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ask the class to pick out a card of a different shape; ers, vases and of animals, and your scholars will then to look for one of still a different shape, and hereafter be noted among mechanics and draughtsso on, till you get a complete set of the outlines men for an accurate and well-trained eye, as well before you. Here differences in outline are no- as for practical knowledge. ticed.

The question now arises whether any portions of Now let figures similar to the above be cut out, the common school studies fall under the already some larger and some smaller. Holding up a tri- mentioned categories, of object, direction, situaangle, ask if any one can find on the table a card tion, outline and name. It is evident that under of the same shape; if another also, and so on till the study of the names of objects and their relayou have before you sets of similar figures. In tions, properties and qualities previously observed, this case similarity is sought for.

are included the elements of language and its Our child has now taken a lesson in observation, right use; under the other heads fall the elements in abstraction, discrimination, and in generaliza- of geography, while with the practice in outline tion, bringing into play, for the first time perhaps, drawing can be taken printing letters on the blackthose powers of mind whose highest fights may

board or otherwise, an important auxiliary in learn. hereafter be seen, in acute metaphysical discus-ing to read and to spell. sions, comprehensive mathematical formulæ, or in subtle classifications of the animal and the vegeta

SELF-CONTROL.—"It seems to me that all times ble kingdom.

are alike adapted for happiness, and if we grow Cut now from pasteboard ovals, ellipses, and old, as one should grow old, the last days of life regular polygons, and teach the child to draw all must be the happiest of all. Every stage of life these outlines on the blackboard, the slate, or on is but the preparation for the next one. It is the paper. This will keep him busy, interest him, treasure-house in which are collected all the pleatrain eye and hand, and gratify his love of power. sures that are to make the future time happy. The

When these pasteboard outlines have all been child has indeed but few troubles, but they are to studied, in respect to sameness, likeness, unlike him as larger ones prove to his parents. I asked ness, name and drawing, how shall the lessons be a friend once, speaking of the happy, cloudless continued? As if nature had anticipated this ques- days of his childhood, if he would like to be altion, she has, in the leaves of her myriad plants, ways a child ? He stopped for a moment, and then furnished us an exhaustless supply of models, said 'No.' I think he was right. There is prowhich, obtained easily and in great profusion, gress in everything - in our means of happiness, should for years be carefully studied. Begin with and in our capacity for enjoyment. Then let us leaves of simple outline and edges entire, going look back upon the time-wrinkled face of the past on gradually to those of more complex form and only with feelings of regret. Give me the present, with edges toothed, serrate, sinuate, or lobed. glowing and full of life, and the future, glorious While this training goes on and the faculty of with its bright visions. I would rather look forobservation develops, a knowledge of outline is ob- ward than look back; rather spend the golden tained, very useful to the future pattern-maker, hours in working out present happiness, than in and which will speedily, it is to be hoped, banish vain regrets for the past. It is but the helm with the monstrous foliage now seen on wall-paper, which to steer her onward course.

It is the steep printed goods and carpets.

and rugged mountain up which lies our way. It On passing to the outlines of solids, take a is not genius nor fortune that paves the way to Baldwin apple with you into the school-room, and eminence, but earnestness, self-control, wisdom. dividing it through stem and core, let the outline These are in our hands; let us use them, and when of the section and the stem be carefully copied; at the sunset of life, we turn to look back on our then carry in a Greening, a Russet, a Porter, a path, and see it stretching far down before us Williams, and other apples. Now select a Bart- peacefully, happily, we may lay ourselves down to lett pear, a Flemish Beauty, a Jargonelle, and a Seckel, each in its season, to be halved and copied

TEACHERS, are you taking any of the Educaas the apples were. How different are the outlines tional periodicals of the present day? It would of these pears from each other, and from all those of the apples. Now copy the outlines of peaches, in teaching school without taking one of the many

seem quite too bad for teachers to pass a winter plums and of any fruit you may meet with ; by monthly works now published for their especial this time there may be no need of halving the benefit. None of them cost over one dollar. Who fruit to get the bounding line. What beautiful is there among you that cannot spare that amount curves, and what a wonderful variety of them! you something useful and interesting every month

from your wages to procure a work that shall give Your pupils have now taken one step towards il-connected with the business of teaching ? Let our lustrating fruit books, and if they have learned teachers think of this. If you would keep up with the fit terms to describe these plastic curves, their read. You must read the improvements that are

the times, and the age in which you live, you must powers of expression are in good training. The making the new things coming out.-McKean path hence is easy to outlines of furniture, pitch-!(Pa.) Citizen.




a sum equal to one-fourth of his stock, and B Wu ritten Examinations.

loses $225, when A's money is double that of B's.

