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for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, and desired that the power of making war, dock-yards, and other needful buildings." peace and treaties, that of levying money and
Let this clause of our dear charter of liberties regulating commerce, and the correspondent exbe remembered, and let it be remembered, too, ecutive and judicial authorities, should be fully that we have never ceded our right of “exclu- and effectually vested in the general government sive legislation" over forts Sumter, Moultrie, &c. of the Union ; but the impropriety of delegat
Among the restrictions upon the States, the ing such extensive trust to one body of men is Constitution declares (art. 1, § 10) that " No evident : hence results the necessity of a differState shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or ent organization. confederation," &c., “ pass any bill of attainder, “ It is obviously impracticable, in the federal ez post facto law, or law impairing the obliga-government of these States, to secure all rights tion of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.” of independent sovereignty to each, and yet
Confederations of States, then, should be look- provide for the interest and safety of all. Indied after by the protectors of this Constitution. viduals entering into society must give up a share
Moreover, in the 6th article we are assured of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude that " This Constitution and the laws of the of the sacrifice must depend as well on situaUnited States which shall be made in pursuance
tion and circumstance as on the object to be obthereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be tained. It is at all times difficult to draw with made, under the authority of the United States, precision the line betweeen those rights which shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the must be surrendered and those which may be judges of every State shall be bound thereby, reserved; and on the present occasion this difanything in the constitution and laws of any ficulty was increased by a difference among the State to the contrary notwithstanding."
several States as to their situation, extent, haWe are nowhere told when this most reason
bits and particular interests. able arrangement shall cease, or how it may be
" In all our deliberations on this subject, we superceded by other authority. Indeed it is kept steadily in our view that which appears to us difficult to conceive how this couid take place the greatest interest of every true American — the in a “ perpetual union," made more pertect.”
consolidation of our Union - in which is involved Surely no one will be bold enough to quote our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our naarticle x, - “ The powers not delegated to the tional existence. This important consideration, United States by the Constitution, nor prohibit. seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, ed by it to the States, are reserved to the States led each State in the Convention to be less rigid respectively, or to the people,” — and pretend on points of inferior magnitude than might that this gives the rights to our Southern breth. have been otherwise expected; and thus the ren which they have so recently and wickedly Constitution which we now present is the rearrogated to themselves !
sult of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual Here we have all the passages, or allusions, deference and concession which the peculiarity in the Constitution having reference to the right of our political situation rendered indispensable. of any State to secede from the United States
- That it will meet the full and entire approof America. And to place the matter in the bation of every State, is not, perhaps, to be exclearest possible light let no one fail to make pected; but each will doubtless consider that, himself familiar with the noble and beautiful had her interest been alone consulted, the consentiments of the following letter of George sequences might have been particularly disaWashington, the president of the convention greeable or injurious to others ; that it is liable which framed the Constitution, directed to the to as few exceptions as could reasonably have president of the Continental Congress, and ac- been expected, we hope and believe; that it companied by the Constitution itself, thus trans. may promote the lasting welfare of that counmitted to the people of the United States for try so dear to us all, and secure her freedom their adoption :
and happiness, is our most ardent wish.
“ With great respect, we have the honor to “ IN CONVENTION, Sept. 17, 1787.
be, sir, your excellency's most obedient humble “ SIR: We have now the honor to submit
servants. to the consideration of the United States in
“ By unanimous order of the Convention. Congress assembled, that Constitution which
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. has appeared to us the most advisable.
“ His Excellency PRESIDENT OF Congress.” “ The friends of our country have long seen
Recollections of a Schoolmaster. the copious blood bounding through his veins ;
but in the school-room, over his books, he was It was many years ago that I commenced keep quite another character. ing school. I had graduated at an academy of
James Shute, on the other hand, was light of some note, and was pretty well posted up in those
frame, with a small, compact head, hair of a flax. branches of education which were introduced in
en hue, light blue eyes, and possessed an organito our common schools; and when the commit. tee came to examine me, I could see that they but little for the rough sport out of doors, seem
zation highly nervous and sensitive. He cared were very forcibly impressed by the ease with which I answered all their questions. In short I self in his lessons. I did not make any account
ing rather to prefer his books, and perfect him. knew about everything that was set down in the books which I had studied, for I happened to
of these physical peculiarities at the time, for I
thought nothing of them, and cared nothing for possess one of those wonderfully retentive mem
them; but I remember them well enough now. ories that fastens surely upon whatever comes once within its grasp. I imagined, and so did the
Luke and James were in the same classes in all committee imagine, that I was eminently quali
the branches which they studied together, and fied for the post to which I aspired. But as I the few months of difference in their ages were look back now upon the events of those years, I in favor of the former, he being a little the oldest. can see wherein I greatly erred. I can see where In a very short time I discovered that Luke I made great mistakes, and where I most woful. Weston did not learn his lessons well. He blunly lacked in qualification ; and I write this little dered in his arithmetic, and stumbled lainely over chapter of Recollections for the benefit of those bis spelling lessons. As I look back now, I can who may be just entering upon the duties of a
remember that he used to betray a deep interest Teacher.
