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witnessed scenes in town meetings, how many That boys are troublesome, it is needless to times have we read or heard of scenes in Con- affirm. To be sure they are troublesome. Even gress, an approach to which in one of our schools a paltry vine cannot be trained to shade your would ensure to the teacher a speedy removal arbor, or to render to you the grateful clusters from a station he showed himself so incompe- of Eschol, - nor can a steamship, with all its tent to fill. The moderator of a New England complications and all its nice adjustments, be town meeting calls, again and again, for order, carried forward to completion, — without giving and insists, over and over, that “gentlemen must trouble, in various ways. How much less can be more quiet and give better attention, or it a human soul, with its wonderful and complicate will be impossible to transact business," — but network of passions and appetites, tastes and all with a very partial and temporary success. affections, powers of reasoning and imagining, Gentlemen will keep their hats on, will shuffle be fitted for its multitudinous relations in life, about, will stand on the seats, will keep up an for life's changes and conflicts, for its perils of incessant talking, despite the appeals of the moral corruption and final infamy, - how much moderator, the claims of the public business, less can a human soul be trained for a successand the dignity of freemen. We shrink from ful probationary course and for its eventual imneedlessly recounting the details of disorder and mortality, without trouble ? There is patience the attempted resort to compulsion, and the ex. enough in the training of plants and the contreme difficulty of bringing to merited punish-structing of steam engines; shall we be impament the most flagrant outrages against law and tient because our children will not grow up to a order, in our public bodies, even those assembled worthy and noble manhood without an assidufor the very purpose of making laws for the peo- ous culture, proportioned in some slight degree ple. We might multiply examples, though we to the magnitude of the result ? do not love to allude to the facts in presence of But boys are peculiarly troublesome. our pupils, for fear they will take their standard course they are. They cannot help being so. of honor and decorum from the practice of men They are troublesome from the activity, the arof station and sounding fame, as exhibited in dor, the sensitiveness, the frolicksomeness and the public councils of the nation. But to take glee, the levity and want of forethought, the an illustration on a broader scale, how many inexperience and want of self-control, all insemen in any community can be found, ready, parable from the very nature of youth. And from a high sense of honor, from genuine prin- then, boys, just at that age when they are in our ciples of rectitude, or even from the considera- schools, are beginning to feel the manhood in tion of the general welfare of society, to sacri- them, expanding under restraint, instinctively fice their own present interest, or to lose a stretching itself out to grasp something worthy chance of improving their position or their es of itself, longing to throw itself into the arena of tate? How many sufficiently regard either the the world's activities and contests, yet unable to eye within or the eye above, to do right deeds, guide itself or to control its bounding impulses. noble deeds, when they must be secret deeds, What wonder if there is some peculiar difficulty without at least contriving in some way that in training them, at this particular juncture, to their friends shall sooner or later know how caution and circumspection and self-restraint ? well they have done in secret : All these allu- This may be done. But it is the work of time, sions illustrate the fact that our younger popu- and it is a special purpose, the most important lation, at least that portion of it to be found in purpose, perhaps, of school-discipline. To comour schools, will bear comparison, - a very fa- plain of it, is mere impatient criticism on the orvorable comparison, we think, — with the ma- der of nature. We might as well profess a parturer classes of society. It is the teacher's tiality for horticulture, and then fret because work to give every child a propulsion towards a our plants will require restraint and pruning. positive virtue, to induce him to act virtuously
Yes, boys must be troublesome; but let us from choice, for virtue's sake and for society's make a broad distinction between their being sake, – to form the characters of the rising gen- troublesome and their being vicious. We have eration after such a model that society may im
no design of either ignoring or extenuating their prove, and that that generation may, if possible, vices, nor of asking impunity for them. But present better evidence of the practicability of the causes of trouble akin to those above mena republic on the basis of popular intelligence tioned may all exist where there is nothing proand virtue, than the present time affords. perly belonging to the character of the vicious, and they demand a candid and a serious consi-the right channels. Faults from such causes deration. If we fail to give it, we shall make must be met kindly, patiently, considerately, bungling work in our endeavors to train mind recollecting that those very propensities which and heart. Vicious propensities and habits are are most troublesome, are sometimes the very to be counteracted by moral influences. Persist- characteristics which, under judicious discipline, ent, wilful neglect or disobedience must be ov- afterwards give the highest value to the life. ercrime by persevering and energetic measures, The peculiar impulses, tastes and tendencies of perhaps by severe punishment. But it is need- each pupil should be carefully studied; and, as far ful to discriminate between those cases which as it is possible where we must necessarily restrict arise from a deliberate will, and those which all to one general system, we must give proper spring from an imperfect control of natural im- scope and direction to the individuality of each. pulses without the vicious purpose. To be sure, We ought not to aim at working over each mind severe restraint is sometimes requisite to secure after the model of one invariable pattern; but, in them the needed self-control. Still, in such following the lead of nature, so guide each mind cases, a wide margin must be left in our severi- that it may work out that destiny for which naty, for the play of discretion and kind in- ture has made it. In education, as in medicine, fluences, if we would gain our highest end, to Natura Duce is our true motto. induce the child to control himself, and to do it A very large proportion of the faults in a cheerfully. It is at this point that discrimina- school are usually of the class above specified, tion and judicious action are most difficult. But originating in the natural propensities of youthon it the teacher's true success will very much troublesome, rather than vicious.