What did each invest? COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be ad

4. A boy being asked how many oranges he drassed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

had, answered, that if he had as many more, and

1 and 1 and 1-5 as many more, and 5 oranges beQuestions Recently Submitted sides, he would have three times as many as he TO THE CANDIDATES FOR ADMISSION TO THE PRO- had at first. How many had he ? VIDENCE HIGH SCHOOL.

5. A boy being asked the time of day, answer

ed that f of the time past noon was equal to 3-5 ARITHMETIC.

of g of the time to midnight. What was the

hour? .06

6. A lad bought some apples at 4 for a cent, 71-6

and as many more at 3 for a cent. He then sold 1. Divide 8 1-5 of - by

them at 7 for 2 cents, and found he had lost I cent. 3 .003 2. What is the least common multiple of 6, 89,

How many of each did he buy?

7. A's money is to B's as 9 to 11, but after A 9, 12, and 164.

has spent $40 and B $50, A's money is equal to 3. A, B, and C start at the same time and at

B's. What had each? the same place to travel round an island 96 miles

8. If a grocer sells ģ of a barrel of flour for the in circumference. A travels 4 miles an hour, B 6

cost of a barrel, what does he gain per cent. ? miles an hour, and C 8 miles an hour. In what

9. The head of a fish is 1-7 of its entire length, time will they all be together? 4. If a cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs 903

its body is 5-9 of its entire length, and its tail is

9 inches longer than its head. What is the length lbs., how many tons will a bin hold that is 12 feet

of the fish? 9 inches long, 6 feet 4 inches in width, and 4 feet 9 inches in depth ?

10. A person being asked the time of day, an

swered, that if to the time from noon be added its 6. An agent received $9,600 to invest in cotton.

1, 3, and 1-6, the sum will be equal to one-half of How much cotton could the agent buy at 12} cents

the time to midnight. Required the time. per lb., after deducting his commission of 4 per cent. ?

6. A merchant sold ß of his flour on hand at an 1. Give the rules for the use of capitals in writadvance of 10 per cent. ; 1-6 of the whole at an ing. advance of 12 per cent., and } at a loss of 6 per 2. Write the plural of mercy, money, folio, echo, cent. For what must he sell the remainder that chimney, stoff, penny, pea, inder. he may neither gain nor lose by the transaction ?

Note. When there are two forms for the plural give 7. A man bought a horse and chaise for $400. both. What must he ask for them, in order that he may

3. Give the rules for the formation of the comreceive 25 per cent. less than he asks, and yet lose parative and superlative, and compare far, late, but 12) per cent. on the cost ?

old, ill and many. 8. I purchased goods for $1,500 cash, and after

4. State when the letter s is omitted in forming keeping them 8 months and 12 days, sold them for

the possessive case, and give an example. $5,610. What was my gain per cent., allowing

5. Define a personal and relative pronoun, and money to be worth 6 per cent. ?

decline which, 9. For what sum must a note payable in 90 days

6. Give the principal parts of the verbs dare, be written, that when discounted at a bank $610

(to venture,) heave, load, shave, shrink. may be received ? 10. The hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle

7. Correct the following sentences :

“ Tell me whether I shall do it or no." is 6 inches longer than the base, and the perpendicular is 3 times the difference between the base

“Mary has wrote a letter."

" He has drank too much." and the hypothenuse. What is the length of the

" I intended to have written yesterday." hypothenuse and the base ?

“ Who can write better than him?"

“ Which is the farthest north, Paris or Quebec!" 1, A farmer sold a yoke of oxen for 696, and 8. Analyze the following sentence, and parse gained one-third of what they cost him. How the words in itaties: “ Silver and gold hare I much did the oxen cost?

none, but such as I have give I thee." 2. If I sell my oranges at 6 cents apiece, I shall 9, Parse the following words in italies : " He gain 2 cents, and if I sell them at 4 cents apiece is too wise to attempt such a thing." "Be so kia: I shall lose 21 cents. Required the number of as to grant my request.” oranges.