in some portions of philosophy, and that, when When I commenced my first school (and the the subject interested him, he would read with same ideas I then had governed me for a long a feeling not excelled by any scholar in school. time afterwards,) I looked upon the children be. But I cared little for this at the time. I looked fore me as so many little individuals whom I had upon the black-board as the grand field for schogot to fill with learning. They were, to my mind, lastic display; the spelling-book came next; and so many buman vessels which had got to be filled next came Lindley Murray's old calf-bound up with the waters of education ; and my only grammar, with its intricate maze of Orthography, ideas of the capacity were of size and age. In my Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These were class of ten scholars which was to recite from the my educational deities, before which every intelmental arithmetic, and the members of which lect must bow, and from the inspiration of which were nearly of the same age, I considered that every intellect must be filled. each individual must hold just the same amount James Shute became my favorite scholar. He of mathematical food, and digest it equally with worked over his slate with an assiduity which the rest. And thus I commenced my school. I was untiring, and I felt a pride in exhibiting his knew what was written in the books, and I was powers to my visitors. Upon the black-board to teach it to the children before me. I had learned he could perform wonders for one so young. In it all, and I believed they could. At least, if they reduction, in fractions, simple and compound, in did not, I meant that it should be no fault of involution, in factors, and in the roots, he was mine.
perfectly at home. So, too, in spelling was he In my first class in arithmetic were two boys prompt and sure.
And in grammar he was es. whom I have selected to figure in this sketch. I cellent. He sometimes made mistakes in analyztake them because their subsequent carter affords ing sentences, where the meaning of the author a striking example of the facts I wish to present. was not plain ; but he remembered his rules, and I shall not give you their real names, for they knew how to apply them. are both living, and are worthy, honorable men. With Luke Weston I was sorely perplexed. I shall tell you that they were Luke Weston and He did not get his lessons well at all. When he James Shute. Luke was rather heavily built, came to compound fractions he could do nothing with a large, full head, a florid, chubby face; a with them. Left to himself, with his own time dark, bluish grey eye; dark brown hair ; and in- and method, he could worry the sums out; but clined to be slow and dreamy when called upon he was behind-band in his recitations, and always to work with his mind. He could work fast blundered upon the black-board. In grammar enough out of doors, when the play-hours came, he was also remiss, though not so bad as in arith. and when the free air and vigorous exercise sent metic. When he came to parsing he got along much better than I could have anticipated, since and stood him out on the floor; and I made a he had been so clumsy in committing the rules great fool's cap, and put it upon his head; and exercises of Lindley Murray to memory. In and there he stood until the school was done. analyzing language, and comprehending the He did not cry; nor did he look particularly powers of words, and in understanding his ashamed; but he compressed his lips, and looked author, he betrayed a keenness of perception for very ugly. At all events, so I thought at the which I did not then give him credit. I remem- time. When I relieved him of the fool's cap, at ber once, the class were parsing in a passage the close of the school, I told him I hoped he from Milton. A relative pronoun came to Luke, would get his lessons better the next time. He and he parsed it. I corrected him in the matter made me no reply, but left the room with a quick, of its relation. I told him it related to a differ- stern step, and went home without stopping to ent person from the one he had named. He read play with his mates. the sentence over again and objected to my idea,
On the following day Luke did not come to maintaining that he was right; and he was pro- school, and on the day after that I understood ceeding to show me wherein I was in error, when that he had gone to learn the shoemaker's trade. I interrupted bim, and made him stand out on I made some little inquiry, and found that he had the floor an hour for his disobedience of my in. declared that he would go to school to me no struction. That night when alone in my room, more, if he had to run away; and, as his parents I read the passage over, and at length became were poor, they had allowed him to go to work convinced that Luk, had been right. But I in a neighbor's shop. would not own it to him. No, no,—that would have lowered me in my own esteem. Yet I re bore off the palm of sholarship. Upon him I be
In time I finished my school, and James Shute solved to be more careful in the future how I
stowed the highest encomiums, and held him up corrected him in his parsing lessons. However,
to the admiration of visitors. he was, in my estimation, full of short-comings. With his general behavior I had no reason to
During the vacation I visited a neighboring find fault, for he was a noble, generous-hearted State and found employment there; then went fellow, and was beloved by his friends.
South, and finally became engaged as teacher of
mathematics in a school in New Orleans. The “Luke,” said I, as I stopped him one night
years slipped by, and still I remained in my new after school, “why is it that you do not get your home. One day I received a paper from my nalessons ?"
tive State, and I saw mention made of one Luke He said he didn't know.
