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Natural Science.

taining hundreds of spores.

Whether this parasitic growth is the first cause of the disease, or

whether a morbid condition of the plant furnishes COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addressed to I. F. CADY, Warren.

the requisite condition for its promotion, may not

be easy to decide. There can be no doubt respectFor the Schoolmaster.

ing its destructive effects when once commenced. Microscopic Parasites.

Numerous species of fungi have been found to

infest the grape, the potato, parsnip, bean, cucum. Few persons, when they have seen a dead fly ber, tomato, corn and various other of our most fastened to the window pane by a growth of mould, valuable plants and fruits. The amount of spores have probably suspected that the vegetable growth produced by these defies all computation. They by which he was surrounded was the antecedent fill the air, and fall upon every spot of earth in and cause of his death, and not its consequent. thousands; and every where are ready, when a faAnd yet such appears to be the fact. Owing to vorable combination of circumstances takes place, some diseased or enfeebled condition of his physi- to germinate and grow.

Wherever a plant may cal system the germs of vegetable life, which are grow its enemy is already present. As long as the forever present in the air, found a congenial soil, plant is perfectly healthy and vigorous it may postook root and flourished, and, in their growth, sibly resist attack, but the first show of feebleness choked the waning powers of life in their victim, or injury may open the gates for its destruction. and bound him to his place as effectually as did the

And so of animals, insects and fishes. Some iron crop upon the tomb of Polydorus, which is persons may know that their pet gold-fishes are so graphically described by the Latin poet. doomed when once the “white fungoid disease"

The universality of parasitic life and its almost makes its appearance among them. The fly glued infinite variety of forms, as revealed by the micro- to the window pane, and the silk-worm blasted by scope, is almost startling. It finds support through-the Botrytis bassiana, just as it is ready to assume out the animal and the vegetable world. Its seeds the form of a chrysalis may serve as specimens of are distributed every where, and when circum- the fate to which insects are exposed even when stances favor, they are ready to start into growth they escape the beak and forceps of other everon man and beast, on reptile and insect. They de- watchful foes. fy all extremes of climate. They will endure the But it appears that we ourselves are not exempt heat of the tropics, and will flourish amid the polar from the common liability. We suppose that it is snows. They infest the food we eat, attack our generally known that the substance called yeast growing esculents, infest our domestic animals, consists wholly of a well-defined vegetable growth. destroy our choicest fruits, and finally sow them- It is not, probably, as generally known that this selves in our very flesh, producing there, as every- kind of growth is sometimes developed in the huwhere, the work of disease and ruin.

man body, as in the disease called Diabetes, and Leaving out of view all consideration of animal in certain diseases of the stomach, as has been parasites, the prevalence, and the destruction proved by a microscopic examination of its concaused by those of a vegetable character are suffi- tents obtained by vomiting. The Ringworm, which cient to fill us with surprise. Even the very snow attacks the heads of children, has been found to furnishes a sufficient soil for the growth of fungi. consist of a Cryptogamous vegetable growth. The What is called the Gory-dew, a species of the spores from which this vegetation springs have mould-plant, will flourish so luxuriantly upon it been minutely examined, and found to have a wellthat extensive tracts of snow in the northern re- defined, rounded shape upon the upper surface, gions are said to be suddenly reddened by its and to be filiamentous beneath. growth. The common bead-mould, such as we It is conjectured that other forms of disease in see on stale bread, is found on decaying vegetable the human subject are derived from a like source. substances every where. It is said that “Some During the visitation of the cholera in England kinds of cheese derive their flavor from the quan- in 1864 some efforts were made to draw attention tity of fungous growth which spreads through the to the prevalence of fungi, in view of the probabili. mass while it is yet soft.” Blighted grapes are ty that the disease might be owing to the morbid covered with a fungous growth. The powdery sub-condition of the articles used for food, or, perhaps, stance with which they are covered, under the mi- to the development of such growths in the victims croscope, proves to be fungi whose filiaments are of this dreadful scourge. And, in view of the fact so closely interwoven as to entirely cover the skin that an impaired condition of the processes of nuof the fruit. What is known as the “potato dis- trition and a slackening of the vital processes ease” has been found to be accompanied by fun- would furnish the most favorable conditions for gous vegetation. The leaves of an infected stalk the planting of the spores and the development of are found to be covered more or less with a fine the fungi, and that the disease found its most nuwhite powder, every atom of which, under the mi- merous victims among the poor and vicious, where croscope, proves to consist of a double cell con- vital degeneration most prevailed, the conjecture



So the pear

1. F. C.

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certainly does not want plausibility. An English to look at some complementary color, when the physician of note has also expressed the opinion natural state of the eye is restored. that “ That dreadful disease known as cancer will. taster rinses his mouth with water, in order to apno doubt, ultimately prove of vegetable growth, or preciate the flavor of the next lot offered for the a degeneration of the nutritive animal cell into prize. that of a fungoid vegetable cell.”