10. Parse “what” in the following sentence: 3. A and B invest equal sums in trade. A gains. What I do thou knowest not now.”

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Philology. 1. Give the boundaries of New York, and describe six of its largest cities. Describe six of the

COMMUNICATIONS for this Departinent should be ad. largest cities in the Southern States.

dressed to HENRY CLARK, Pawtucket, R. 1. 2. Name and describe six of the largest cities in England.

For the Schoolmaster. 3. Name and describe five of the largest rivers

The Study of Words. in France. 4. Give the boundaries of China, and describe

IN TWO PARTS.-PART THE FIRST. three of its principal rivers.

5. Through what waters would a vessel pass in One cannot claim to have power over language going from Chicago to Sevastapol ?

who is unacquainted with words. His acquaint9. Describe six of the principal rivers in Africa. ance ought to be larger than he can gain from the 7. Describe the Mississippi river, and name

best dictionaries. This is essential, as is also a three of the largest eastern and three of the larg. wide knowledge of books in general, and of the est western branches.

uses of words that may be understood by general 8. Name the States that border on the Missis- reading. Yet even this knowledge is meagre. It sippi river.

is like the acquaintance one has with the faces he 9. Name the political divisions of South Amer- often meets in the streets, while the criticism of ica, and give the capitals of each.

the passions, tastes and proclivities of each man

is somewhat like that knowledge of individual 10. Name five of the largest mountain ranges words which every one ought to possess who prein Europe.

tends to wriie well in his own language. N. B. To describe a river, state where it rises, in There is, indeed, no better method of coming to what direction it runs, and where it empties. To describe a knowledge of words than by studying them in a city or town, state in which of the States or country it many books. Words are marvellously like men. is situated, on what waters, if any, and its latitude and They are affected by circumstances, they possess longitude.

more or less individuality as men do; they have

moods, are subject to changes, as men often are; 1. Give an account of the first settlement in they belong to many families, and these to differAmerica.

ent nations, each of which possesses its peculiari2. Give a brief history of Pocahontas.

ties. 3. Describe the first settlement in New Eng

This simile I would use at present more as an land.

introduction to the matter which follows than for 4. Give an account of the Puritans.

any deeper purpose that the reader might attri. 5. State the principal events in the settlement bute to me. I appeal to this resemblance to be. of Rhode Island, and give an account of Roger speak a favorable reception by him of the method Williams.

of free quotation I intend to employ, although at 6. Give an account of the Witchcraft in New some time, the course I take may approve the docEngland.

trine more closely. 7. Give an account of the Pequod War.

Books are accustomed to teach that we must first 8. State the causes of the French and Indian learn the origin, next the etymology and afterWar.

wards the use of words we study. But Richard9. Describe the battle of Quebec between Wolfe son's Dictionary will supply each of these facts at and Montcalm.

too easy rate. It is altogether too ready to be 10. State the causes of the Revolution, and sought for any other purpose than reference, yet I give an analysis of the principal events.

question whether a better medium is at hand for

following out just the course that books indicate. SPELLING.

When these materials have beer, winnowed till Physical, pellicle, placable, docible, forcible, nought appears to him except chaff, a wide field autopsy, poignancy, malmsey, appreciate, propiti- yet remains for the ardor of an energetic laborer. ate, habiliment, supplement, vegetate, cogitate, He may strike out boldly; sure, though he only tranquillity, humility, debasing, embracing, pane- gleans, of gathering not scantily where those who gyric, crystallize, chrysolite, syllable, sillabub, were bolder and stronger than he, have reaped cylinder, symmetry, pursuivant, permeate, vervain, bountifully. hirsute, supercilious, hemorrhoids, architrave, This, yet new ground for future discoveries, is synecdoche, blasphemous, porphyry, exhilarate, the range of English classics, too seldom assigned scintillate, sciolist, equipage, sacreligious, amaryl- an cxcellent position by those who would be called lis, amphictyonic, barratry, colocynth, diachylon, scholars, and sometimes ieft entirely out of view empyreal, erysipelas, idiosynocrasy, ichneumon, by men from whom we ought to expect broad scope achievement.

