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they must be picked up. Some teachers allow teacher's desk when not in use ; fewer ink marks pupils, during school hours, to carry papers to will then be found on books and on the floor. the stove or to a box kept for the purpose, but Several very common ways of cleaning pens a better way is, to let them lie on the desk till are scarcely to be commended; ink-wipers made near the close of the school, and then pass a of some soft cloth should be used; the simpler box round to collect paper, pencil-clippings, their make the better. leaves and the like. A man or boy, generally What shall be done with the children and the man that makes the fires, is sometimes hired the school-room at noon? In cities and in vil. by the district to sweep the school-room: this lages the children go home to dinner and the is the best way. But in many districts no ap- school-room is locked ; this is well. In counpropriation is made for this purpose; still the try districts, where many of the scholars come school-room must be swept. Sometimes the from a distance, they stay at noon, going into teacher sweeps it, before or after school; some- the school and using it, pretty much as they times the older girls and boys, or the older girls please; this is bad, and I consider it as a weak only, sweep in turn. When the children stay point in country schools, and one to which too at noon, their frequent incursions into the room. little attention has been given. While attend. while the sweeping is going on, render nearly ing a district school, I have often seen boys run useless the labor of the sweeper, and on rairy over the desks and benches, leaving at each step days, when the children must stay within doors, the imprint of the nails in their boots, throw the dust that is raised is unpleasant and un- apple-cores against the walls and ceiling, and healthy. I do not see how these inconveniences so much snow about the house, that when can be avoided in those districts that do not pay school commenced in the afternoon, water stood a man for sweeping the room. The dust should in puddles on the floor, and the damp room was not be swept out, as is too often the case, at the unfit to sit in. Then the vexed teacher in vain door, but be taken up in a dust-pan and put in- tries to find out the leaders in the mischief, and to the stove.
troubles thicken. Well, what is to be done? Slates, if slates are used, should be cleaned Use all your influence of restraint and of punwith a wet cloth or sponge. Some pupils keep ishment to keep the room neat. a little vial filled with water, and a sponge in The wise teacher will not fail to see that coats their desks, and clean their slates whenever they and cloaks, caps, bonnets and shawls are reguwish to; others keep a sponge, which they wet larly hung up in the entry, or the dressing-room. before school, or at recess. Some teachers have It is often disheartening to the good mother, a sponge in a basin of water, for any scholar to who sends her children to school neatly dressuse at recess, but allow no one to go to wash a ed, to see them come home with clothes soiled, slate during school hours.
stained, torn, or trampled on by the fret of the Writing books should be kept neat, and it scholars. There are school houses in the State might be well for all to raise their hands, before which have no entry, or dressing room, fit to beginning to write, and for those who have dir. hang clothes in ; that is bad. ty hands to cleanse them. Let a piece of clean properly arranged school house, there is one paper be kept under the pupil's hand while dressing-room for the boys, and another for the writing, and either keep the books open five girls, with separate entrances and no communiminutes after the exercise is over, or else have cation with each other. Each scholar should blotting paper in the books. Some teachers have a nail or a hook with his name or number have the "cover" of the writing book covered under it, and let the teacher see that all clothes with newspaper, and it is well to collect the are hung up, that none are left on the floor. It books and keep them in the teacher's desk. would be well for him to visit the dressing
Ink-stands should be used rather than ink- rooms, at times, after the scholars are all in, and bottles ; the narrow necks of the latter ink the at other times send out one of the older pupils, pen-holders, and are a frequent cause of stain- who should report the careless ones. ed fingers and blotted books. The pupil, at a Add to the above, that snow-balls should not suitable age, should learn to erase blots from his be thrown into the entries at recess, that each books, with either knife or ink-eraser, though pupil should erase from the board his own chalkhe would better learn not to blot them. Ink- marks, dust his own desk and refrain from markstands should be inserted into the desk; when ing or tearing his books. this is not the case, they should be kept at thel The outside of school buildings, and some
But in every times the inside, and a iso the fence around the From “ Education : Intellectual, Moral and Physical," yard, are often to be seen hacked by jack-knives,
by Herbert Spencer.