In regard to the development of this sense, it is

desirable that it be left in its natural, unperverted For the Schoolmaster.

state. To this end, let all spices and all stimulants The Sense of Taste.

in food be avoided, so tha: articles unseasoned

(except with salt) may always be palatable: let The sense of taste is nearly akin to that of smell, children grow up ignorant of the taste of pepper, though the means by which the two senses are af- mustard, cloves and allspice. When a child does fected differ. The former is excited by the contact not relish his food without these, he ought not to of soluble substances themselves with its locality, eat; he is not hungry, either through satiety or the tongue and the mouth : the latter by particles some derangement of the system. It is desirable exhaled from volatile substances.

that a child should never contract a liking for One noticeable fact with regard to this sense is, pastry, or for pork in any of its forms, and that that substances at first distasteful, come at last, bread made with either “soda" or * saleratus" through frequent tasting, to be relished. An ex- should be distasteful to it. Above all, it should ample of this is to be seen in the tomato, and in never taste of spirituous drinks, or of any prepa. the olive. These fruits are at first unpleasant, or tion of morphine, whether in the form of “Pareeven disgusting, to many persons, who yet after goric," or a “Carminative,” or a “ Cordial." repeated trials acquire for them a strong liking. The food provided by nature for the infant is

A lamentable perversion of this sense is to be pleasant tu its taste; so in early childhood is the seen in the unnatural taste for tobacco and for ci- bread and the milk with which it is fed, so are apgars so prevalent. That these drugs agree with ples, pears, peaches, cherries and the various berthe normal taste of any person, seems too mon- ries, as the strawberry, raspberry and blackberry. strous to be believed, though they are undoubtedly All of the articles of food just mentioned are easy less repulsive to some palates than to others. Opi- of digestion and all are agreeable to the taste. um is also so filthy in appearance and exhales so Now not only are opium and tobacco distasteful rank an odor, that the wonder is that it could ever to the young, and to any palate in its natural state, have been chewed long enough for its exhilarating but also many poisonous compounds and extracts, effects to be discovered; much greater wonder is used as drugs or as medicines, corrosive-sublimate, it that the first loathing shouid ever be changed tartar-emetic, the salts of copper, and the alkaloids, into a strong relish.

as strychnine and morphine, of which there are The proper explanation of this wonderful change said to be now nearly a hundred, the most of which is to be found in considering the appetites, when are intensely bitter and very poisonous. We may it will be seen that the gratification of an artificial add to this list the nauseous and caustic alkalies. appetite is often followed by a depression and by a

In view of these facts is it not logical, when, craving which is satisfied only by what increases prior to any experience of its effects on the body, it, and the poor subject in whom it resides finds we find a substance unpleasant to the taste, to conhimself going on, each day, from bad to worse. sider it as probably poisonous, or, at least, as injuThis strong abnormal appetite arising in the sys- rious to health ? tem overpowers the natural distaste for the weed

The final cause of this sense seems to be to make or the drug, and substitutes in its place as unna- the taking of our food pleasant to us, rather than tural a liking.

irksome, so that by the innocent pleasures of the One harmless and even useful way of employing

table the mind may be recalled from care and from this sense is in judging of and comparing the fa- business, and, cheerful conversation arising, the vors of different kinds of fruit. As the many va.

stomach may be allowed that share of nervous inrieties of pears and grapes are brought before the fluence which is needed for thorough digestion. public the better sorts are called out, and these are not only better flavored but more easily digested. We learn that Mr. Wm. C. Burlingame has been Horticultural societies not only supply us with a appointed (and has already entered upon the dularger assortment of delicately flavored fruits, but ties of) master of the Grammar School of Woonalso exert a happy influence on the public health. socket. Mr. Burlingame has already a good mea

Fruit-tasters at horticultural exhibitions find the sure of experience in teaching, which, with his keenness of the palate blunted by successive tast- native energy and love of the work, we doubt not ings. This is analagous to what happens to the will assure him pleasing success. If the profeseye on looking at many pieces of goods all some sion of the teacher is to be elevated and enjoy a shade of the same color; the colors lose their rank among others, we must have men and women brightness. The remedy in the case of the eye is,' who love the work.





