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depend not upon the people, but himself. To honestly striving to enrich his neighbor. Hope fill our coffers is not necessarily a low ambition; will brighten along his path, for it thrives in it may consist with, and be an aid to, most lofty the atmosphere of good will. Self-forgetfulness endeavor. But to enrich ourselves thus, is not must be his attitude, and then a nobler self will

always and to all men, practicable. Riches, arise. Love for his kind must be a moving just as we seem to grasp them, may take wings force, and then his spirit is in harmony with and depart. But the higher rewards of which Infinite Love.

The clouds give

we speak are not thus precarious. They are Reaction is everywhere. sure. Like charity, they never fail. As the rain and it returns again. We reap, in kind, mercury indicates the temperature of the at- as we sow. The powers we use, grow thereby. mosphere, so these test the temper of the soul. If the affections are called into play, and made The miserably selfish man cannot understand to pour a tide of blessing on others, they are enthis. The meaning of self-sacrifice he does not larged and quickened into a higher and broader comprehend. Labor is but another name for life. If the intellect alone is brought into play, drudgery. The hours hang wearily on him, then it, alone, is strengthened. So when a man and he groans before his task is done. The gives himself to duty consecrating all his chambers of his soul are all dark, for he be- powers to noble aims, he rises to the dignity of lieves only in external illumination. He brings a perfect manhood, and he shall in no wise lose into play only the lower half of his nature, and his reward. so sees nothing but hardship in his lot.

Yet, let it be understood, one selfish motive Not so the man who is truly alive to the pos- spoils his claim. If one trys to be good for the sibilities of his calling. He puts soul as well sake of the reward, his motive defeats his puras body into his work, and so draws double pose and he will complain. Just as a man goes pay. And in the long run, it will be found to church solely for an example. It is only a that the highest wisdom is the best economy. sham. Like a counterfeit bill- passing current Only you must take care not to introduce the only because its character is unknown. economy as the motive for getting wisdom, for If, now, the teacher, on entering his schoolthe motive must correspond with the end in room, will say to himself: "Here are pupils view, else it becomes a vitiating power. And from various homes, of widely different antehence the word of the great Teacher,- "He cedents, constitutions, temperaments and cirthat will save his life shall lose it, and he that cumstances, they hold certain relations to will lose his life for my sake the same shall find society and possess immortal powers, capable of it." "You have spent a fortune and given your unlimited expansion, and it is my business to unstrength for the benefit of others," said a pur-fold these powers and give direction to thought. blind Christian to Howard, "but what have Silently, before God, I pledge myself, all that I you done for your own soul?" Just as though am or care to be, to this work. I will feel for a man may give his life for humanity as Jesus the springs of action in each individual souldid, without doing the very best thing possible I will know what secret forees impel them — I for himself! will wrap myself in their affections, and by unconcious tuition,' I will teach the nobleness of true living."


You have heard of the hypochondriac searching for a certain plant. His physician had told him he could not cure him, but he had no doubt What glory radiates from such a nature! the plant mentioned would do so, if he could What an inspiration flows thence, and what find it. So the patient sought for it far and oneness pervades that family of learners. But bent all his energies to the work, and amidst them all, not one learns so much as the though he never found it, he got well. His teacher. Not one is so blessed in heart and life. mind becoming absorbed, and his pains forgot- Not one so readily comprehends the Teacher of ten in the search, health stole in as it were teachers, when he says: "It is more blessed to through every avenue. I think it would be give than to receive." Ignorant of this princihealthful often to think of something besides ple which underlies the experience of every true health; and as with the body, so with the soul. soul, men will labor, and then give themselves We accomplish most for that, when we do most to murmuring where they ought to be rejoicing. for the good of others. The explanation must often be, that they have

A man who uses this philosophy will not be suffered unworthy motives to influence them, and easily discouraged. He will be enriched while have extravagantly claimed dividends for which

they had made no investment.

of self-sacrifice-regarding others before himself, and he will not complain that his labor has been in vain.

Physical Culture in Amherst College.


