere are no flowers which exhibit the vari- diminished beauty and fragrance. In that coun. ous elements of beauty to greater perfection than try and further East it may be seen beside fall. those of the lily. Nor are there any wherein en blocks and pillars, the shattered and corrodthe mysteries of color are more remarkably de-ed fragments of ruined halls and temples, which
in its unaltered beauty it has survived. These veloped. Imagine, if you can, that a few atoms are travelling upward to form the colored part
bright lilies, quietly blooming around the scatof the petal of a lily flower. They start, per
tered ruins of the East, seem like constant though haps, from the fibrous rootlets or from the bulb,
feeble stars, shining out unceasingly upon the and pass by the whorled or scattered leaves on
dark night of desolation which has followed the their course; while other atoms, by the side of sunset of Roman grandeur. which they have hitherto travelled, part com
What has been said of the Latin word for lily pany, and run into nearer channels. Bui on
may even more emphatically be asserted of the ward these tiny color-atoms move. Guided by
Greek word. There were two words in the some mysterious attraction, they turn neither to
Greek tongue for this flower, either of which the right nor left, until, at the end of their jour
was applicable to the white lily. One, however,
designated the lily in general, the other the white ney, they have reached that destined spot, to form a circle or line of red or brown or black, lily particularly. The former was the word used just where, for a thousand years, their projeni
by our Saviour in the sentence, “ Consider the tors did the same for other flowers. There is a
lilies of the field.” This distinction was made mystery in the coloring of all flowers, but of
use of before the commencement of the Christ.
ian era, as is seen in the writings of the celenone more so than of lilies.
brated Greek botanist, Theophrastus, (H. P. 6, There is no genus of plants under the Natural System which presents such seeming confu- 6, 3.) We may therefore reasonably infer that sion of species as that to which the lily belongs.
it was known in the time of our Saviour. In Yet the “ Lily of the Field” may be identified Syria there were red and purple as well as white with less difficulty than many other of the flow- lilies, and Pliny, the naturalist, says that in
that land the white was held in less esteem than ers of sacred and classic writings. LILIES AMONG THE ANCIENTS.
the red. In the passage making mention of this
fact, he includes all the varieties under the genThe word “ lily” is but an abbreviation of “ lilium,” used by Latin writers long before the
eric term “ lilia.” So that the lily of the Latin
included the red and purple as well as the white. Gospels were written.
A Latin poet, Proper. tius, born before the commencement of the
If it be asked how we know that the flower Christian era, calls them " the bright" and "sil- intended by our Saviour was the “ lilium ” of ver lilies,” (“lilia lucida” and “ argentea.") which we have spoken, we answer — first, that Ovid styles the same flower the " white shining the description of the flower by the Greek writlily,” using an adjective (candentia) which was ers is more true to nature than even that of the applied to the light of the moon, (" candentia Latin writers ; and, second, that when in early lunæ,” Vitruvius.) Virgil calls it the large years the Greek was translated into Latin, or or noble lily," ("grandia lilia,” Ec. x. 24.) and the Latin into Greek, the two words were interspeaks of the lily as growing freely among thorns, changable. Thus, when Jerome translated into (Song of Sol. ii. 2,) and inviting the bees which Latin the passages in the Gospels above referred yielded delicious honey first to that farmer who to, he changed the Greek generic word into the had planted lilies upon a sterile farm. Georg.
