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mon sight. Reflect on it before I sit down, REPLY. — (1.) Certainly — not “ look glorifellow citizens. Here is a house dedicated to ously.” all sorts of things. (Applause.) But among (2.) The first. “ Is forbid,” except by lithem none is greater than this, the education, cense, is incorrect. Such expressions are awkthe leading out of the soul, the fallen soul, the ward, at the best. Perhaps

" entrance upon redeemed soul, up to truth. And no greater these premises is forbidden" would be better. event has occurred in Brooklyn than to see this (3.) “ Auction," only, expresses the idea ; but fair assembly of the teachers of your children sometimes people wish to give it a ring by preand have so many here present themselves before fixing “ Public.” That's all. you as having finished their course and kept (4.) We have answered the first. Printers their faith, and ready to receive the crown about are generally "booked,” in spelling; and are to be awarded here in this assembly by the ver- a pretty good set of fellows. Does A. B. C. dict of that committee. Look at these human believe it! beings, come, young women, to commemorate and celebrate your commencement, when you

Burying the seed. are to go forth, each one, but not alone. Alone

Last winter Alice cut from a newspaper a in your sphere, remote from one another, to

short poem from the German, which interested teach the same truth that you have been taught,

her much, and which she frequently repeated in and to inculcate that which will make the ris

spring time, when the gardener was burying ing generation good citizens, patriotic men,

seed after seed in the earth. She thought of it, faithful Christians, and nationalized in heart, fit

too, as she stood in the burial-ground by the to reconstruct, I trust, if need be, once more,

graves of those whom, though not having seen, this nation, that it may be for ever hereafter, as

she loved. I will copy it for you, and perhaps it has been hitherto, the United States, under

you may take as much pleasure in learning it as that blessed flag. (Loud cheers.)”

she did.— Exchange. From the (N. H.) Journal of Agriculture. " Sink, little seed, in the earth's black mould, Queries and Replies.

Sink in your grave so wet and so cold,

There must you lie; MR. EDITOR: · Will you have the kindness Earth I throw over you, to answer the following enquiries ?

Darkness must cover you, The Coos Democrat said, last fall, our crops

Light comes not nigh. look glorious.” Is that correct ? (1.)

" What grief you'd tell, if words you could say! On a board posted by the road side in Law

What grief make known for the loss of the day; rence, Mass., is the following : “All persons

Sadly you'd speak : are forbidden to enter these premises." A lit- • Lic here must I ever ? tle further on is another: “ All persons are Will the sunlight never forbid entering these premises.” On which

My dark grave seek?' board is the idea the best expressed ? Is either

“ Have faith, little seed; soon yet again incorrect? (2.)

Thou'lt rise from the grave where thou art lain, Should we say, “ Will be sold at auction,"

Thou’lt be so fair, or at “ Public Auction?” (3.) Worcester says With thy green shades so light, an auction is a public sale by bidding; and And thy flowers so bright, Webster's definition is of the same import. If Waving in air. there is no private auction, why state that it « So must we sink in the earth’s black mould; will be public?

Sink in the grave so wet and so cold; Some months ago I sent to an office to have

There must we stay, some notices "struck off" of an auction : among Till at last we shall see other articles advertised was a sett of tools.

Time turn to eternity, The printer wishing to show his larnin, prefixed

Darkness to day.' public to auction, and spelled sett, set. Were not both corrections, incorrect ? (4.) Would it It is a glorious occupation, vivifying and selfnot be as proper to say, sale to commence at 1 sustaining in its nature, to struggle with ignoo'clock p. m. in the afternoon, as to state that rance, and discover to the inquiring minds of the auction will be public? So it seems to the masses the clear cerulean blue of heavenly

truth.