Physical Education. marked and scratched in a shocking and indecent manner. That boy is indeed to be pitied, To the importance of bodily exercise most who can spend his leisure moments at recess in
people are in some degree awake. Perhaps less no better way than in defacing the walls of a needs saying on this requisite of physical edubuilding that should be held sacred as a temple cation than on most others: at any rate, in of knowledge. The older and poorer a schcol
so far as boys are concerned. Public schools house is, the less respect will be shown it. Let and private schools alike furnish tolerably adethe new one, however, be properly cared for; quate playgrounds; and there is usually a the better the building, the easier this will be fair share of tinie for out-of-door games, and a The condition of the outhouses is often a dis
recognition of them as needful. In this, if in grace to the school and to the teacher. I can
no other direction, it seems admitted that the here only earnestly call the attention of teachers
natural promptings of boyish instinct may ad. and school officers to this subject.
vantageously be followed ; and, indeed, in the Clean air, that luxury, and that rarity inside modern practice of breaking the prolonged of four walls, should be enjoyed in full measure morning and afternoon's lessons by a few min. by all in the room. Foul air is the vilest of all utes open-air recreation, we see an increasing things, the greatest offence against neatness to tendency to conform school regulations to the be found in our schools: and, notwith: tanding bodily sensations of the pupils. Here, then, all that has been said and written on this sub- little needs to be said in the way of expostulaject, in the last fifteen years, how rarely is a well- tion or suggestion. ventilated school-room, public hall or church to
But we have been obliged to qualify this ad. be found. Every properly built school-room is mission by inserting the clause “in so far as provided with efficient means of ventilation. If
boys are concerned." Unfortunately the fact is fresh air cannot otherwise be obtained, raise the
quite otherwise in the case of girls. It chances, windows at rece-s, and after school; if this
somewhat strangely, that we have daily oppor. lowers the temperature too much, let the schol.
tunity of drawing a comparison. We have both ars practice gymnastics for five minutes.
a boy's and a giri's school within view ; and the Finally, at some general exercise, or in the contrast between them is remarkable. In the class in physiology, the propriety and necessity une case, nearly the whole of a large garden is of frequent bathing should be enforced by all turned into an open, gravelled space, affording those considerations and arguments now so ample scope for games, and supplied with poles generally understood, not forgetting to mention and horizontal bars för gymnastic exercises. the proper and frequent cleaning of the teeth.
Every day before breakfast, again towards Why is neatness a duty? Because it is close- eleven o'clock, again at mid-day, again in the ly connected with the health of the body, that afternoon, and once more after school is over, “ temple of God," and with the condition of the neighborhood is awakened by a chorus of the soul, its immortal inhabitant. But of this shouts and laughter as the boys rush ont to as another tim.e.
play; and for as long as they remain, both eyes
and ears give proof that they are absorbed in The Winter at Hayti.—The record of the that enjoyable activity which makes the pulse range of the thermometer at the hour of noon, bound and ensures the healthy activity of eveat Cape Haytien, from December 1 to February ry organ. How unlike is the picture offered by 12 inclusive, has been thus made cut by a resi- the “ Establishment for Young Ladies"! Undent :
til the fact was pointed out, we actually did not In December the range was between 77o and know that we had a girl's school as close to us 850. Upon only four days of the month did the as the school for boys. The garden, equally temperature fall below 80°. It was 85° on nine large with the other, affords no sign whatever days, and 840 on five days. During January of any provision for juvenile recreation ; but is the range was from 80 to 84o. From the 1st to entirely laid out with prim grassplots, grareled the 12th of February it ranged from 74 to 849. walks, shrubs and tlowers, after the usual sub. In the whole seventy-four days the difference urban style. During five months we have not at noon, between the warmest and the coldest once had our attention drawn to the premises days was only eight degrees.