Latin “ lilium,” wherever it occurred, and in iv. 139–140.) Pliny says that one lily root in doing so he only adopted a rendering which had his time would bear fifty bulbs, “ than which,” been used before. he thought, “no plant could be more fruitful,” | (N. H., Lib. 21, c. 5.) Horace writes of lilies We have said that the English word “ lily" scattered upon the feast-tables in honor of a is derived from the Latin “ lilium.” It is infriend returned to his home, and calls them teresting to know that the latter is derived from “the short-lived lily.” The poets whose feast- the Greek word “ leirion," the specific term in table were strewn with its flowers, have long that tongue for the “white lily.” Homer, we
THE LILY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
** THE LILY OF THE
believe, is the first classic author who made use " Plucking the fragrant white lilies on the soft meadowof the word, (Hym. Hom. Cer, 427,) and this
lands," is the earliest known record of the lily in any in which line more is told of the lily than in language, if we except the Hebrew, in 1 Kings, any other classic line of equal shortness. Anvii. 19, 26. In this chapter are described the other Greek writer, (Dionysius,) about the comcarvings for the capitals of two important pil- mencement of the Christian era, prettily delars, and for the rim of the “molten sea,” which scribes the same flower in an epigram, as “the were made for Solomon's temple. The Hebrew white-skinned lily,” using the same word for word translated “ lily” appears to have origi- lily which is found in the Gospels. Other writnated in Persia, the land of the lily. In the ers abound in beauteous similes drawn from the title “Shushan,” frequently used in the Book lily, or in interesting allusions to it.
(Pind. N. of Esther in connection with the Palace,” 7, 116; Polyb. Crat. Matth. 1; Ar. Nub. 911.) which was the scene of the trials and triumphs
From all this it is evident that the same flow.. of that queen, we have the very Hebrew word which is translated lily in other places. In Per- er which is so well known to us, was known sia, among the ruins of Susa, the ancient Shu- and valued in earliest times, but, as we have alshan, the lily has lately been found carved up
ready remarked, while the white was valued on the remains of its marble palaces, or repro- better known and more highly esteemed in Sy.
most in other lands, the red and purple were duced in the form of vases and other antique
ria. The term used by our Saviour, it is plain, ornaments.* (Lofius, " Susiana and Chaldea.")
referred to all lilies as a class, and the efforts to Now it is important to remember that, according to two celebrated Greek writers, (Diosco lower now blooming on the hills of Syria, es
limit its meaning to any particular variety of rides and Athenæus,) this “ Shushan of the Persians was the lily of the Greeks,” and in
pecially of a kind not known as the lily, can this announcent they use the very Greek word only give rise to confusion. which, in the original, was used by our Saviour. FLOWERS SUPPOSED TO BE It is noticeable that the Arabs of Syria call
FIELD." the various colored lilies, but especially the It may, however, prove interesting, in passwhite lily, “soosan,” a name radically the same ing, to notice the opinions on this subject. Evas that by which, in the Hebrew, it was known en tulips, white, red, blue, and otherwise colorin the days of Solomon.
ed, have been offered as “the lilies of the field,” Thus we have an interesting series of links in simply because they bloomed on the fields of the evidence which leads us to the conclusion, Palestine, although their name has always been that the lily of the Old Testament and that of distinct, and they exhale no such fragrance as the New were the same.
did the lilies of Solomon's imagery. (Song v. THE PROBABLE “ LILY OF THE FIELD."
13.) Sir J. E. Smith has urged a golden liliacOf all writers, the Greeks were most explicit
eous flower, called, formerly, the Amaryllis luand eloquent in their description of the lily. thinks that it was a flower which now blooms
tea, now Oporanthus luteus. Professor Lindley The poet Mochus, who wrote 200 B. Co, repre- in Palestine, (the Ixiolirion Montanum,) with sents the beautiful Europa as
slender stem and clusters of deiicate violet flow
ers, allied to the Amaryllis. Nor does the fact This is an entirly distinct form from the Egyp- that it is chiefly found upon the mountains lestian Lotus, (Nymphæa.) Herodotus (2, 92) describes " a kind of lily resembling roses,” which sen the faith of that botanist in the supposed grew in the Nile. They resembled lilies in color, identity. The “ Crown Imperial,” (Fritellaria being white; roses in form, being many-leaved. Imperialis), a large red and yellow pendant The carvings above referred to are distinctly in- flower, a native of Persia, seldom seen in Syria, tended to represent lilies, and are six-leaved and is supposed by others to be the lily in question. bell-formed. A beautiful variety of the Nymphæa Dr. Royle, in Kitto's Cyclopædia, feels confi(many-leaved) has lately been noticed by Rev. dent that it is the brilliant red flower, half the Frederick Knighton of Oxford, N. J., growing in size of the common " tiger lily,” (supposed to profusion in the Musconetcong Valley in the north- be the lilium Chalcedonicum, or scarlet Martaern part of that State. It is invariably a plant of lowlands, or those which are partially submerged, gon,) which blooms in April and May near the which is not favorable to the supposition that it
Sea of Galilee, as seen by Dr. Bowring. was the lily of Syria.