A. B. C.

For the Schoolmaster.

mote antiquity to modern times, are, from excluModern Improvements in Teaching.

sive private institutions to free, public institutions,

and from sectarian, religious institutions to unMR. EDITOR: - In a former number of The

sectarian, civil institutions. SCHOOLMASTER, you permitted me to present to your readers “ A glance at the schools of Greece

Let us look now, for a moment, at some of and Rome.” Permit me now to glance for a

the changes that have taken place in our modmoment, at the schools of more recent times, ern public schools, within the last half century. and to trace some of the changes that have And here I must be permitted to use a little taken place in them.

egotism, not entirely ætatis gratia, – though, The schools of Greece and Rome were most- perhaps, that would be a sufficient excuse, - but ly, if not all, private institutions. As time because I really feel the contrast which I wish passed on, changes in this respect gradually to present to you, and can speak from personal took place. After the introduction of Christ- experience. ianity they became a part of, or appendages to, A very great change has taken place in the the Church. The schools of the Catholic qualifications of teachers for their work, and in Church, and especially those established by the the modes of instruction adopted by them. Jesuites, were for a long time among its most When I began my career of school-keeping at powerful supports. After the Reformation, the the age of sixteen, I could not possibly have Protestants imitated the Catholics, and estab- entered a high school, such as is now establish. lished schools for the support of the Protestant ed in most of our large towns, on an examinareligion. These, in process of time came to be tion such as is given at present to candidates called Parish Schools, similar to those of the for admission. I had had no experience whatsame name in England at the present time. ever in answering questions in writing. I had

In the “Discipline of the Reformed Churches had no experience in letter-writing, and could of France," adopted by their “ First National scarcely consóruct a sentence grammatically on Synod,” held in Paris in 1559, the title of the paper. I had had no instruction in the analysecond chapter is “ Of Schools.” This chap- sis of the sounds of the letters of my mother ter contains five “ Canons.”

tongue. It is true, I had learned by heart the “ Canon I. The Churches shall do their ut- " Key Sheet,” so called, in Perry's Spellingmost endeavour to erect Schools, and to take Book, and could rattle off as fast as any of my care of the instruction of their youth. school mates, long a in hate, short a in hat,

“ Canoy II. Regents and Masters shall sub-broad a in hallwash, grave a in part, 'cute a in scribe the Confession of Faith and Church-Di- liar.” But the meaning of this " Key Sheet” cipline, and the Towns and Churches shall not was as blank to me as the hieroglyphics on the admit any one into this office without the con- tombs of the Pharaohs, until I began to teach sent of the Consistory of that place.” it to my own pupils, and then the light began

The other canons are of similar character, all to dawn upon my mind. I had had no experibased upon the principle of inculcating in the ence in the analysis of numbers, and of the young and enforcing upon all, a specific form, or principles on which the rules of the arithmetic system, of religious faith. This basis has been, were formed. I solved the problems by the fortunately, swept away from beneath most, if rules under which they were placed; and that not all, of the free, public schools of our coun- was all that was required of me. I do not retry. In asserting and maintaining the true member of ever hearing the rules of arithmetic principle of " soul-liberty,” your State in its explained, as they are now explained in almost infancy, took, in priority, the lead of Massachu- every school that exists, during the whole of sctts; but in the establishment of free, public my public school training. In the “ Miscellaschools by a tax upon the inhabitants, Massa- neous Examples,” the primary question before cusetts, so far as I can ascertain, took the lead me, was, to find out, by a kind of guessing, by of the world; and in theory and by the consti- which rule the given problem was to be solved. tution, — whatever may be the fact in practice,– That ascertained, the solution easily followed. these schools are absolutely unsectarian. Un- I had no Colburn to pour light upon what litsectarian, too, I presume they are in Rhode Is- tle bit of mathematical soul I had : for, whether land.