Wherefore, let lack of violence, they are within the strength of every man fully commit himself to the purpose all. By their variety, they bring all the muscles into play, from the head down, and do not fatigue especially any muscle or set of muscles beyond others. The uniformity of movement imparts an interest and zeal, and cultivates order and precision. They are calculated to give grace and flexibility of motion at the same time with It will be recollected that a few months ago a strength. After these exercises, the divisions new department was created in Amherst Col-are marched by their officers, under the orders of lege, entitled "Hygiene and Physical Education." the instructor, to different portions of the stationTo take charge of it, a gentleman of thorough ary apparatus, and go through with different permedical education has been selected, who is re-formances, each man keeping his place and exerquired to give instruction by lectures and other-cising in his turn.

wise in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene; to Besides these hours for class exercise, there act as the medical adviser of the college; to em- are other times when the gymnasium is open for ploy his knowledge of the human system, its voluntary, general exercises. The professor, or habits and capabilities, in instituting and direct- one or more of his officers, are always present, ing regular physical exercises, best calculated to however, to direct and superintend, to see that develop the whole body in a healthy, uniform everything is done in order, and to guard against way. All the students are required to attend to any one injnring himself, or the apparatus. The physical exercises with as much regularity as to their Latin, Greek, or mathematics. The rules week. The use of the bowling alleys is subject corps of officers have a special drill twice in the by which the students are governed in this part to rules and regulations. Each class has its times of their education are thus stated by the Spring-assigned for the use of them, and all confusion field Republican: and interference are guarded against." "Each class is obliged to meet the professor at This system has been in operation for one term the gymnasium for half an hour's exercise, four and as far as can be determined has worked addays in the week. On Wednesday and Saturmirably. It has become exceedingly popular day, they being half-holidays, the students are with the students, those who at first dreaded and expected to get exercise enough other ways. opposed it being loud in its praise. The students

Each class is divided into four divisions, and

say that they can realize & benefit to themselves; they feel better and stronger; their brains are clearer and better fitted for study. The faculty all testify in observing beneficial effects among the students."

each division has its officer who acts as an assistant to the professor. Five minutes are allowed for changing the dress, as a suitable dress is one of the requirements. The class then form by divisions with their officer at the head; they march up stairs to the drum beat and answer to the roll HEAT FROM THE STARS.-It is a startling fact, call. In order to avoid confusion, to cultivate that if the earth were dependent alone upon the the habit of order, to give an erect, graceful car- sun for heat, it would not get enough to make riage, the students are under a regular drill. the existence of animal and vegetable life possiEach division has its assigned position, and each ble upon its surface. It results from the reman is assigned a place in the division. All searches of Pouillet, that the stars furnish heat moving about in the gymnasium is marching enough in the course of a year to melt a crust with regularity and precision. of ice eighty-five feet thick, almost as much as Part of the half hour is occupied by company supplied by the sun. This may appear strange exercises, which are calisthenic rather than gym- when we consider how immeasurably small nastic. They are executed with dumb bells, no must be the amount of heat received from any higher weight than ten pounds being used, with one of these distant bodies. But the surprise clubs, with poles, or without anything whatever. vanishes, when we remember that the whole It is astonishing to one, who has never studied firmament is so thickly sown with stars, that the subject, to see how much and what a variety in some places thousands are crowded together of exercises can be obtained in this simple way within a space no greater than that occupied by The movements are required to be executed, at the word of command, with promptness and uniformity. As far as possible, they are gone through WE should be kind to all persons, even to with in time with music. By their simplicity and those who are unkind to us.

the full moon.-DR. LARDNER.

Editors' Department.

The business committee proposed to open the exercises by a short lesson in spelling. The words were put out by the President and then written THIS number commences the sixth volume of down by those who chose to take part in the exerTHE SCHOOLMASTER-and here is a Happy New cise. The result proved that but one person had Year to all its friends -a sincere thank you to all who have contributed to its support during the year that is passed, and a word of entreaty to those who have turned only the cold shoulder, those who have shut their eyes to its merits or their ears to its claims.

spelled every word right.

It was announced that free criticism would be allowed upon all the exercises; and that pleasant occupation was quite liberally and good-naturedly indulged in through the whole session.