This probably completes the list, so far as
BY ANNIE ELIZABETH.
any intelligible description of flowers has been
For the Schoolmaster. offered.
The Race of Life. “ CONSIDER THE LILIES OF THE FIELD." Our Saviour was sitting on the side of one of the hiils near the western shore of the Sea of
Life is evermore retreating, Galilee. These hills were on the southern bor
Hurrying on the shrinking soul; der of a broad and fertile meadow, stretching Swiftly are its moments fleeting, inland for more than a mile. The red and pur- Pointing onward to the goal. ple lilies were well known there, as Pliny has
Friends are there, and gaily weave us told us, and they readily suggested by their
Garlands for life's starting place ; colors, the robes which in those days were a
One by one, they sadly leave us, part of the insignia of monarchs ; whence the
In the dark and toilsome race. fitness of the allusion to the apparel of “Solo
If the heart with weary longing, mon in all his glory." There could have been
Looks back o'er the trodden vale, no flower more appropriately “considered,"
'T'is to see them meekly thronging, none more forcibly associated with Solomon
'Neath the marble, cold and pale. and the times of his “glory." It was at once a royal and a sacred flower. It had been wrought
Wrapped in clouds that know no setting,
Gloom without and doubts within, upon the molten sea, and carved upon the two
Still we onward press, forgetting noted pillars of the temple porch. It was the fa
Death at last will surely win. vorite in the flower imagery of the Song of Solomon, and now these lilies were blooming upon In the way the tomb upriseth the plains and fields before them.
Lone and drear, yet placed with care,
This to end the race sufficeth, and beauty were the more remarkable in that
Death will pass,
- we enter there. they grew so freely. They sprang up upon every field, shedding their fragrance upon every And within the silent portal, passing breeze, decorating the thorn as well as
Fades to night the earthly ray, the olive, indebted to no one's care but God's,
Let Hope die, Oh weary mortal,
Faith points to a rising day. to his sunshine and his rains alone, for their existence and their beauty. They had survived Then let life be still retreating. the rending apart of the kingdom. They had Let it hurry on the soul, remained upon the fields, and been "clothed " And the moments swiftly fleeting, and renewed in their weakness, while strong
Shall but haste us to the goal. ones had been carried into captivity, or scourged by sword and by pestilence. “ Consider the
From the Pennsyltania School Journal.
The Common School Teacher.---No. 1 lilies of the field." In all this, every lily had its duty to perform — its place to fill in the cycles of the Creator's great and various purposes. Every lily-stalk was gifted with its minute chan
The first question for a young man to deternels up which it drew the life-sap God had pro- mine, when the impulse to teach school presents vided — it opened its petals in due season, and itself, is, Do I intend to make teaching my prolavishly gave to the passing breeze its grateful fession? The responsibility which rests upon a incense of fragrance, or it smiled in its beauty teacher is a grave one, and one that is not at under the warm rays of a spring-time sun. first fully realized by those who take it upon There it stood, quietly working out its duty and them. To lay the foundation, broad and deep, its history - «« toiling not nor spinning'
-a of a healthy intellectual, moral, social and phynever-failing witness to God's condescending sical development of the hundreds or thousands care and mysterious Providence — a picture of of boys and girls who may be entrusted to his a sublime truth enfolded in its petal, that God's care, is the true mission of the teacher. The eternal power may be be felt and known in a manner in which that mission is to be fulfilled leaf as in a world, and that the footprints of will depend upon the answer to the question at God's loving presence may be very near us, the head of this article. while to find them we are wandering far away.
If the young tcacher is prepared to answer It is said there are two hundred schoolmasters that question in the affirmative, it may be fairly in the Third Vermont Regiment of Volunteers. presumed that he will enter upon his profession
TEACHING A PROFESSIOX.