Colburn, the man, had been incarnated or not, The great changes that have been thus far Colburn, the arithmetic, existed only in the noticed, in tracing down the schools from re-Iprinciples of numbers themselves, which like

Melchisedec, have “ neither beginning of days, the institutions of which they are members. nor end of life.” Indeed, I did not begin to And some of the prizes are gained by a lady. learn, in the true sense of the word, - even if I As yet, I believe, only one of Eve's daughters did then,- until I began to teach. I do not has been a successful applicant for this honor. now see how he could have conscientiously giv- Possibly, it would, perhaps, be more chivalric en it, but still, the minister of R- - gave me a to say — probably only one has taken up the certificate of qualifications, signed

“ Luke B. gage. Foster, D. V. M.” I took the certificate with The demand that has been made for the apagitation. I knew not what the signature meant. plication of mathematics to the industry of the I mustered courage, however, before I left his age, is probably one cause of the rapid advanceReverence, to ask the meaning of these great ment of mathematical knowledge in our comletters, D. V. M.; and the answer was, “ Dei munity. The network of rail-roads which covVerbi Minister, minister of the word of God." ers almost the whole surface of this northern

This was a sort of turning point in my life. half of the western hemisphere; the tunnels As a pupil I had not been in the habit of ask- embankments, culverts, suspension and other ing for explanations, for it was not the fashion. bridges, which have been constructed; the locoWe committed our lessons and recited them. motives, those pyrotechnic giants, whose lightWhat little knowledge of them l obtained, care ning speed and thundering tread are so awfully I know not how. But when I received my cer- grand, when we think of their immense force, tificate of qualifications as a teacher, I did wish controlled and directed by the will of man as to know what it meant. When I look back up- easily almost as he controls the actions of his on my early experience in school-teaching, and own limbs; the construction of machinery see how extremely little I know of what I at- which performs its work with an apparent intempted to teach, I am astonished that I had telligence almost divine ; architecture, shipany success whatever. And, as to the amount building, navigation; astronomy, that sublimest of knowledge attained and attainable, I feel of all sciences ; — all these things have created more and more the sublimity of that saying of a demand for mathematical knowledge greater Sir Isaac Newton, in which he compares himself, probably than the world has ever before seen. in his search after knowledge, to the person pick- This demand has been met; and it has been ing up, here and there, a pebble on the margin met, I think, in part, by the improved methods of the boundless ocean.

of teaching arithmetic, which have been introThe contrast between the mode of teaching duced into our schools and colleges within the half a century ago and that adopted now, and last half century. There is no "royal road " between the qualitications required of teachers even now to mathematical knowledge, but the then and those required of them now, is great old circuitous route has been very much straightindeed. I both see it and feel it; and I rejoice ened and shortened. The analytic method of to be able to testify to it. I rejoice to recognize teaching arithmetic in our public schools, and the improvements that have been made, though the introduction of the higher calculus into our I am not so blinded by them as to think that scientific schools and colleges, bear a relation to “ everything is gold that glitters."

the old method of teaching and to the old textAs a general remark, I go for the modern books, somewhat similar to that which the modmodes, though not indiscriminately. The mod ern mode of travelling by steam and rail, bears ern modes of teaching arithmetic are infinitely to the old mode by stage-coach and private carsuperior to the ancient. The standard of mathe- riage. In modern travelling, time and distance matical knowledge in our schools is very much are almost annihilated, although labor and fahigher than it was fifty years ago. The readi- tigue are still to be endured. In like manner, ness and rapidity with which problems in men- the modern modes of pursuing mathematical tal arithmetic are solved now, would have seem

m-investigations, carry us, with the same amount ed like magic when I was young; and the extent of time and labor, much farther into the mysteto which mathematical knowledge is carried in ries of the science than the former modes did. our high schools, academies and colleges, is real- In the government of schools too there has ly astonishing. Not a few of the “ Prize Prob- been a very great improvement. Young Amerilems" in the Mathematical Monthly are solved ca has its faults, and it is sometimes very disby students belonging sometimes to one of the gustingly rampant in its demeanor ; but Young lower classes, instead of the first, or oldest, in America has also its rights. In a school-room there must be order and obedience, or there will

From the Buffalo Courier.

