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For the Schoolmaster.
The great fact that every successful operation Government.
is under some government, should be kept conThis subject is the dread of teachers, and the stantly in view. Neglecting to make this appaterror of scholars, but it is one which comes rent, is the cause of much of the difficulty which legitimately within the province of The School- teachers experience in this direction. If “THE MASTER, and he must therefore give some in
goes into school, requiring this, and struction upon it.
forbidding that, with no other reason apparent Such opinions as those just referred to are
than his arbitrary will, very probably a considwholly unfavorable, since government is an ac
erable portion of his scholars will be disposed tual necessity in the school-room, and its nature
to take an attitude of open hostility. From ought to be better understood, so that it may be this point a strife goes on with those scholars. secured by mutual efforts of teachers and schol. They regard him as an enemy to their happiness,
and disobey as far as they dare, and the teacher ars. The idea of a teacher with a countenance
administers such punishment as he deems ap
For this the scholars black with rage, and with rod uplifted, and propriate in the case. scholars shivering with terror or shrieking from feel that they must retaliate by some new disopunishment, is no more a necessary idea in con
bedience, and so the contest rages, sometimes nection with government, than the idea of thun- the teacher proving victorious, and sometimes der and lightning are necessarily associated with the scholars, but all the time some of the worst God's government. He smiles benignantly in passions inflamed. a summer's sunshine, and the earth gives back Instead of the case just supposed, if the teachits joyous response. So the good teacher exer- er, at the outset, makes his scholars understand cises a parental restraint over his pupils, and that government is as much a necessity for them they in turn look to him for that direction and as teaching is, and that he makes no requirecontrol which they need. They are the flock of ment or prohibition which it would not be for sheep, and need his guiding and controlling in their interest, and really for their pleasure on fluence as the shepherd. This is government, the whole, to observe, he may secure their coand it is only some who are utterly refractory operation. who need the dogs.
The idea that there must be law, - the real Where the teacher labors to secure govern- philosophy of it, - is not always clearly perment in such a way that the scholars labor as ceived by the teacher, and in such cases it will diligently to defeat it, the circumstances are be less obvious to the scholars. Every operamost unfortunate, and little good government is tion of nature teaches the great truth that law secured.
is essential, and gives an instance of unbroken Government is the administration of law: it law, that is, a perfect government. The moveis law in operation. Where it is really success- ment of the heavenly bodies is an example of ful, the scholars yield to it as they would to the Divine government, and of the operation of any other influence which they consider desira- perfect laws. The welfare and happiness of ble. Suppose a company of scholars wish to men depends upon it, and the most disastrous make an excursion or take a tour, they expect consequences would follow any violation of some competent person to take the direction, those laws, but there is no violation. The acand the whole party cheerfully follow. Should tion of gravity governs all motion, and is unisome one insist on doing something which was form, under similar circumstances. There are a disturbance to the rest, or which would hinuer laws which govern the growth of plants, and or prevent the accomplishment of the object, which determine what will be favorable or dethe rest would demand that such conduct should structive to their life and their growth. These be wholly restrained for the common good. laws mark the perfect exercise of Divine gov. This is government, and it is evidently reasona- ernment. ble, as it is necessary to success, as well as piea- But let us recur to a fact already stated, that sure.
“ every successful operation is under some gov. In a school, one of the first things necessary ernment.” Of this there are a multitude of ilto have good government, is to make scholars lustrations. The vessel at sea is under the gov. see and feel its necessity. If they can be government of the rudder. By obedience to this it erned without this, the government is far less is directed to the desired place; without such efficient.
government, its course would be totally uncer. tain, and the reaching of any port impossible. influence, corruption, fraud, theft, malice and The train of cars, with its immense freight and revenge, lust and murder, and a countless host hundreds of passengers, follows the track, which of evils, prevail. Government, then, in its highis its government, and if thrown from it by any est sense, constitutes the essential difference beaccident, it results in a fearful catastrophe. The tween virtuous and vicious society. It is what horse, under the guidance of the rein, carries elevates and ennobles, and the neglect of it is the rider safely and according to his will, but what debases and degrades. when he breaks away from restraint, he dashes Children can understand this, and it is someon to ruin.
thing which should be diligently taught to them, In all combinations of men for labor there till they are made to feel the obligation to obey; must be a superintendence, some directing pow. that restraints upon them are necessary to their er, by which efforts are guided towards the de- well being, and to the welfare of others. They sired end; without such director, the labor would should be made to feel that disobedience to be useless, but when under suitable government, wholesome laws (that is, such requirements as it is followed by success. Government is to are reasonably made of them,) is a violation of action, what organization is to matter, it secures moral obligation. The direction of the scripan object. It is the prominent feature which ture, “ children obey your parents," &c., should distinguishes society from barbarism. It indi- be impressed on them as a duty, till they feel cates the degree of civilization of any commu- the obligation, (and feel that it applies to those nity.