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written Examinations. ject of the proposition, "Which is.” Rule: The

subject of, &c. COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be ad- In its conjunctive relation it is a subordinate drassed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

connective and connects the subordinate clause " which is" with the substantive part of “what

ever.” Rule : Subordinate connectives connect, 1. Write the full declension of ox, cargo, man- &c.

“That" is a pro-sentence word, standing for II. In two different propositions use the same " Marvelous are Thy works”; as a substantive it word as an adjective and as a noun. In three dif- is of the third person, singular number, neuter ferent propositions use the same word as a noun, gender, objective case, and is the object of "knowadjective and adverb.

eth.” Rule: Transitive verbs, &c. III. Use the following words, in as many sen

“ Worth" is an adjective denoting value, it takes tences, as prepositions : but, since, concerning, no other form, is of the positive degree, and with sare, till, during, notwithstanding, athwart, respect-“ is” constitutes a part of the grammatical prediing, regarding.

Rule: The adjective “worth" is used IV. Write a sentence containing the verb teach with the copula to help form the predicate. of the potential mode, past perfect tense, second “ Dollars" is a common noun, third person, pluperson, singular number, passive voice; then ex-ral number, nominative case, and with “is worth' press the same thought, changing the voice of the completes the grammatical predicate. Rule : A verb but retaining the manner and the time of the noun used with "is worth" to complete the preexpression.

dicate must be in the nominative case. V. Write five sentences containing errors, point

“Yard” is a common noun, third person, singu. out those errors and state why they are such. lar number, objective case, without a governing

VI. Write sentences - 1. Containing the verb word expressed. Rule: Nouns denoting distance, promote, subjunctive mode, past perfect tense, pas-measure, &c., are in the objective case without a sive voice. 2. Containing ours used in an adjective governing word expressed. and substantive relation. 3. A proper noun, ad- X. Correct the following sentences that are injective of the comparative degree, and mine in correct : two relations. 4. Containing an interjection, a 1. Who are you looking for? verb with a nominative before and after it, an ad- 2. They that honor me, I will honor. jective of the superlative degree, a preposition and 3. Avoid lightness and frivolity; it is allied to a coördinate connective. 6. Containing two ad- folly. jective clauses, one substantive clause and one ad- 4. Whom do you expect ? verbial clause.

5. He is a man whom everybody says is entitled VII. Analyze the sentence - Please to excuse to respect. my son who is necessarily late.

6. John says to James, “ My head is the largVIII. Parse what and whoever in the following: est." I saw what he had. Whoever will may come. 7. She is a pupil whom her classmates love.

IX. Whatever is, is right. Marvelous are Thy 8. They were both unfortunate, but neither were works, and that my soul knoweth full well. The to blame. cloth is worth five dollars a yard,

9. He intended to have called on you. CRITICISE THE PARSINO.

10. That is the boy whom we think deserves the “Whatever" is a compound relative pronoun, prize. used in an adjective, substantive, pronominal and

GEOGRAPHY, conjunctive relation.

1. 1. Name the different waters bordering upon In its adjective relative it is a limiting adjective, Spain. 2. Upon Michigan. 3. Scandinavian Pe(the) not compared and belongs to the substantive ninsula. 4. Turkey in Europe. 5. Russia. part of “whatever," (thing). Rule : An adjective II. 1. Name five rivers that flow into the Arcor participle, &c.

tic ocean. 2. Five that flow into the Pacific ocean. In its substantive relation it is a common noun 3. Ten that flow into the Mississippi river. 4. (thing), third person, singular number, neuter Five that flow into the Indian ocean. 6. Five that gender, nominative case and is the subject of the flow into the Amazon river. preposition "The thing is right.” Rule: The III. 1. Trace the water route from Vienna to subject of a proposition, &c.