Weston, as being leader of a strong faction in "Don't tell me,” I cried," that you don't know. the Legislature. Of course that could not be my You don't study—that's the reason. See how Luke-it could not be the one upon whom I had James Shute gets his lessons. You are older put the fool's cap. No-it must be another of than he is.”
the same name. Luke said he could not get such long lessons- Time passed on, and by and by I read in the he could not remember them. He had tried hard papers that Luke Weston had been elected Preenough to do the puzzling sums, and to spell the sident of the Senate of my native State, and that long words, but he could not do it.
he was now a powerful leader of a powerful par. I told him it was all nonsense. He could do it
ty. Of course this was the same Luke of whom if he had a mind to. He did not try. He was
I had before read; but it could not be the same
Luke who had worn my fool's cap. Of course more fond of play than of study. In short I
not. talked very severely to him, and assured him that if he did not have his lessons perfectly on Luke Weston had been elected to the Senate of
And still time passed on, and I finally read that the following day, I should punish him. He went
the United States; and that he was greatly honaway with his head bowed, and, I thought, in a
ored by all who knew him. sulky mood.
In another year I visited the home of my The following day came and with it came the youth ; and one of my first enquiries was of first class in arithmetic. Jame Shute could do Luke Weston. He was a United States Senator. every sum. Luke Weston had not done half of So it was my Luke, after all. them. When the class came up to spell, James And where was James Shute? He was bookspelled all the words, and gave all the definitions keeper in a bank, and was accounted a very corpromptly. But Luke could not remember them. rect and faithful clerk. He had been there twelve
So I told Luke Weston I must punish him; 'years, and would probably remain there, as he liked the place, and had no particular ambition or
For the Schoolmaster. qualifications above it.
Exhibitions. And now, with the silver touch of many years on my brow, I sit alone in my study and reflect
I suppose it is a great piece of presumption
for a fellow of ordinary standing in society and on the past. I see many, many children, who have been under my charge, now grown to men
limited experience in teaching to advocate that and women ; and I see many of those I had which is condemned by so noted an educational thought excessively stupid, occupying places of man as Edward Everett, and by many first class honor and trust; while many I had thought won
teachers. Well, presumption is the order of the derful in learning, are plodding along in the or. day, and since, like the Confederate States, we dinary pursuits of life, the lessons of the old litcle country pedagogues are destined to reschool-books all forgotten, and the one idea of main in total obscurity, as long as we occupy food and clothing occupying their whole atten- our position in the united brotherhood of teachtion.
ers; why I like them I think it best to secede, And I think, if I could teach school again, how and try to have a way of our own, if for no different would be my course, for from my re- other purpose than that of calling out superior view of the years that have gone, I have learned forces to put down the rebellion. some things of which I was ignorant when I first Exhibitions ! what are they? Our exhibiassumed the rod and staff of the pedagogue. bitions, those which I advocate, are very much
Different children have different capacities of the olden style, not mixed up with an examMany a quick-witted, sbarp.minded boy has ination ; that is another affair. Our exhibitions borne away the prize of scholarship who has not are simply rehearsals of dialogues and dec lamastudied half so hard as has the poor fellow who tions, with an occasional song, upon the stage goes weeping to his home because he gained no of the district school house, in presence of the medal. All minds do not grow alike. Some in assembled parents and friends. Yes, with the tellects are precocious, and germinate and go to girls all dressed in white, with short sleeves and seed very early. Such ones are apt to be the low necks, adds an objector. Lucky for you, delight of the pedagogue. And yet, as I call to boys, that your dress is not open to censure. mind those of like character that have come un But, Mr. Objector, as we shall see by and by, der my care, I find that they have not been very this may not be true. Mr. Flaw picker has othprolific bearers of mental fruit.
er objections. First, several wecks are spent in Other intellects are slower in growth. They preparing for the evening's entertainment; durgenerally belong to bodies that are growing fast and strong. Such intellects do not grasp easily is broken up, and the time is almost wholly lost
ing which time the ordinary routine of business at mathematical niceties in early youth. They
to the scholar. Second, such entertainments comprehend slowly at first, but surely; and are firm and uncompromising, and are apt to be rath.
are always theatrical to a greater or less degree. er skeptical upon subjects which oppose their in
Third, parents may object to it. Fourth, exhituitions. Such are sure to meet with little char bitions are a cheat upon the good people of the ity at the hands of their pedagogue; and yet as
district; the scholars are all fitted up for the I call to mind those of this latter character which
occasion, and make a show of knowledge which have come within my care, I find them to they do not possess. These are the principal have grown stronger as they have grown older, objections urged against exhibitions. and to have been prolific bearers of noble fruit.
In opposition to these I will assert that exhiFrom this source we derive our original minds,
bitions have the following advantages : and, also, most of our intellectual giants.