who are in the place of the parent,) and underGovernment is essential to the existence of stand that it is as strong as to be truthful or society, and to individual existence. If there otherwise virtuous. This should be considered were no government, that is, no established or- as one of the essential parts of juvenile training der of things, we should be in that state of wild till it is fixed in their minds that uncertainty and general confusion, where any
" Order is heaven's first law.” one would be liable at any moment to be de
It is hardly necessary to observe that such a stroyed. In a well constructed building, there disposition is not sufficiently cultivated in the is comparative safety to its inmates, but if the young. How much larger is the number of bold, materials are but carelessly put together, they turbulent, self-sufficient, disobedient young permay fall with a ruinous crash.
sons than it should be. When fire is under strict government, it harms There is a necessary connection between a no one, but let it become ungovernable, and child who is taught to respect authority and subnothing is safe in its course. So where the ele- mit to it cheerfully, and a wholesome, law abid. ments of society are all held by the force of ing citizen ; so, also, is there an obvious conneclaw, they are not operating injuriously on each tion between a child who is habitually disobeother. If we were uncertain in reference to dient, who despises authority, and resists all every individual we met, whether he would act restraint on his conduct, from whatever source for or against us, whether his actions will be it comes, and a man who is a lawless member of friendly or hostile, — we should not only be in society. continual fear, but in continual danger. The spirit of lawlessness is destruction.
English and American Science. There is a great law which binds society to
The March number of Blackwood's Magazine has gether, and protects the rights and interests of a genial and appreciative criticism of Lieutenant all, far more than civil enactments, it is the feel- Maury's “ Physical Geography of the Sea." It ing of moral obligation which impels men to compares Maury's work with a recent English act right, and is a fulfillment of the Divine re- publication of a similar character, and awards quirement.
the palm to the American production in the fol“ All things whatsoever ye would that men lowing graceful style : should do to you, do ye even so to them. This “One comes from the Admiralty of the United is the law," &c.
States, the other from that of Great Britain. One Where this law operates, and as far as it ope- is called Maury's 'Sailing Directions,' and out of rates, society prospers. Erery particle of influ- it has sprung a work ("The Physical Geography ence which results from it is beneficial. If all of the Sea'—Maury) which has already gone men were under its influence wholly, society through nine editions ; the other is a Manual would be perfect. Where there is none of this for Naval Officers.' Both are lures to sailor stu
W. G. A.
dents. Let any one compare them, and say the powers of observation of the officers of the which is the most useful and interesting, which royal and mercantile navies of England and Amthe most likely to lead a sailor to note and ob- erica, is incalculable. His corps of voluntary asserve all the phenomena with which he is ever sistants may be numbered by thousands ; every surrounded, or to induce landsmen and naviga- ship that floats in which the English language is tors to investigate the mechanism of our globe.spoken carries some one who is recording infor
mation, according to a uniform system suggested “In the British work, correct as it unquestionably is, fair Science unfolds her store in the most
by the gallant American at the Brussels Conferunpalatable form; she is highly orthodox, but ence, and the consequent, a rapid yearly increase
of information, has taken a practical shape in the appears almost to defy you to master her difficul
construction of a series of wind and current charts. ties. Each learned contributor sits, Minerva
By these charts the mariner, wherever he may like, on the summit of a lofty height, points to all the difficulties of the ascent, assures you that on
be, sees at a glance what are the prevailing winds
and currents over the space he proposes to trathe summit of that Mount Delectable there are
verse, and shapes the course of his ship accord. pastures pleasant; but never holds out a cheer
ingly; indeed, they are now found to be as useful ing hope to the student that his labors can be of
out on the wide ocean as the charts of soundings, the slightest value to her great cause, until he ac
dangers and coasts are necessary when the land is tually sits crowned in the Walhalla of the Royal
approached. How cheerfully all these data are Society; and, above all, she appears to deprecate furnished, is well attested by one honest sailor, any ambitious efforts to scale the cliffs of learning when writing to the man who laboriously colby short or pleasant paths. How different it is in
lates this information and gives them its useful the American work before us! Here is a sub
practical result. “It is with pleasure,” he says ject, in the abstract hopelessly dry, treated in a
to Maury, “ that I contribute my mite towards manner that, from the opening of the book to its
furnishing you with material to work out still close, never tires; and we shut it with a deter
further towards perfection your great and glorimination to know more of the many interesting