I by a shout or a laugh. Occasionally girls may
be observed sauntering along the paths with ed. The fear is quite groundless, however. their lesson. books in their hands, or else walk. For if the sportive activity allowed to boys does ing arm-in-arm. Once, indeed, we saw one not prevent them from growing up into gentlechase another round the garden ; but, with this men, why should a like sportive activity allowexception, nothing like vigorous exertion has ed to girls prevent them from growing up into been visible.
ladies ? Rough as may have been their accusWhy this astonishing difference? Is it that tomed play-ground frolics, youths who have left the constitution of a girl differs so entirely from school do not indulge in leapfrog in the street, that of a boy as not to need these active exer or marbles in the drawing-room. Abandoning cises ? Is it that the girl has none of the voci- their jackets, they abandon at the same time ferous play by which boys are impelled? Or is boyish games; and display an anxiety – often it that, while in boys these promptings are t) be a ludicrous anxiety — to avoid whatever is not regarded as securing that bodily activity with manly. If now, on arriving at the due age, this out which there cannot be adequate develop- feeling of masculine dignity puts so efficient a ment, to their sisters nature has given them for restraint on the romping sports of boyhood, no purpose whatever - unless it be for the vex - will not the feeling of feminine modesty, gradation of schoolmistresses? Perhaps, however, ually strengthening as maturity is approached, we mistake the aim of those who train the gen. put an efficient restraint on the like sports of tler sex. We have a vague suspicion that to girlhood? Have not women even a greater reproduce a robust physique is thought undesirable; gard for appearances than men ? and will there that rude health and abundant vigor are con- not consequently arise in them a stronger check sidered somewhat plebian ; that a certain deli- to whatever is rough or boisterous ? How abcacy, a strength not competent to more than a surd is the supposition that the womanly inmile or two's walk, an appetite fastidious and stincts would not assert themselves but for the easily satisfied, joined with that timidity which rigorous discipline of schoolmistresses ! commonly accompanies feebleness, are held more
In this, as in other cases, to remedy the evils lady.like. We do not expect that any would of one artificiality, another artificiality has been distinctly avow this; but we fancy the govern. introduced. The natural spontaneous exercise ess-mind is haunted by an ideal young lady having been forbidden, and the bad consequenbearing not a little resemblance to this type. ces of no exercise having become conspicuous, If so, it must be admitted that the established there has been adopted a system of factitious system is admirably calculated to realize this exercise – gymnastics. That this is better than ideal. But to suppose that such is the ideal of nothing, we admit; but that it is an adequate the opposite sex is a profound mistake. That substitute for play, we deny. The defects are men are not commonly drawn towards mascu. both positive and negative. In the first piace, line women, is doubtless true. That such rela- these formal, muscular motions, necessarily tive weakness as calls for the protection of su. much less varied than those accompanying juperior strength is an element of attraction, we venile sports, do not secure so equable a distriquite admit. But the difference to which the bution of action to all parts of the body; whence feelings thus respond is the natural, preëstab. it results that the exertion, falling on special lished difference, which will assert itself with parts, produces fatigue sooner than it would out artificial appliances. And when, by artifi. else have done: add to which, that, if constantcial appliances, the degree of this difference is ly repeated, this exertion of special parts leads increased, it becomes an element of repulsion to a disproportionate development. Again, the rather than attraction.