Berlin. 2. Thence to St. Petersburg. In its pronominal relation (which) it is of the IV. 1. Name five mountain chains of North third person, singular number, neuter gender and America. 2. Three of South America. 3. Five refers to the substantive part of “whatever,” for in Europe. 4. Five in Asia. 5. Five in Africa. its antecedent with which it agrees in gender, num- V. 1. Name the highest mountain peak in Asia. ber and person. Rule: The relative must agree, 2. In Europe. 3. In Africa. 4. In North Ameri&c. It is of the nominative case and is the sub. ca. 5. In South America.

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VI. 1. Give the latitude of New Orleans. 2.

Quebec. 3. Rio Janeiro. 4. St. Petersburg. 5.
London. 6. Paris. 7. Constantinople. 8. Wash-
ington. 9. Vienna. 10. Pekin.

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department, if relating to VII. 1. Trace the water route from San Fran- the higher branches, should be addressed to J. M. Ross,

Lonsdale ; otherwise to X. W. DeMunn, Providence. cisco to Canton. 2. Thence to Hamburg. 3. Thence to Cincinnati.

For the Schoolmaster. VIII. 1. Bound the North Frigid Zone. 2. Me

Solutions of Problems in April Number. diterranean Sea. 3. Missouri. 4. Desert of Sahara. 5. France.

FALL RIVER, April 9, 1861. IX. 1. Locate five large cities in British Amer- Mr. Editor :- I have prepared the following soica. 2. Four in Brazil. 3. Five in France. 4. lutions of the problems in the April number. Five in Russia. 5. Five in the British Isle. 6.

L. B. Three in China. 7. Three in Hindostan. 8. Five

ALGEBRAIC QUESTION. in Africa. 9. Five in Virginia. 10. Five in Central Europe.

Put æ, y for the means, and the terms are —, 3, X. 1. Name the products of Barbary. 2. Of

y China. 3. Of Brazil. 4. Of the East Indies. 5. Of Hindostan.

y, — By conditions, -= 24, whence MENTAL ARITHMETIC. 1. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 111

29 + 24x

(1.) cents. The orange cost 13 times as much as the

x3 + 137 Also,

+ peach and 11 times as much as the apple. What

: (x+y)::7:3, y

ху was the cost of each ?

2. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 154 which gives 36- -) = 7(x + y); or, by divid. cents. The orange cost 1 4-5 times as much as the

By peach, and the peach cost 3 times as much as the

ing by (x+y) and reducing, 3(x + y) = 10ry. apple. What was the cost of each ?

By (1), we have y= V(x2 + 24x), 3(2x2+24z)= 3. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 12

103V (x2+24x). Dividing by x and squariñig, we cents. The orange cost as much as the apple and peach together, and the peach cost twice as much From either of these values we find y=+9. The

get a quadratic equation, which gives x=3 or —27. as the apple. What was the cost of each?

terms corresponding to these roots are 4. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 18

1, 3, 9,
cents. The orange cost 2 2-5 times as much as the
apple, and the peach cost 5-6 as much as the or-

-1, 3, -9,
81, -27,

9, -3
ange. What was the cost of each ?
6. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 11

-81, -27, -9, -3. cents. The orange cost 5 cents, one-third of which was the difference between the price of the peach 1. Let ny (a + x)+nya-x) = 28 = b, and the apple,-the peach costing the more.

nv(a + x)-ny(a --x) = 22, was the cost of each ?

adding and subtracting, we shall have, after divid6. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 93 ing by 2, ny (a + x)=s+2, m/(a− 3) =s -2; cents. The peach cost 15 times as much as the therefore (a + x) =(8 + x)”, (a—x)=(s— 2)n, .'. apple and 3-7 as much as the orange. What was the cost of each?

2a=(+ 2)" + (5 — 2)". The even terms in the 7. I bought an orange, peach and apple. The developments of s + 2)" and (s— 2)" will cancel orange cost three times as much as the apple, and each other, and, when n does not exceed 5, the the apple cost one-half as much as the peach. The equation is quudratic. Having found the value of difference of price between the orange and the 2, x is easily determined. peach was two cents. What was the cost of each? 8. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 12

4. 27036 + a2 = 244, zby + xley = 2196. cents. The orange cost three times as much as the peach, and the apple 1-5 as much as the orange

28 y? + 21772 (2645 + x16) ya 2196 and peach together. What was the cost of each ?

aloy + x **(z" y + x16) N 244 9. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 10 cents. The peach cost 3 cents, and the apple cost

y=9x4, and y= 3x?; y=243210, 2.5 as much as the orange. What was the cost of therefore xlogb + .220 = 243x20 + 229 = 244, 241, each? 10. I bought an orange, peach and apple for 121

and x=1; also y=3x? = 3. cents. The orange cost three times the difference of the price of the peach and the apple, and the apple cost one-third as much as the peach. What

5. x - 2x3+x-132=0, -213 ++x=132, was the cost of each ?