ous task, not only of pointing out the most speedy features of the ocean. The American hydro
routes for ships to follow over the ocean, but also grapher, in nervously-eloquent language, has
of teaching us sailors to look about us. I am free summed up the evidence of man upon the laws
to confess that for many years I commanded a governing the great watery element called ocean, and of the atmosphere which envelops it, and ship, and although never insensible to the beauwell describes the close affinity between the until I took up your work I had been traversing
ties of nature upon sea and land, I yet feel that two. He dwells upon the temperature of each, the ocean blindfolded. I did not think I did and its life and death-creating consequences-of the winds which blow over the surface of the of all the works of Him whom you so rightly
not know the amazing and beautiful combination waters, and of the climates through which they
term “The Great First Thought.' Apart from together roll. Not only does he treat of the animate and inanimate products of the sea, and any pecuniary profit to myself, from your labors of the currents which circulate through its you have done me good as a man. You have
taught me to look above, around, and beneath waters, and impart life and action to the utter. most depths; but to Lieutenant Maury we are
I am deeply grateful for this personal bene
fit.” indebted for much information-indeed, for all that mankind possesses-of the crust of the And this, let the reader remember, was writearth beneath the blue waters of the Atlantic and ten by a horny-fisted sailor, master of the good Pacific oceans. Hopelessly scientific would all ship Gertrude, bound to the Chincha Islands for these subjects be in the hands of most men; yet guano; and if the genius of the American hydroupon each and all of them Captain Maury enlists grapher can thus touch and illumine one who our attention, or charms us with explanations honestly acknowledges that his capacity to comand theories replete with originality and genius. prehend all these beautiful theories is but small It is, indeed, a nautical manual, a handbook of -if, as Admiral Fitzroy justly believes, these rethe sea, investing with fresh interest every wave searches are exercising the most beneficial effect that beats upon our shores; and it cannot fail to in improving and elevating the minds of our seaawaken in both sailors and landsmen a craving men in general--who can doubt the charms that to know more intimately the secrets of that won- such a subject, so treated, must possess for the derful element.
educated, intelligent officers of the war navies of The good that Maury has done, in awakening England and America ?"
For the Schoolmaster.
be a great loss, and an injury not easily repair. The Shrewd Trustee.
ed. Such being the case, Mr. D. was chosen « Well, Mr. Smith, has any one been chosen
as cashier because he was up to the standard of
the choosers in all respects. as cashier of our bank yet, in place of Mr. S. " “I believe they have engaged Mr. D., a man
Mr. Smith, a heavy stockholder in the bank, of the most unflinching integrity of character. and mainly instrumental in securing D. as cashJust the choice, exactly! I have been acquaint- ier, was also trustee of the school. You have ed with him for years ; no one need doubt his already been introduced in part to the future honor, or fear to repose confidence in him.”
teacher, and cannot have failed to see Mr. Smith's “Do you know what they pay him?"
wisdom in relation to this matter as well as in “ Not exactly, but I am told it is a pretty regard to that of the bank. See how careful he heavy salary ; but then, you know he is well is to secure the interests of the people. They acquainted with banking, and it is a responsible are not to be subjected to heavy taxes in the situation, and he ought to be paid well. When spring by his irrjudiciously hiring a man who thousands are at stake, it pays us well to have must be paid for experience, ability and success good security for them.”
as a teacher. True, there was a marked differYes, yes, true enough ! true enough! Mr. ence between Norton and his predecessor, but Smith, when will our school begin?”
there was three dollars difference in the price, “Next Monday, I guess, if that young fellow too, and, after all, one would do just as well as gets his certificate."
the other for their school. There were only " What young fellow is that ?"
thirty-five or thirty-eight boys and girls, rang“ A chap from Glendale Seminary by the name
ing from four to twenty years of age, and what of Norton. I didn't really like his appearance, difference did it make whether the teacher was but then, our school is small, and I hired him a man of good sound principles and of a high pretty cheap, and if he gets his papers 'twill be moral standard or not, so long as he had gramall right."
mar, arithmetic and geography enough to pass “ You couldn't hire Brayton again, I sup
muster before the committee. If there was any pose ?”
money or other property at stake it would be “ Well, yes, I could by paying him three or
one thing ; but no, nothing but the immortal four dollars a month more than Norton, but I minds of two-score children to be moulded by thought that wouldn't pay for thirty or forty
the teachings and personal influence of someyoung ones.”
body, what matter whom, as teacher. Who can “ I am
am sorry you did not, as he gave such but admire the reasoning of Mr. S. on this matperfect satisfaction to all.”