quantity of exercise thus taken will be deficient, " Then girls should be allowed to run wild- not only in consequence of uneven distribution, to become as rude as boys, and grow up into but it will be further deficient in consequence romps and hoydens !” exclaims some defender of lack of interest. Even when not made reof the proprieties. This, we presume, is the pulsive, as they sometimes art, by assuming the ever-presen: dread of schoolmistresses. It ap. shape of appointed lessons, these monotonous pears, on inquiry, that at “ Establishments for movements are sure to become wearisome, from Young Ladies" noisy play like that daily in the absence of amusement. Competicion, it is dulged in by boys, is a punishable offence; and true, serves as a stimulus; but it is not a lastit is to be inferred that this noisy play is for. ing stimulus, like that enjoyment which accombidden lest unlady-like habits should be form-panies varied play. Not only, however, are
gymnastics inferior in respect of the quantity of
For the Schoolmaster. muscular exertion which they secure; they are
Queries and Replies.” still more inferior in respect of the quality. This comparative want of enjoyment to which we In the June number of THE SCHOOLMASTER have referred as a cause of early desistance from appeared an article, taken from the N. H. Jourartificial exercises, is also a cause of inferiority nal of Agriculture, entitled “Queries and Rein the effects they produce on the system. The plies.” The querist, A. B. C., seems to be of common assumption that so long as the amount opinion that, the answer to the first question of bodily action is the same,it matters not wheth- should be in the negative. He does not seem er it be pleasureable or otherwise, is a grave mis- to be aware of the existence of such a class of take.
An agreeable mental excitement has a words as predicate adjectives ; and C., who rehighly invigorating influence. Sre the effect plies to the questions, does not, to my mind, produced upon an invalid by good news, or by seem to help him out of the difficulty. He says: the visit of an old friend. Mark how careful “ Certainly — not • look gloriously.'” I do not medical men are to recommend lively society to hesitate to hazard the opinion that, most peodebilitated patients. Remember how beneficial ple, in reading the reply, would take it to mean to the health is the gratification produced by negatively,notwithstanding that all-important(!), change of scene. The truth, is that happiness is omnipresent (with some writers,) dash between the wost powerful of tonics. By accelerating the first two words. It would be much im. the circulation of the blood, it facilitates the proved by omitting all but the tirst word, Cur. performance of every function; and so tends tainly.” But that only implies an affirmative alike to increase health when it exists, and to answer. And, although it is quite natural that, restore it when it has been lost. Hence the es. C. should anticipate what would be A. B. C.'s sential superiority of play to gymnastics. The answer, yet it strikes me as exceedingly awk. exireme interest felt by children in their games, ward to express it in that way. Although and the riotous glee with which they carry on the pointing is not what it should be to express their rougher frolics, are of as much importance a negative answer, yet there are many who as the accompanying exertion. And as not sup- would not miss the point after “not"; and the plying these mental stimuli, gymnastics must be dash would not be regarded by them as at all in fundamentally defective.
the way of such a construction. It is no anGranting then, as we do, that formal exer- swer to these objections to say that, it is expectcises of the limbs are better than nothing -ed that the reader knows the rules of punctuagranting, further, that they may be used with tion, as every one knows how great is the ignoadvantage as supplementary aids; we yet con- rance that prevails on that subject. It seems to tend that such formal exercises can never sup- me a very muddy way of answering a very simply the place of the exercises prompted by na ple question. I desire, with great modesty, to ture. For girls, as well as boys, the sportive suggest the following improvement of C.'s anactivities to which the instincts impel, are essen- swer : tial to bodily welfare. Whoever forbids them,
Certainly; not“ – look gloriously"; if he forbids the divinely-appointed means to physi
means to answer affirmatively. But the followcal development.
ing would be better : Yes. It is not correct to
say: Our crops look gloriously, as some erroBREECH-LOADING GUNS are not, as is erro- neously suppose, thus using an adverb where neously supposed, a modern invention. The we should use a predicate adjective, as we wish Venetians in the seventeenth century had many to predicate some quality of "crops." But such. There is one to be seen in the United C.'s answer is really equivalent to no answer Service Museum, bearing the date of 1545, re- at all ; for he merely makes an assertion where covered from the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk the proof is wanting. It is not sufficient for at Spithead. Also one of the time of Henry the learner to be told that, a thing is so, or VIII. Sir Howard Douglas mentions a small is not so, when it admits of proof; and particbrass four-pounder, with a detached chamber ularly when the question is one of so great imfor breech-loading, bearing the cipher of the portance, and about which there are so many Dutch East India Company, and another piece erroneous impressions, especially among those of brass ordnance of Dutch make, bearing date who desire to be exceedingly exquisite in all 1650.
their expressions. There is a large class of such
Take Care of Little Things.
