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From the Journal of Agriculture.

A Teacher's Views.

THE following is an extract from a confidential letter received a short time since from a school teacher in Massachusetts- one who has taught for years and knows the defects of our common school system. I hope she will not think this a breach of confidence, for I can ill afford to lose the kind missives which we occasionally have the pleasure of reading, especially when they contain ideas of such vital importance to every one of the Fraternity.

Says the teacher in question :

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"Friend Cartland, if you or any other of our many teachers who read the Journal, will please answer these queries, they will oblige more than one teacher, and may benefit many of the dear children who will be shut up in prison six hours in a day for the next three months. W. T." "It you were teaching school, where, out of twenty boys of all ages, there were scarcely NOTE. With no time for a full reply to the any who did not use profane language, what above, we insert it approvingly, simply saying would you do to check it? This is a great trial that we have, on various occasions, condemned, to me. 'Tis the atmosphere in which most of them have lived from early childhood."

She continues:

most earnestly, the practice of dooming our children to so many hours confinement in the school-room, It is cruel, to say the least of it. "I have been thinking deeply, the past few Such confinement cannot be enforced without days, upon the evils of our present common rebelling against the laws of God — without school system. Not that there is no good in it. trampling upon the rights of children as claimFar from that; there is great good, and I love ed by their natures. We are glad the subject and appreciate, I trust, the motives and princi- is arousing attention in many quarters. Let ples which led some of our best and noblest every friend of education, and of human namen of past generations to establish such a sys- ture, help swell the rising tide of public sentitem. But I do not think the health and physi ment, till the demands of childhood shall be cal development of children are cared for as triumphantly vindicated. The deeper the sleep they should be. Who is there who would not in the public mind, the more stern should be the call any mother hard, unfeeling and cruel who trumpet blast which we would invoke to awakshould, every morning, at 9 o'clock, set her lit- en it. tle girl in a chair, with book or work, and with slight interruption of the labor, keep her sitting in the same position for three hours, and then after an intermission of two hours persist in the

From the Century.
Newspapers and Education.


Some days since, a little girl accosted us on a same course in the afternoon. Every one would ferry boat: "Please tell me what o'clock it is, be ready to cry out against such an unnatural sir?" "It is just nine." "Then," said she, “ I parent, and even the stones would join the cry. shall be late at school." "Do you cross the riv"But is not this the course pursued by every er to go to school?" "No, sir, but I have been parent who sends his or her little ones to any to my aunt's on a visit, and I am now going back; of our public schools? And how can the evil I'm afraid my mother will not let me go again if be remedied? My whole heart cries out against I am late." "What are you studying?" "I'm it. A bitter, bitter lesson has brought this vi in ancient geography, rhetoric, composition and vidly before me. I feel, sometimes, as if I could grammar." "Do you not study modern geonot go into school again. What can I do in graphy ?" "No, sir, but I am going to study that little, ill-ventilated school-room with forty physiology, geology and metaphysics." "Are scholars? The best I can do for them may not you, indeed?" "Yes, sir; my mother says they prevent some of them from dying.

are the fashionable branches; modern geography and arithmetic are so common, you know,-everybody learns them. She wants me to learn the "Will you take a message to me?" Yes, sir." "Tell her that you met a gentleman on a ferry boat

"I have thought, unless something is done ir. my school, I shall feel as though I must call the parents in the district together, and try to set higher branches." before them the evil. Tell me, would it be your mother from wrong, immodest or unwomanly?

"I have five children in school, brothers, who told you that ancient geography, and rhetor

ic and physiology are not the studies for a child

It is possible that we overrate the influence of your age; and that modern geography, arith- of the newspaper as an educator, but we think metic, and a good newspaper are the higher not. It is the voice of the living world. It is branches. Don't forget this." history, art, philosophy, science, truth, justice, It would be for us a perilous undertaking to as- rhetoric, grammar, and everything else—not sert that girls in general, are not equal to boys, unmixed with falsehood and nonsense, but not and consequently that women are not equal to more so mixed than the home infant school for men. We assert no such thing. We are afraid girls, from which boys break away before their to do it we fear almost to put the case hypo- bones are out of the gristle. Take Grammar, thetically. Are girls equal to boys, and women Natural History, Rhetoric and Composition. to men, in tact and ability to accomplish what is Where are these so well taught as in the careequally within the capacity of either sex? Have fully edited newspaper? What better lessons they equal presence of mind in danger, equal in Rhetoric than to see some popular writer or readiness of resource, equal knowledge of passing famous scholar roasted alive on the hot coals of events, equal power to seize new arts and to take criticism? Where are better examples of tasteadvantage of opportunities? To sum up in a ful composition? Where is a better cabinet of word, do they make as much and as good use of natural history? What in all the world escapes their faculties as boys and men ?