Well, there is more than one Mr. Smith “I know, but our tax was pretty heavy last in New England; more than one trustee who spring and would have been heavier this if I is smart enough to see the absurdity of paying had hired him."
more for a teacher than for a hearer of lessons. “ Well, good morning, Mr. Smith, I must If any fail to see the wisdom of this, or have push along or my breakfast will get cool.” the opinion that youthful minds are worthy of
The foregoing dialogue occurred in a thriving as much care as gold and silver, why, I should New England village on a beautiful morning in be pleased to hear or read their views upon the October. It needs but little comment. A short subject. time before, the cashier of the bank had been called away by death, and there had been much THERE was a singular problem among the pains taken in the selection of another. Why stoics, which ran to this purpose :
" When a should there not be? The capital of the bank man says, • I lie,' does he lie or does he not? was $100,000, quite a long string of figures. If he lies, he speaks the truth; if he speaks the and increasing according to the Arabic system, truth, he lies.” Many were the books written made many an old farmer think “our bank is upon this wonderful problem. Chrysippus fasome.” The cashier then must be a man of the vored the world with no less than six ; and right stamp, one that all could trust, and his Philetus studied himself to death in his vain bonds must be given by sure men, and for such endeavors to solve it." a man they were willing to pay well. Why, if they should trust their property to some scamp, He who is ignorant of reading and writing is and he should abscond with the funds, it would indeed poor.
UNDERSTANDING IS TOO IMMATURE TO GRASP?"
From the Home and School Journal. realize fully the dreams of the extravagant Uto6. Is it Wise,
pians. TO STORB THB MEMORY WITH PROPOSITIONS WHICH THE
The question arises at once, Shall the pupil
omit such portions of his subject as he does not Tuis, like most mooted questions, resolves comprehend, or shall he be required to commit itself finally into a question of limitations; for,
them to memory? Granted that the thing to be whether it be wise or unwise, it is certainly un
acquired is really valuable and capable of being deniable that to a certain extent public instruc- presented in a suitable form, und I would retion has been and must continue to be, for aught
quire the pupil to commit to memory subject we know, conducted by methods largely me
only to the limitations which nature herself imchanical. The entire business of learning to poses. Of course there is great demand, here
as elsewhere, for the exercise of a careful disread and spell the English language is accomplished not only at the sole cost of the memory,
cretion on the part of the teacher. Conciseness but the memory stripped of her allies, laboring
and clearness in the expression of a subject and under the immense disadvantage of encounter
method in its presentation, are qualities which ing at every step the grossest violations of eve
can never be compromised in the least. No ry principle of analogy. The logical faculty is
knowledge however valuable will ever find cur80 entirely ignored — I may say so wantonly rency wrapped up in the involutions of poor offended — by the present system of English
rhetoric, or weighed down with the coarser lum
ber of bad grammar. Orthæpy, that the advocates of phonetic reform are hereby furnished with one of their most
Again, the student must not be deceived by powerful arguinents. That children, after hav-being left to infer that he is mastering the subing gone through with such a series of intellec-ject. Perhaps the largest, if not the most diftual summersets as learning to read and spell ficult part of a teacher's duty is already accomnecessarily implies, should need no corrective plished when the pupil has learned to discrimi. nothing to restore the equilibrium — to say the nate between exact knowledge and vague conleast, argues much for the inherent rectitude of ceptions. Pupils are not always honest with the mental constitution. But this is an evil so themselves in this matter. So many motives grossly manifest, that it runs little risk of self- (among which the fear of appearing less ready propagation by ever serving as a model for fu- than their mates, is perhaps the most serious,) ture intellectual training, unless it be in schools allure them into unfairness, that their testimoestablished for the express purpose of creating ny in their own behalf is very sensibly impaired. idiots.
Children of larger growth frequently betray a For a pupil to be required to learn that which similar weakness. I have sometimes thought is strictly illogical is one thing, while to commit that in a crowd of strangers, discussing some to memory that which is beyond the range of particular subject, the really intelligent man his logic, is quite another. To work without might be known by the frankness with which the help of the reasoning faculty, and to work he says, “I do not know.” A wise man can under protest of the same, are not identical. afford to be ignorant sometimes. Though he Where the subject is fully understood, the logic lose in particular instances, he has a heavy caof a child is as irresistible as that of an adult. pital left. Mental bankruptcy is the ghost which Experience imparts no strength to our con- haunts the man of limited acquirements. victions respecting the truths of mathematics. But, to return, the pupil should understand That very teacure of mathematics which secures that he is now learning forms — the natural and them so prominent a position in a course of stu- appropriate expression of principles which he dy properly arranged for the young, also makes will soon come to understand and be able to them an exception among the sciences. In near-apply; that these forms, lodged away in his ly if not quite all the other branches of learn- memory, are channels leading up to the great ing, there are departments which the student of ocean of truth awaiting the action of the tides average age and ability does not comprehend. for their precious freight to be borne down as When this shall be otherwise, either children fertilizers of the understanding and heart. As will no longer be children, but men and women a lodgemnt for such facts and principles as a in strength and maturity of intellect; or the man has daily and hourly use for, text. Looks natural and linguistic sciences shall have ad- and encyclopedias are a bungling substitute for vanced so far beyond their present status as to the memory.