Mr. Ingalls, of Whitinsville, discussed certain points in arithmetic, principally concerned with the " greatest common divisor." Mr. Ingalls was ready to give an answer for the faith that was in him concerning the figures.

It is just a twelve month since THE SCHOOLMASTER was placed under the fostering care of the R. I. Institute of Instruction, and what was then deemed a doubtful experiment, has since proved a happy success. It is no longer a problem for time to solve, whether the teachers of Rhode Island are Mr. H. R. Pierce, teacher in the High School, "good soldiers" in the cause of education. Near- Woonsocket, then gave us a very interesting and ly all their names are enrolled upon our subscrip- instructive talk upon the subject of "Fractions," tion list, and we venture to say, that in no State is until the hour for adjournment.

the teacher's journal more generally circulated| The afternoon session was called to order by the than in ours; that in no State do the teachers President at half past one o'clock; when Mr. more fully appreciate the value of a professonal Pierce continued his remarks on arithmetic; payjournal to aid them in their noble work. ing his respects at closing to the "greatest common divisor."

Now this argues well for our success; for where we find teachers striving to improve themselves in their calling, we are sure to find the best schools and the most thorough instruction.

The editors of THE SCHOOLMASTER have kept constantly in view the wants of teachers, and have endeavored to present in its pages practical articles, such as would tend to improvement and to the dissemination of correct views upon the general subjects of instruction.

We trust it has been a welcome visitor during the year; that some have been encouraged by it in their work and incited to more earnest effort; that it has aroused the dormant energies of many who were growing cold and lax in their work.

Standing, as we do, upon the threshold of this new year, we turn confidently to our old friends for a continuance of their favors, and solicit their aid in making for us new friends.

To the teachers of the State we say, this is your journal-make it, by your active cooperation, a worthy exponent of your educational character.

Blackstone Valley Association.

Prof. Samuel S. Greene, of Providence, then favored the Association with a lecture upon the subject of "Teaching Grammar." Mr. Greene's perfect familiarity with his subject enabled him to present his ideas in a very clear and intelligible light. All were deeply interested, and without doubt profitably instructed, by his remarks.

After a recess of ten minutes, which was diligently improved in social conference by the members, the Association was called to order and joined with Mr. Sargent in singing an appropriate hymn, to the good old tune of "Greenville."

A call was now made for the reading of dissertations, as was proposed at the last session of the

Association at Upton.

Miss Nancy S. Battey, of Burrillville, then read a well digested and well written dissertation upon the following question: "How far does the care and oversight of the teacher extend over the morals of the pupil out of the school-room?

It is hoped that others will join in this profitable exercise, at the future meetings of the Association; thus aiding the writers in self-culture, as well as instructing those who listen to their productions.

THE Blackstone Valley Association of committees, teachers and other friends of education, held its fifth semi-annual session at Blackstone, on Prof. Greene, upon invitation, then favored the Friday and Saturday, December 7th and 8th, 1860. meeting with some excellent remarks upon the The meeting was called to order at 10 o'clock, A, analysis of words, with reference to correct readM., by Rev. George S. Ball, of Upton, President. ing. On motion of Dr. R. R. Clarke, of Whitinsville, Dr. Clarke called up the subject of the use of a business committee of seven, six of whom to be cards showing deportment, attendance, &c., in teachers, was chosen, viz: Rev. J. S. Haraden, school, upon which he made some remarks, and of Sutton, W. H. Scaver, Upton, E. Ingalls, was followed by Drs. Metcalf, Southwick, and Prof. Northbridge, H. R. Pierce, Woonsocket, G. B. Greene. Williams, Uxbridge, Miss S. C. Brackett, Northbridge and Miss Ellen Seagraves, Blackstone.

At the close of the discussion, the meeting was adjourned to the Congregational Church at 7 1-2

oclock, P. M., to listen to an address from Gen. discipline to secure obedience to the requisitions Oliver. of the teacher?" was taken from the table, and At the appointed time, the Association met at discussed by Messrs. Metcalf, Ingalls, Seaver and the church, and in the absence of the President others. With all the speakers, it was held that and Vice President, the meeting was called to or- teachers should be especially educated for their der by the Secretary. vocation, and that, while moral suasion should be regarded as the chief means of securing obedience, corporeal punishment should not be discarded as a means of last resort.