(oc-x)2-(mt)=132, ()-(442)+1=1324,

27 ;

27 ; #

What and

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scribed between two concentric circles whose radii

are given, R the greater, r the less." 2

Let 2x = base, y=altitude; then 2xy = area, to (z - 2) = 12, or (a? — x)=-11,

be a maximum. Substituting the value of
x=4, x=-3, x=} (15— 43).

x = V(R? — (r + y)?],
we have A=v(Roya - reje -- 2rys - y).

Omitting the constant factor, and squaring for con. 6. m* +222 + 12x+11.24 - 102 = 0,

venient differentiation, we have 22 + 2x2 +x+11x +1126 = 102,

A = R'ye yoga 2ry: - 4.

Differentiating and dividing by dy, (x+x): + 11(x+ b ) = 102;

dA completing the square as in the last case, and car

2R’y 2roy6ry - 4y3 = 0, rying the operation out, there results, x= = 4,2=9,


when the function is to be a maximum, or mini. *=-* (335/(-67)).

mum. Reducing the equation, we obtain (* These numbers do not satisfy the last condi

y= (-30+ V (8R? + 32)].

d'A! tion of the equation, as they result from roots of

Differentiating again, =2R2_27_12rye-12y* ; solution merely; the first and fourth series are

do the true answers: 1, 3, 9, 27, and —81, -27, -9, substituting in which the first valve of y the re-3, the former only in an arithmetical sense, and sult is negative, indicating a maximum. Having the latter in an algebraical; but it is given as an obtained y, we easily obtain algebraieal question, and therefore both are admissable; and the solution is very ingenious.

2.x = }[8R2— 272— 2r(8R2 + r)]}. We present the following: Let x, xy, xy, xy, If we suppose the radius of the smaller circle to

R represent the numbers. And the equations of the

diminish to 0, then = 0,...y=- 2, 2x =R/2; problem are

my - ry= 24.

x + 2y3 7

• y: 2x::

-V2: RV2::1;2; that is, the (2)

2 ryt ay 3

maximum rectangle in a semicircle has its sides Reducing first member of (2) to simplest form, we as 1 : 2, therefore the maximum rectangle in a circle

is a square.

C, D, B. y-y+1 7

10 have from which y

Lonsdale High School.



[Similar solutions of the (7) and (8), are given whence y= 3, 3. The first value of y substituted by L. B., who sends solutions of all the problems.] in (1) gives x=1; and the second value of y gives

QUERY.-Is the following reasoning correct? x= -81; and from the first values of x and y (2=1, y=3,) combined we find the series 1, 3, 9, Since


=n, we must have 27; and from the second (z=-81, y=}.) the

2-1 Sx=1 series —81, -27, -9, — 3. By combining the values x=1, y=5, and x=- -81, y=3, we get

in? geometrical series, of course, but incompatible

- 1 Sx=1 ones.-ED.)


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L. B.

MR. EDITOR:- I submit the following solutions

=n.n = n?, of the (7) and (8) problems in the April number:

2-1)x=1 (7.) Find the arc whose sine is half the tangent of twice the arc.”

therefore If we let x= the arc, we shall have, by the conditions of the problem, sin x= tan 2x.

2-1 2 tan x But tan 2r =

which substituted in the 1- -tan 2.c

Algebraical Paradox. tan 2 first equation, gives sin x=

V(1 + 3) + (1 - 1)=/2. 1-tan?


1+x+3(1 + 2)} (1-2) Substituting for tan z its value,

and +3(1+1)+ (1 x)} +1-7=2;

— V(1— sin 2x)

Reducing, (1 + x). (1-x)+(1 + 2) (1 ) = 0; reducing the equation we find sin r= $ 73.

Factoring, The plus sign gives x= 600, or 1200, and the mi- (1 + x)(1+x)(1-x)+(1+x) (1 - x)(1 —»)=0; fius sign gives r = 2400, or 3000.

Div. by (1 + x) (1 - x), 1+x+1-x=0;

2= 0. (8.)

Required to find the greatest rectangle in-! Where is the fallacy ?

sin 2


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