of thought. It is not inaccessible. Chaucer,

Shakspeare, Milton, Jeremy Taylor, four repre- Verse 4834-8, Canterbury Tales, sentative authors, four favorite writers, may be

" The time come is, this olde Soudanesse had at the bookstores or ordered from metropoli

Ordeined hath the feste of which I tolde, tan publishers, at a moderate pecuniary cost. No

And to the feste cristen folk hem dresse one knows who has not already proved it, how

In general, ya bothe yonge and olde. much that is worth learning of words may be Ther may men fest and realtee beholde.” gained in an observative reading of three of these

4820-3. books. They do know that study them, how often in seeking for the meaning of a word by its uses, “ Nought trow I, the triumph of Julius, exquisite beauties of thought, concealed before, of which that Lucan maketh swiche a bost, are all at once exposed to sight.

Was realler, or more curious, As a child would lead its playmate through the

Than was th' assemblee of this blisful host." fields in pursuit of the flowers he has discovered,

Is the parallel not plain? It must be shown by so would one better qualified by his interest than the quotations that [really, realtee, realler] are his experience in the capacity of guide, lead thee, identical in sense with [royally royalty, royaler.] gentle reader, where strong men have before trod- If a reader be curious, he can easily supply the den, that he may show thee some of the beauties modern for the ancient forms. This identity he loves to contemplate in the flowery fields of throws a strong light upon the latter group of literature.

words, and teaches rulers that the words which Chaucer is an old poet. He is the Father of express their circumstances have an intrinsic English poetry. His style is vigorous, simple, meaning beyond that expressed in their common powerful, yet adorned with true poetic graces. use. Yet how much of royalty is truly real? And it is so delicately shadowed within the obscur

There are two quotations below wherein a word ity of an ancient dialect that the curiosity of the

seems to be derived directly from the French, and reader is added to his delight in the contemplation to retain its French form. I allude to pas. How of the poet's images. Geoffrey Chaucer lived four

rear is our word pace to pas, and how quickly an hundred years ago, in England. His history is avenue is opened into passage, pass, compass and just a little obscure, his character little known. words of like construction! A pace is a step, a But his works have existed from the days of man

compass is accomplished with a step, a pass is uscripts through three centuries of typography, figuratively but a step in breadth, a passage likeand they are fresh and beautiful to-day.

wise, yet the last is suggestive of a fine figurative Out of many likenesses such as any attentive application, for it means an assemblages of senreader might discover in Chaucer's Canterbury tences that the reader may con in a short time, as Tales, I have selected a few that seemed most fit- if he were stepping by them. A way is impasseted to my purpose, and of these I notice first that ble when it is impossible to step through it. To of our modern word (real), between which and our substantiate the foregoing applications the reader modern word [royal] few will at once perceive a

may like to read a quotation or two showing the correspondence. The latter evidently comes from

use of pas in Chaucer : [roi], French, as it is certainly applied to the state

4813-21. of kings. Now in the Man of Lawes Tale, where I have met (real] most frequently, I do not re- “ Gret was the presse, and riche was th' array, member of having seen (royal] used at all, while Of Surriens and Romanes met in fere. (together.) [real], with its inflections, supplies its place, and indicates something of the meaning of our own

And to the nexte citee ther beside (real], that is, - - true— not false or specious

A softe pas solempnely they ride. genuine. First of [real] I quote the following 1889-94. passages :

• The circuite a mile was aboute, Verse 5075-8, Canterbury Tales.

Walled of stone and diched all withonte. 4 An emperoures doughter stant alone;

Round was the shape, in manere of a compas She hath no wight to whom to make hire mone ;

Ful of degrees, the hight of sixty pas, O blood real, that stondeth in this drede,

That whan a man was set on o degree Fer ben [Far were) thy frendes in thy grete nede.”

He letted not his felaw for to see." 5380-3.

The word solempnely - solemnly-in the quota

tion just past, has greatly changed its application “For which this emperour hath sent anon

since Chaucer's -- nay, since Shakspeare's time, His senatour, with rerl ordinance,

Here is Chaucer's use of it in another sense than And other lordes, God wote, many on."

our present : Really, realtee, realler. 5387-8.

5110–13. 46 This senatour repaireth with victorie

" And after this Jesus of his mercy To Rome ward, sayling full really."

Made Alla wedden ful solempnely


This holy woman, that is so bright and shene,

Our Book Table. And thus bath Crist ymade Custance a quene." 6210–11.