The following extract contains the substance sonal observation, that there are those who of many sermons on the importance of little would persist in the use of this barbarism, things. Mr. Irving, in his “Life of Washingthough the most convincing proofs were given ton,” says that great and good man was careful them of its absurdity. To such persons in par- of small things, bestowing attention on the ticular the answer of C. is wholly insufficient. minutest affair of his household as closely as Nor is it pretended that, in this article, I have upon the most important concerns of the Regiven the complete analysis of the predicate of public. The editor of the Merchani s' Magazine, the proposition. It has not been my intention ; in speaking of the fact, says : but rather to elicit from our friend C., or any
“ No man ever made a fortune, or rose to one else, such a description as the importance greatness in any department, without being careof the subject demands.
ful of small things. As the beach is composed
of grains of sand, as the ocean is made of drops I will, however, suggest one criticism on the
of water, so the millionaire's wealth is the aguse of the word “glorious" instead of well,
gregution of the profits of single adventures, fine, excellent, beautiful, or splendid. If some of
ofcen inconsiderable in amount, Every eminent these are not expressive enough, they can be
merchant, from Girard and Astor down, has modified by adverbs without altering the con
been noted fur his attention to details. Few struction of the sentence. “ Glorious" does not seem to be the word to express any quality the courts who were not remarkable for a simi
distinguished lawyers have ever practiced in that may be predicated of "crops,” though its
lar characteristic. It was one of the peculiarimay be synonymous with some of the above list primarily. It relates rather to the works, or
ties of the first Napoleon's mind. The most attributes of God, or the achievements and titles petty details of his household expenses, the
most trivial facts relative to his troops, were, in of men. But custom, which sometimes makes
his opinion, as worthy of his attention as the law, may admit of the use of such extravagant
tactics of a battle, the revising of a code. Demodes of expression, in certain flights of the
mosthenes, the world's unrivalled orator, was imagination, or exuberance of fancy. We may
as anxious about his gestures or intonations as easily conceive this to be the real state of mind
about the texture of his argument or the granof the Coos Democrat when he said : “ Our crops deur of his words. Before such great examlook glorious.”
ples, and in the very highest walks of intellect, (2) C. has not answered the second ques- how contemptible the conduct of the small tion correctly. Both modes of expression, pro- minds who can despise small things.” pounded by the querist, are correct, and will be found so on a proper analysis of the two sen- THE TRUE THING.— The end of all learning tences. “ Forbid” and “ forbidden" are both is to make us wise. Wisdom is not a one-sided, the same form of the verb, viz. : the passive but comprehensive culture of heart and mind, participle; and their combination respectively soul and body. The end of wisdom is use. If with the auxiliary "are," forms the pres. indic. it does no good, it is not wisdom, but something
• To enter” and “ entering” are alike else. Wisdom comes from a good natural unhere, except in form, and both verbal nouns, derstanding, enriched by the dressing of large properly governed by from understood. C.'s and wise thoughts. Good books there be, substitute does not seem to be half so express which nourish the mind, as food does the body. ive : « Entrance upon these premises is forbid. In morbid states the stomach may be consumed den." It seems like firing a powder-cracker by the precious activity of the very secretions after the report of a cannon.
and chemical agents which give it power. This Finally, I shall take no exceptions to the rest may serve to intimate to us that the mind, withof C.'s communication. He has answered ques- out its fit nutriment and proper distention, by tions (3) and (4) admirably. So the querist has which it should act, and obey its natural law, good ideas on the subject of “ Auction"; but
may consume itself away. Get wisdom by I would respectfully remind him that, the best thought, by observation, by reading, by action, place to ascertain the proper spelling of any word is in one of our large dictionaries.
The blood of the soldier makes the glory of the general.
J. M. B.