the newspaper editor? And i he commits blunWhy not? Is it because master Bob asserts ders in grammar, or logic, or fact, or philosophy, a divine right to the newspaper of mornings, so is he not forthwith served up on a gridiron by anthat his sister, poor little soul. is obliged to go other editor? Where, but in the newspaper, to school to have all the philosophy thrust down will be found a running history of al: the literher intellectual throat, without any knowledge ature of the day? Where else are you told

of the real matters in life by which they are il- what books you may safely buy, what are not lustrated and to which they are applied? Is it worth putting on your shelves, and what would because the poor child must drink in rhetoric be as hurtful to the minds of your children as without having read the fine periods of Seward henbane to their bodies. ?

and Everett, or the glowing eloquence and the criticism of the leading columns? Is it because she's in the maid's hands to be

FORBIDDEN FRUIT.-Mr. Noel, a French agriculturist, speaking of the introduction of the potato into France, says:


fixed up," with her thoughts and aspirations directed to a new hoop-skirt, and to have have her hair and This vegetable was viewed by the people her mind twisted into curls, while Bob is catch- with extreme disfavor when first introduced, ing the magnetism of dutiful great deeds, by and many expedients were adopted to induce reading telegrams from California, France, Eng- them to use it, but without success. In vain land, Italy and China? Hurrah! Garibaldi did Louis XVI. wear its flower in his button is at Naples! Hurrah! The Sardinians have hole, and in vain were samples of the tuber diswhipped Lamoriciere, and the Pope is going to tributed among the farmers; they gave them to be kicked out of Rome," shouts Bob, as little their pigs, but would not use them themselves, hoop-skirt comes into the breakfast room, and At last, Parmentier, the chemist, who well knew simpers in her darling accents: — " Ma, I want the nutritive properties of the potato, and was a pair of jet armlets - Evelina Louisa Sophro- most anxious to see it in general use, hit upon nia Smith has a pair, and I think it's a shame the following ingenious plan: He planted a that I can't have them. Won't you make Bob good breadth of potatoes at Sablons, close to stop that drea-a-dful noise ?" "Yes, dear, Paris, and paid great attention to their cultivayou shall have the armlets. Ma will go out and get them this very day."

Ma is going to make herself over again in her child. She never reads the papers, excepting| the marriages and fashions, and the horrors, and the sickening romances, and the small gossip, and why should her daughter?

Some judicious families and circles must be excepted from this not carricature, where we see girls equal to boys, growing up into women who will not be inferior to men.

tion. When the roots were nearly ripe, he put notices around the field, that all persons who stole away any of the potatoes would be prosecuted with the utmost rigor of the law, and gendarmes were employed to watch the field day and night, and arrest all trespassers. No sooner were the new roots thus f rbidden, as it were, by authority, than all persons seemed eager to eat them, and in a fortnight, notwithstanding the gendarmes, the whole crop was stolen, and without doubt eaten. The new vegetable having been found to be excellent food, was soon cultivated in every part of the kingdom."

For the Schoolmaster.

Physical Culture.


a complete system of intellectual training, must
have an almost infinite variety of exercises.
To select any one and dignify it with the title
of a system
is simply to talk nonsense. But

THE passion for specialty for the all-ab- if you must select one and make it alone the sorbing one idea, so abused and pernicious in means of development, in behalf of women, polities, religion, art, and perhaps in all other children, and to speak briefly, in behalf of ninehuman affairs, is certainly very funny and mis- tenths of all who need gymnastics, let that one chievous in matters gymnastic. exercise. I pray, be anything rather than lifting.

Here in America are millions who are dying for physical culture. We are all agreed in regard to the imperative necessity.

What shall be done? Now for the funny and mischievous specialties!

The first man says, spar! spar! spar!! Take lessons in sparring, and join a regular boxing club. Tais, sir, will give health and vigor to all!

He who would instruct the world in a system of gymnastic training, must not forget the following:

First, that there are myriads of children feeble boys and girls who will never, either by coaxing or coercion, pursue any system of training, no matter how good, which is not full of beautiful games, requiring very little muscular strain, but full of competition, skill and exhilaration.

The second says, fence! fence! fence!! Take Second, there are any number of ladies who lessons of a fencing master, and devote yourself to small sword. This, sir, will ensure health will never be drawn into any system which is not full of grace, womanly propriety and social and vigor to all! Procure hea-pleasure. You may say, they ought to do this Every day or that; you are probably right. I simply speak This is the of what is practicable.