Gen. Henry K. Oliver, of Lawrence, then delived a well arranged and eloquent lecture on the "Mission of the Teacher;" which was listened to by an attentive audience, and, as we doubt not, with profit as well as pleasure. For a quarter of a century Gen. Oliver has been a teacher, and consequently is able to draw from the storehouse of his prolonged and varied experience ample material for the elucidation and enforcement of those principles he had made the subject of his present address.

The committee to select subjects for dissertations, to be read at the next meeting of the association, reported the following, viz:

1. What are the best means for securing punctual attendance at school?

2. Ought prizes ever to be offered for deportment or scholarship in school?

3. The most successful methods which teachers On Saturday, the second day of the meeting, the have adopted for suppressing whispering in school? Association was called to order at 9 o'clock, A. M. After a recess of ten minutes, Mr. Seagraves, in After the choice of Jno. G. Metcalf as a mem- a few pertinent remarks, then commended THE ber of the executive committee, in the place of the RHODE ISLAND SCHOOLMASTER as a fit companion Rev. Stillman Barber, removed from the limits of for The Massachusetts Teacher, and advised the the Association, the following question, proposed members of the Association to add their names to by the executive committee, was brought up for its subscription list. discussion:-“ :-"The best methods of discipline to secure obedience to the requisitions of the teach


A somewhat lengthy and able discussion followed, in which Messrs. John J. Ladd, W. A. Mowry, N. W. DeMunn, of Providence, H. R. Pierce, of Woonsocket, Mr. Macomber of Uxbridge, and Dr. R. R. Clarke, of Whitinsville, took part.

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The question "Is too much time spent in the study of arithmetic in our schools?" was then discussed by Messrs. Pierce, Haraden, DeMunn, Macomber, Ball, and others. Most of the speakers gave opinions in the affirmative.

The committee on resolutions made the follow

ing report:

1. Resolved, That the importance of the cause of education demands an earnest and determined effort to sustain and strengthen all the means now being used for the improvement of both teachers and committees.

After a recess of ten minutes, the President's bell called to order, and the meeting united in singing the glorious old song of " Hail Columbia " Mr. William A. Mowry, of Providence, then gave an interesting lecture upon the subject of 2. Resolved, That the thanks of this AssociaGeography; holding it of secondary importance tion be tendered to Gen. Henry K. Oliver, of Lawto learn the names and location of places without rence, for his able and instructive address, and to making ourselves acquainted with their physical Messrs. Greene, Mowry, Pierce, DeMunn and geography. Ladd, of Rhode Island, for their timely and effi

The business committee reported the following cient aid in carrying out the purposes of the presquestions for discussion : ent meeting.

1. What are the chief difficulties in the way of school committees ?

3. Resolved, That we gratefully acknowledge the kindness and hospitality of the people of this 2. What are the chief difficulties in the way village and vicinity, for our agreeable entertainschool teachers?

3. How shall the avocation of teacher become recognized as a profession?

ment during our present session.

Rev. Mr. Haraden, in a few timely and pertinent remarks upon the second resolution, paid a just tribute to our Rhode Island friends, for their kind assistance in giving life and interest to the present meeting. Mr. Mowry responded in their be

The first two questions were taken up in conjunction, immediately after the opening of the afternoon session, and Messrs. Pierce, Seaver, Haraden, Seagraves, Hall, Williams, Ladd, Mowry, half. Meggett, DeMunn and Hayward joined in the dis- The President then closed the exercises of the cussion. The remarks of the various speakers Association with a short review of the objects and were listened to with great attention. The chief doings of its members, and the eloquent expresdifficulties in the way of both committees and sion of his confidence in its future prosperity and teachers were mainly attributed to the great lack usefulness. After singing "Old Hundred," the of a proper interest felt by parents in the welfare meeting was adjourned to meet in May next, at of the schools. the call of the Executive Committee. The question “What are the best methods of The undersigned, in closing his report of the