An Incident in School Life. be very little progress in anything that is good; but the modes of securing these, are, in general,

INCIDENTS trifling in themselves have an imvery different from what they were fifty years portant influence in determining the character ago. The knock-down system is not so gener- of a life.

A word spoken in season, a cruel ally in vogue as it was then. Low, vulgar and

taunt, wounding the heart to its core, have been cruel punishments are not so frequently resort

the turning points in destiny, and put a young ed to. In some schools corporal punishment mind on the high road to fortune, or sent it has quite disappeared. It is pleasant to recng, downward to ruin. Almost every person can nize these changes in our schools.

recall some occurrence in early life which gave Discipline by brute force is an incident of a

tone and impulse to effort, and imbued the mind low state of civilization and refinement. Mus with principles whose influence is even now cular strength is important both for man and

controlling. We give place to the following boy; but the idea that muscular strength is the

true narrative, as an illustration of this fact, main element to be brought into exercise in the

and because it inculcates a truth which every discipline of the school-room, has nearly dis

man, woman and child may profitably bear in appeared. The tone of feeling on this subject

mind. has greatly changed. The glory attached to the

Years ago, when I was a boy, it was customfeat of attempting to put a schoolmaster out of the window during the first half day or first ary, and probably is now to some extent among

district schools in the country, to have spelling week of his term, merely to see how much spunk schools in the winter term. These gatherings or strength he has, has nearly or quite departed

were always anticipated with great interest by from our midst. Teachers are not left, as they the scholars, as at thnee times was to be decidformerly were when appointed to a school, to ed who was the best speller. Occasionally one find their way to it alone, with the pleasant in- school would visit another for a test of scholarformation whispered in their ear before starting, ship in this regard. Ah! how the little hearts that the boys turned the master out of school last would throb, and big ones thump, in their anxwinter, and they threaten to do it again. The

iety to beat the whole. committee now usually accompanies them and

Once on a time a neighboring school sent inducts them into office. They have thus a

word to ours, that on a certain day in the afterchance of holding their place, for a day or two,

noon, they would meet in our school house for at least, without an outbreak.

one of those contests. As the time was short, But notwithstanding this change in the gov- most of the other studies were suspended, and ernment of the school-room, government there

at school and at home in the evenings, all hands must be. Man must be governed by something.

were studying to master the monosyllables, disThe ideal perfect in the government of the State, syllables, polysyllables, abbreviations, &c., &c., is, that the citizens, by mutual agreement, make which the spelling-books contained. their own laws, and yield thereto a voluntary

At length the day arrived, and as our visitors and unreserved obedience. The government of the school-room is to be a preparation for this and anxieties were proportionately great. The

were considered rather our superiors, our fears ideal perfect in the government of the State. scholars were ranged in a standing position, on Of course this can be obtained only approxi- opposite sides of the house, and the words promately. With some teachers the approximation nounced to each side alternately, and the scholis rapid, with others, slow; but it should be

ar that “missed” was to sit down. His game the object of all teachers to make it as rapid as

was up: possible, and carry it as far as they can ; - in

It did not take long to thin the ranks on both all cases, however, saloâ republicâ, without sides. In a short time our school had but eight sacrificing order and obedience.

on the floor, and theirs but six. After a few Mr. Editor, I have said nothing new in this

rounds, the contest turned in their favor, as communication. The young teachers now on the stage know as a fact of history, that the they had four standing to our two. For a long changes spoken of have taken place, but I can time it seemed as though these six had the book speak of them, — of most of them, at least,

.by heart.” At length the number was reducfrom personal experience; and, as these changes ed to one on each side. Our visitors were repreare, I think, in the right direction, I take pleasure in speaking of them as proinises of good sented by an accomplished young lady, whose for the future.