The third says, lift! lift! lift!! vy dumb-bells and kegs of nails! devote half an hour to lifting! way! Now is not all this both funny and mischie- fact, will not continue through a series of years

vous? I can't hear one of these gentlemen
without being reminded of the tailor who saw
nothing in the magnificence of Niagara but the
splendid opportunity to sponge a coat!"
And again, I am reminded of that American
orator who declared that no man could make a

truly great speech without first imbibing a glass
of brandy. Himself of phlegmatic tempera-
ment, and needing this fiery stimulus to move
his brain, he immediately leaped to the conclu-
sion that what was good for him must be good
for all other men.

We quietly smile at the near-sightedness of the professor of Greek who advocates the knowledge of Greek as the great means and end of education.

Third, young men and women, as a general

in a gymnasium unless the two sexes can mingle in the games and exercises. Never until one sex is willing to dance alone, will a gymnasium, excluding either sex, prove a flourishing and permanent institution.

Fourth, gymnasia must furnish in unlimited profusion fresh air and sunshine. A large, loose dress is indispensable to successful training, and this is particularly important and indispensable to females,

The above four points are fundamental necessities of successful and rational gymnastic training.

From Rev. Warren Burton's District School as it Is.
My First Teacher.

We are always very patient and good natured MARY SMITH was my first teacher, and the with the professor of mathematics who urges a dearest to my heart I ever had. She was a knowledge of his specialty as the only worthy niece of Mrs. Carter, who lived in the nearest object of education.

house on the way to school. She had visited her aunt the winter before; and her uncle being chosen committee for the school at the town meeting in the spring, sent immediately to her home in Connecticut and engaged her to teach the summer school. During the few days she spent at his house, she had shown herself peculiarly qualified to interest and to gain the love A complete system of physical training, like of children. Some of the neighbors, too, who

And I do not know why we ought not to treat with as much patience and good nature the man who contends for lifting heavy weights as a complete system of physical culture.

Such a silly introversion may surprise and puzzle us, but we must treat it as an hallucination.

dropped in while she was there, were much to my memory by the ties created by gentle pleased with her appearance. She had taught tones and looks.

one season in her native State; and that she That hardest of all tasks, sitting becomingly succeeded well, Mr. Carter could not doubt. still, was rendered easier by her goodness. He preferred her, therefore, to hundreds near When I grew restless and turned from side to by; and for once the partiality of the relative side, and changed from posture to posture, in proved profitable to the district. search of relief from my uncomfortableness, she


Now Mary Smith was to board at her uncle's. spoke words of sympathy rather than reproof. This was deemed a fortunate circumstance on Thus I was won to be as quiet as I could. my account, as she would take care of me on When I grew drowsy, and needed but a comthe way, which was needful to my inexperi- fortable position to drop into sleep and forgetenced childhood. My mother led me to Mr. fulness of the weary hours, she would gently Carter's to commit me to my guardian and in- lay me at length on my seat, and leave me just structor for the summer. I entertained the most falling to slumber, with her sweet smile the last extravagant ideas of the dignity of the school- thing beheld or remembered. keeping vocation, and it was with trembling re- Thus wore away my first summer at the disluctance that I drew near to the presence of so trict school. As I look back upon it, faintly lovely a creature as they told me Mary Smith traced on memory, it seems like a beautiful But she so gently took my little quiver- dream, the images of which are all softness and ing hand, and so tenderly stooped and kissed peace. I recollect that, when the last day came, my cheek, and said such soothing and winning it was not one of light-hearted joy it was words, that my timidity was gone at once. one of sadness, and it closed in tears. I was She used to lead me to school by the hand, now obliged to stay at home in solitude, for the while John and Sarah Carter gamboled on, un- want of playmates, and in weariness of the less I chose to gambol with them; but the first passing time, for the want of something to do; day, at least, I kept by her side. All her de- as there was no particular pleasure in saying meanor toward us all, was of a piece with her A, B, C, all alone, with no Mary Smith's looks first introduction. She called me to her to read, and voice for an accompaniment. not with a look and voice as if she were doing a duty she disliked, and was determined that I should do mine too, whether I liked it or not, as is often the manner of teachers; but with a cheerful smile and softening eye, as if she were at a pastime and wished me to partake of it.

The next summer, Mary Smith was mistress again. She gave such admirable satisfaction, that there was but one unanimous wish that she should be re-engaged.