AGNES OF SORRENTO is the title of the New “ Jankin, that was so hende (courteous)

Romance which Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe has Hath wedded me with gret solempnitee."

just written for the Atlantic Monthly. The first 8997-9003.

pages are given in the May number of that work, " Thus hath this pitous day a blisful end 3

and the manner in which the story opens assures For every man, and woman, doth his might us that its publication will add to the already brilThis day in mirth and revel to dispend,

liant reputation of this most popular of American Till on the welkin shone the sterres bright:

authors. For more solempne in every mannes sight

The story is one of love and duty, of joy and Tbis feste was, and greater of costage, Tban was the revel of hire mariage.”

trial. Its heroine is a young girl, born in a Catho

lic country and educated under the influence of For some cause, [solemn] has come to have an Catholic institutions, and in the development of air of melancholy, which it does not seem to have the plot the author has sought to illustrate the inpossessed in the time of a writer no older than Auences of that creed upon the lives and characShakspeare. Perhaps a quotation or two from the

ters of its votaries. latter may not only show the coincidence of this

From the intense interest in this subject which word and its inflections to the same in the poet we has been manifested by the people of the United study but may display within a few lines the extent States within the past few years, and the fact that of the changes in our language, between the four- it has entered so largely into the discussion of the teenth and the seventeenth centuries.

political as well as religious questions of the time,

it cannot be doubted that Mrs, Stowe's elucidation For the Schoolmaster.

of it, through the medium of fictitious narrative, Conjectures Respecting the Form of the Vowel Letters.

will cause it to be as widely sought for and as ea

gerly perused as her previous brilliant contribuWHETHER the shape of all letters be of pho- tions to American literature have been. netic origin or not, we may easily conjecture that of the vowels to be so, since their form is very

We have received the Semi-Annual Report of like the shape of the mouth while the voice utters

the Superintendent of Boston Public Schools. them.

We regret being unable to make some extracts at This is quite certain of [O], indicated by a curv

length, as they would tend to encourage us, as cd line the shape of the mouth when the sound is well as give some hints to reform. This report is uttered. In Omicron of the Greek alphabet, the brief yet conclusive, very accurate in estimating tongue is represented within by a black spot or a

and presenting statistics showing the expenditures bar; the outer ring, as in our letter, presenting a

for educational purposes, as well as the provision true outline of the open mouth. [O] is a front for accommodations, the number of teachers emview of the mouth; (E) is a side or profile view, ployed, and the number of youth who actually are the top and bottom bars showing the position of receiving the benefits of public instruction. There the lips or teeth; the middle bar that of the tongue. is a very satisfactory report given of the propor[I] an upright line, shows the cavity of the mouth tion of the public which enjoys the benefit of puberect, and together with [A], is a picture, though lic, private, charitable and reformatory education, meagre, of the front. The latter, formed of two

between the ages of five and fifteen. Only six inclined bars, for the sides of an orifice widest at hundred remain for whom no account can be made. its base, with a horizontal bar for the tongue, is the learned Superintendent concludes that the more nearly significant of its sound when written number already growing up without at least the in an old form, like our manuscript small [a] with rudiments of an education, is very limited. Can a cross line half way up. Thus delineated it is a

this be said of our State or city ? side view. In case of [A] we consult forms tarly

The Sixteenth ANNUAL REPORT Ox PUBLIC known ; so in relation to [U], we should consider Schools in Rhode Island has been printed in the simpler sound, that of the French [U]. To

a neat and beautiful form. It is a worthy documake this, it is only necessary to place the mouth ment, and will repay the perusal of all. We hope in precisely the position marked out in the form of to make extracts in future at length. Our Comthis letter, so that its form is naturally suggested missioner has faithfully discharged his onerous by its sound.

labors another year, and under his zealous and juOur five vowels are evidently represented to the dicious efforts, we rejoice to learn that our school eye by the shape the human mouth assumes in system has never presented so encouraging a pros; pronouncing them. This representation appears pect as at present. We most earnestly beg all to be not merely accidental, or if accidental, to be citizens who love our rising generation and humansingularly correspondent to the position assum- dations of our excellent Commissioner. Read his

ity to take hold and carry out the wise recommened by the vocal organs.

introduction by all means.

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