parents had recently arrived in town, and ours

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by myself, a ragged little boy of ten summers, seeing my grief, waited until I was more comwho had set up night after night while iny mo- posed, when I told her what had happened, and ther, with no other light than that produced by added, passionately, “I wish father wouldn't pine knots, pronounced my lessons to me. The be a drunkard, so we could be respected as othinterest of the spectators was excited to the er folks.” At first mother seemed almost overhighest pitch, as word after word was spelled whelmed, but quickly rallying, said : by each. At length the young lady missed and • My son, I feel very sorry for you, and reI stood alone. Her teacher said she did not gret that your feelings have been so injured. understand the word. She declared she did ; G. has twitted you about things you cannot that the honor was mine, and that I richly de- help. But never mind, my son.

Be always served it. That was a proud moment for me. honest; never taste a drop of intoxicating liI had spelled down both schools, and was de- quor; study and improve your mind. Depend clared victor. My cheeks burned, and my brain on your own energies, trusting in God, and you was dizzy with excitement.

will, if your life is spared, make a useful and Soon as the school was dismissed, my compe- respected man. I wish your father, when sober, titress came and sat down by my side and con- could have witnessed this scene, and realized gratulated me on my success, inquired my name the sorrow his course brings on us all. But and age, and flatteringly predicted my future keep a brave heart my son. Remember you are success in life,

responsible only for your own faults. Pray God Unaccustomed to such attentions, I doubtless to keep you, and don't grieve for the thoughtacted as most little boys would under such cir- less reproaches that may be cast on you on your cumstances, injudiciously. At this juncture, father's account.” Master G., the son of the rich man of our neigh- This lesson of my blessed mother, I trust was borhood, tauntingly said to me, in the presence not lost upon me. Nearly forty years have of my fair friend and a number of boys from the gone since that day, and I have passed many other school — «(), you needn't feel so big – trying scenes, but none ever made so strong an your folks are poor, and your father is a drunk- impression on my feelings as that heartless reard."

mark of G.'s. It was so unjust and so uncalled I was happy no more - I was a drunkard's for. Now, boys, remember always to treat son — and how could I look my new friends in your mates with kindness. Never indulge in the face? My heart seemed to rise up in my taunting remarks towards any one, and rememthroat, and almost suffocated me. The hot ber that a son of a poor man, and even of a tears scalded my eyes — but I kept them back; drunkard, may have sensibilities as keen as your and soon as possible, quietly slipped away from own.

The my companions, procured my dinner basket,

But there is another part to this story. and, unobsorved, left the scene of my triumph other day a gentleman called at my place of and disgrace, with a heavy heart, for my home. business, and asked if I did not recognize him. But what a home. “My folks were poor

I told him I did not. and

Do you remember," my father was a drunkard.” But why should said he, “ of being at a spelling-school at a cerI be reproached for that? I could not prevent

tain time, and a rude, thoughtless boy twitting my father's drinking, and, assisted and encour- you of poverty and being a drunkard's son?” aged by my mother, had done all I could to

" I do most distinctly," said I. • Well," conkeep my place in my class at school, and to as

tinued the gentleman, “I am that boy. There sist her in her worse than widowhood.

has not probably a month of my life passed

since then, but I have thought of that remark Boy, as I was, I inwardly resolved never to

with regret and shame, and as I am about leavtaste of liquor, and that I would show Master

ing for California, perhaps to end my days there, G. if I was a drunkard's son, I would yet stand

I could not go without first calling on you, and as high as he did. But all my resolves could not allay the gnawing grief and vexation pro- gave him my hand as a pledge of forgiveness.

asking your forgiveness for that act.” Boys, I duced by his taunting words and haughty man. Did I do right? You will say yes. Well, then, ner. In this frame of mind — my head and let me close as I began. Boys, never twit anheart aching, my eyes red and swollen – I reach

other of what he cannot help. ed home. My mother saw at once that I was in trouble, and inquired the cause. I buried What maintains one vice would bring up my face in her lap and burst into tears. Mother two children.-FRANKLIN.

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