Mary was the same sweet angel this season as the last. I did not, of course, need her soothMy first business was to master the A, B, C, ing and smiling assiduity as before; but still and no small achievement it was; for many a she was a mother to me in tenderness. She little learner waddles to school through the was forced to caution us younglings pretty ofsummer, and waddles to the same school through ten; yet it was done with such sweetness, that the winter, before he accomplishes it, if he hap- a caution from her was as effectual as would be pens to be taught in the manner of former times. a frown, and indeed a blow, from many others. This might have been my lot had it not been for At least, so it was with me. She used to resort Mary Smith. Few of the better methods of to various severities with the refractory and idle, teaching, which now make the road to know- and in one instance, she used the ferule; but ledge so much more easy and pleasant, had not we all knew, and the culprit knew, that it was then found their way out of, or into, the brain well deserved. of the pedagogical vocation. Mary went on in At the close of the school there was a deeper the old way, indeed; but the whole exercise sadness in our hearts than on the last summer's was done with such sweetness on her part that closing day. She had told us that she should the dilatory and usually unpleasant task was never be our teacher again, — should probably to us a pleasure, and consumed not half so never meet many of us again in this world. much of my precious time as it generally does She gave us much parting advice about loving in the case of heads as stupid as mine. By the and obeying God, and loving and doing good to close of that summer, the alphabet was securely everybody. She shed tears as she talked to us, my own. That hard, and to me unnecessary, and that made our own flow still more. When string of sights and sounds, were bound forever we were dismissed, the customary and giddy

I being

laugh was not heard. Many were sobbing with zling gifts, beginning with the oldest. grief, and even the least sensitive were softened an abecedarian, must wait till the last; but as and subdued to an unusual quietness. I knew that my turn would surely come in due

The last time I ever saw Mary Smith was order, I was tolerably patient. But what was Sunday evening, on my way home from meet- my disappointment, my exceeding bitterness of ing. As we passed Mr. Carter's, she came out grief, when the last book on Mary's lap had to the chaise where I sat between my parents, been given away, and my name not yet called! to bid me good-by. Oh, that last kiss, that Every one present had received, except myself last smile, and those last tones! Never shall I and two others of the A, B, C rank. I felt the forget them so long as I have the power to re- tears starting to my eyes; my lips were drawn member or capacity to love. The next morning to their closest pucker to hold in my emotions she left for her native town; and before another from audible outcry. I heard my fellow sufsummer she was married. As Mr. Carter soon ferers at my side draw long and heavy breaths, moved from the neighborhood, the dear in- the usual preliminaries to the bursting out of structress never visited it again. grief. This feeling, however, was but momen

There is one circumstance connected with the tary; for Mary immediately said, "Charles and history of summer schools of so great impor- Henry and Susan, you may now all come to tance to little folks, that it must not be omitted. me together; at the same time her hand was We were at her side It was this: The mistress felt obliged to give put into her work-bag.

little books to all her pupils on the closing day in an instant, and in that time she held in her of school. Otherwise she would be thought| hand-what? Not three little picture books, stingy, and half the good she had done during but what was to us a surprising novelty, viz.: the summer would be cancelled by the omission three little birds wrought from sugar by the of the expected donations. If she had the least confectioner's art. I had never seen or heard generosity, or hoped to be remembered with or dreamed of such a thing. What a revulsion any respect and affection, she must devote of delighted feeling now swelled my little bosom ! week's wages, and perhaps more, to the pur"If I should give you books," said chase of these little toy-books. My first Mary, " could not read them at present; so you present, of course, was from Mary Smith. It was I have got for you what you will like better,


not a little book for the first summer, but it perhaps, and there will be time enough for you

was something that pleased me more.

to have books when you shall be able to read
them. So, take these little birds and see how
We were perfectly
long you can keep them."
satisfied, and even felt ourselves distinguished
above the rest. My bird was more to me than
all the songsters in the air, although it could
not fly, or sing, or open its mouth. I kept
it for years, until by accident it was crushed to

The last day of school had arrived. All, as
I have somewhere said before, were sad that it
was now to finish. My only solace was that I
should now have a little book, for I was not
unmoved in the general expectation that prevail-
ed. After the reading and spelling and all the
usual exercises of the school were over, Mary
took from her desk a pile of the glittering little pieces, and was no longer a bird.
things we were looking for. What beautiful

For the Schoolmaster.
The Reward.


covers, red, yellow, blue, green! Oh, not the first buds of spring, not the first rose of summer, not the rising moon, nor the gorgeous No man desires to work without pay. rainbow, seemed so charming as that first pile laborer is worthy of his hire," -a maxim not of books, now spread out on her lap, as she sat only acceptable to him, but entirely consistent in her chair in front of the school. All eyes with Christian ethics. It is true, we hear comwere now centred on the outspread treasures. plaints that toil is poorly requited, and in a peAdmiration and expectation were depicted on cuniary sense that is quite correct. Among every face. Pleasure glowed in every heart; others, the teacher often speaks of his thankless for the worst as well as the best counted upon task, - the demand and the impossibility of the certainty of a present. What a beautifier pleasing all; and then his compensation is scarceof the countenance agreeable emotions are ! ly enough to keep soul and body together.” The most ugly visaged were beautiful now with But whatever may be the exact truth in this the radiance of keen anticipation. The scholars regard, it is well to look farther than this, to were called out, one by one, to receive the daz- those higher and more enduring rewards which

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