First, They awaken an interest in parents Teachers, seek to understand the CAPACITIFS that nothing else will do.
A great many paof your scholars before you begin to force the rents who never see the inside of your school. mental food upon them. If you seek to fill them room at any ot time will visit it just so sure with learning as you would fill barrels with water, as Napoleon Bonaparte Smith, or his sister, you may make some great mistakes. Ten Victoria Angelina, have a part in the exhibichances to one that you may put the fool's-cap on tion. Now this is worth something. If you the brow of a Daniel Webster—that you give the have an ill arranged seven-by-nine school-room, position of a dunce to a Christopher Columbus- with low desks and poor ventilation, you can while you may set another Bill Shakspeare over have a dialogue or two arranged in the right among the girls, because he looked that way manner, which, with the practical illustration of when he ought to have been studying.
Mrs. S. striving to compress her spring extend. ibles into one of the seats, a leat to be accom- mation is a very efficient auxiliary to the usual plished with no little difficulty, has more effect means adopted to secure good reading. But oftentimes than all the frettings of the children will the declamation be spirited unless there is about cramped legs, together with the advice of the prospect of a public rehearsal at the close the teacher and the gentle hints of the school of the term ? I know that the exhibition adds report. And, too, you wish to show them what more than half to the usual spirit of this exeran interested teacher, with the assistance of his cise. Then, in view of this, I shall assert that pupils, can do towards making the dingy and spirited declamation exercises are important to oft-times rough walls of the room present a the reading class, and that exhibitions are espleasing appearance. Having done all that you sential to secure the proper spirit. I have attendcan to make it pleasant and comfortable, you ed declamation exercises in more than one school will hear them in the intervals between pieces where the scholars would go upon the stage, saying :- How nice that is ! how much jerk their heads and rattle off, some one, some better it would look if the room was only two, and a few more than two verses of poetry, higher!” and as Mr. Smith, of Aldermanic or perhaps a short piece of prose, jerk their proportions, draws his cramped legs from be- heads again and retire to their seats, with neath the low desk and wipes his broad area of the half-uttered ejaculation, “ there, speaking bushy stubble, down which the perspiration is won't come again in two weeks." I am sure I streaming, he exclaims, Whew! how hot! cannot see what teachers persist in having such this here's an awful close place,” to which Mrs. exercises for. They are worse than failures in S. responds, “ That's so." Not only may you more than one respect. I do not believe there oblige them to see the school house as it is, but is a school in the United States (perhaps there if there are glaring faults on the part of parents may he in the Confederate) where the scholars which affect the interests of your school, a few may not be awakened to the proper amount of dialogues will illustrate their effects in such a interest. But I am dwelling too long upon one manner that they cannot fail to see them. point, as I do not wish to be wise — by prolix.
Second. It is a means of awakening an inter- Again, the young man of our age expects to be a est in the pupils in relation to reading and de- public speaker. If you could read the thoughts
of the boys in our public schools, no doubt you clamation, and may be made the means of incit. ing them to renewed exertions in other branches would be surprised to see the embryo lawyers, by making it a point that they shall be studi- ministers, statesmen and lecturers. These must
have a chance to practice in order to give them ous and earnest if they wish for an exhibition. “ But," says an objector, “scholars should have confidence. The advantages of the public extheir proper amount of interest without such
hibition to these youths should not be overlookincentives." Show me the scholar that is not
ed. And even in the collegiate course the stu. ambitiously reaching forward to make a mark dents often have occasion to thank their lucky in some way, and I will show you a regular
stars that they have appeared on the stage be
fore. " leather-head." Try to catch a horse; take your measure of corn and get nearly out of sight, Third. Exhibitions are profitable to the teachand coax him to come if you can. Will he coineer and pupils from the pleasant associations Perhaps, but it is not very probable. Now bring connected with them. Who ever took part in the corn nearer, so that he can hear it rattle and an exhibition, either as teacher or pupil, but exsee it. In a moment his ears are extended and perienced great pleasure from the affair. He his nostrils dilated, and with caution he ap. who would be a successful teacher cannot afford proaches the object which he knows to be food. to let any opportunity pass by unimproved of Why not bait scholars in as reasonable a man- giving pleasure to his pupils, which can be used ner? Let them aim to excel in an exhibition consistently. That point needs no demonstraThe pleasure of striving for this, even if they tion. This advantage alone derived from exhifail, will prompt them to renewed exertions.bitions is sufficient to balance all the objections Reading has become a thing of too little inter- I have named. They are profitable to the paest, and should not be suffered to remain so. rents as institutes for the lectures and concerts As I have already hinted, exhibitions may be of the city. Oftentimes the school exhibition is made most useful in securing the proper amount the only literary entertainment of the season in of interest. I suppose no teacher of even a the country district ! And to many it gives term's experience will deny that spirited decla- more pleasure than the best lecture from the