proceedings of the fifth semi-annual meeting of which parents, by seasonable visits to the school the Blackstone Valley Association, takes the liber- house, by friendly and unrestricted conference ty to add, that none of the previous meetings of with the teacher and among themselves, might the Association have been conducted with a deeper not, in a single term, increase the value of the or livlier interest, or with more efficient means for school by a larger per centage than Shylock gets instruction. The lecture of Gen. Oliver; the cheer- for his money, on the street, in the midst of a ful cooperation of our kind friends from "over the financial panic. Let, then, the experiment be border;" the aid we received from the teachers at tried. Visit the school house; talk with the teachpresent sojourning within the limits of the Asso- er; talk among yourselves; let both teacher and ciation, with what was gleaned from the produc- pupil, to say nothing of the committee-man, see tions of home growth, rendered this the most in- that you really feel an interest in what they are teresting as well as profitable session which has doing; and, our word for it, you will be convinced been held. It is not doubted that committees as that your time and labor has been expended to well as teachers are profited by these meetings, good advantage. We invite you to our Associaand feel themselves encouraged and strengthened tional gatherings, and should be glad to have our in the discharge of their several duties as the immediate and responsible guardians of public instruction,

JNO. GEO. METCALF, Secretary.

Mendon, Dec. 12th, 1860.

places of meeting filled to overflowing with the fathers and mothers of the children committed to our charge. We do desire your cooperation; we We love, in this country, to talk about the school feel encouraged by your presence and strengthened house and the school teacher, and in the exercise by your advice. Meet with us the coming Spring; of our national prerogative, we boast that the free let us take counsel together, and see if something school is the great and cherished safeguard of all cannot be done which shall aid in the improveour religious and civil institutions. We grow elo- ment and enhance the glory of the free schools of quent and patriotic, at once, if they are attacked; Massachusetts. and if talk would do it, they would incontinently be placed on a basis beyond the reach of any sup. posable disturbing element. We desire to see the public school fulfilling its normal and important mission. We are ready to spend and be spent " for its improvement. To this end the Blackstone Valley Association was organized in 1858 by the school committees, teachers and other friends of education in the towns of Blackstone, Uxbridge, Douglas, Sutton, Northbridge, Upton and Mendon. Thus far they have been satisfied that the investment of their time and labor, in the inaugu- changed. It is a question whether this incorrect ration and continuance of their associated efforts, has yielded reasonable dividends. May they feel that some good has been achieved for the cause in which they are, at least, officially interested.

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COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addressed to WM. A. MOWRY, Providence.

Shall and Will.

[THESE two words are very frequently inter

use in New England is not increasing. At the South and West the difficulty is of so aggravated a nature that we dispair of correcting the evil. But we still have hope that the intelligence of our More good would be accomplished could they ever dear New England will finally triumph, and educate the parents of the pupils they do not hesi- that our present schoolmasters and mistresses will tate to commit to our charge to a profounder con- so instill correct principles and usage into the viction that the free schools of Massachusetts will minds of the children that the next generation will never become what they should be, and what they be comparatively free from the temptations in this soon would be, did the parents and guardians of regard which so continually beset us. The subject has heretofore been ably treated by the 222,220 children attending the public schools of this Commonwealth, feel and manifest that re- other pens in the pages of THE SCHOOLMASTER, and we only propose at the present time to present gard for their welfare which the principles of a sound philosophy, as well the plainest axioms of an extract from one of the most useful books on common sense, so clearly indicate. our language with which we have ever met, nameFor this purpose, we would endeavor to convince them that ly, the Rev. Matthew Harrison's work on the English Language.] school houses, however commodious and elegant; appropriations for the support of the immediate agents of public instruction, however magnificent, or monster endowments, for the halls of learning, by public or private munificence, are not enough. We desire to impress them with the paramount There is no general rule to be drawn from this work. În He (Brenan), however, has not removed the difficulty, importance of a direct and personal responsibility the case of sha'l and will (says the reviewer), let us try for the welfare of the individual school. We be- to supply this deficiency. Will is the sign of resolution, may of possibility, can of ability, must of necessity, lieve there is not a single school in the State in ought of propriety; these have all a view of the future,

"In a review of Justice Brenan's Foreigner's English Conjugator," contained in the Atlas newspaper of January 23d, 1831, the following observations are made on the subject of shall and will:

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