Let us undepend. For, a correct discrimination of the derstand them and deal with them aright, nature of faults will materially affect his mode studying to restrain where restraint is needed, of treating them.
to guide where guidance is needed, to stimulate Boys are troublesome. So are men, when where stimulus is needed, each in its true prothey are to be controlled. And in both cases portion and by the most efficient and judicious they prove far more troublesome if they are not means. Then will the work of the school-room rightly controlled. If a regiment of soldiers is become, in a great measure, the constant adapnot in good discipline, we ordinarily censure tation of means to given ends, the application of their commander; — not but that the soldiers skill to accomplish definite results; and in promay be vicious, but that we expect in the com- portion as we are successful in these efforts shall mander the ability to control them. So, if we we find our calling one of constant delight. teachers find our charge continuously insubor. dinate and troublesome, we ought to suspect
Translated for the Schoolmaster. ourselves of some radical mistake in our man
Rest. agement, and make it our study and toil to acquire the needful skill, or else resign our post
Rest is not quitting to those who will better meet its demands. For
The busy career ; a misinterpretation of the pupil's faults, and an
Rest is the fitting injudicious treatment of them, will either weak
Of self to its sphere. en or crush his impulses of manhood, or else so
'Tis the brook's motion, excite his rebellious passions as to make him far
Clear without strife, more troublesome, and do him an irreparable
Flowing to ocean injury, by driving him into a vicious resistance
After its life. to authority and a hatred of all restraint. It is
'Tis loving and serving a sad and fearful mistake, to fret at a child and
The Highest and Best; punish him because he is troublesome. In such
'Tis onward, unswerving, cases, it is often the teacher or the parent who
And that is true rest. deserves to be punished, rather than the child. For it is his igr.orance, or his impatience, or his
When we are alone we have our thoughts to selfishness, that is the real cause of the trouble. watch, in the family our tempers, in company
our tongues.—Hanxan MORE. The earnest, inquiring mind must not be discouraged by coldness or neglect. The natural ef- Good sense and good nature are never sepafervescence of youth must have play, only it must rated, though the ignorant world has thought be under control. Activity must be guided in otherwise.
N, B. C.
The Ascent of Hecla, in Iceland. clearness of the atmosphere had transported to
my feet. Away in the north-west the massive Retracing our steps, we resumed the ascent column of my old friend The Geyser seemed to once more, and at noon stood on the brink of the bid farewell as it modestly rose in spotless white crater—the eastern side of which forms part of
against the neutral-tinted slags of Bjarnarfell. In the southern cone. It is nearly circular, about the interior of the Island, of which we saw more half a mile in circumference, and from two to than half-way across, Lang and Hofs Yokuls' icy three hundred feet deep. The recently-fallen blue domes glittered in the sunshine, and backed snow still lay in some parts; but by far the great- the verdant valley of the Thiorsa, with its hun. er portion was bare and tuming. Its sides were cred silvery tributaries leading up the gorge into a mixture of black sand, aslies, clink-stone, and the “Sprengisandr,” where the track crosses the sulphur-clay-more water was alone wanting to desert to the northern coasts. Here and there develope its slumbering energies. Descending patches of Iceland“ forest” darkened the valley, to the bottom, which contracted almost to a point, and irregular groups of heather blooming hills I vas somewhat surprised to find it of a hard, were conspicuous in their harlequin colors, whilst black mud on one side, supporting a considerable the resolute looking Biafell rose abruptly from mass of ice—a strange contrariety to its steaming the plain to the height of 2500 feet, and marked flanks, in which, about half way down, near some the confluence of the Huita with the lake that precipitated sulphur, I had, by digging away the gives it birth. To the north-east, beyond that crust, succeeded in lighting a fusee, and subse-vast chain of (Fiskivotu) is Skaptur Yokul, the quently my pipe ; and, choosing a temporary fire most terrible of its contemporaries—that is, in proof seat, endeavored to realise my position in the memory of man--scowling over its ravages, the bowels of Hecla. Like nearly all realities, it where in one gigantic effort it destroyed twenty barely comes up to the anticipation ; but when I villages, over 9000 human beings, about 150,000 reflected that it has continued the steady work sheep, cattle and borses—partly by the depredaof destruction through nine centuries, during tions of the lara and noxious vapors, and in part which there are authentic records of no less tha: by famine, caused by showers of ashes and the twenty-four periods of violent eruptions of vari desertion of the coast by the fish. Beyond these ous duration ; and that the last but one, in 1776, interminable ice regions are the untrodden Vat. was as devastating as any of its predecessors- na and Kolfa Yokuls, which have never been, destroying surrounding farms and pastures, with and I believe never can be, penetrated by man. its lava and ashes, hurling its red-hot stones to an Here, Alpine Club, is a field worthy of ambition ; almost fabulous distance, and powdering the but which will gorely try your metal, when, beSouthern and central districts with layers of sand, yond the help of Coutets and Balmats, you some of which even reached the Faroes—I felt must trust solely to your individual nerve and that I had uncourteously under-rated its powers, cunning.– From Forbes' Iceland, its Volcanoes, and to its moderation alone should I be indebted Geysers, and Glaciers.” for my return. Not so the farmer, who shook his head at my scoffings, for he had lost both proper.
Aneodote of Shelley. ty and ancestors in its unceremonious outbreaks.
SHELLEY took great pleasure in making pa. Obliged to return by the way we had entered
So the other sides of the crater being too precipitous per boats and floating them on the water. -we traversed the steep, narrow ledge of its long as his paper lasted he remained riveted to Northern side. Our position was anything but the spot, fascinated by this peculiar amusement. re-assuring; the footing was loose and ricketty, All waste paper was rapidly consumed ; then and only fit for a chamois ; a precipice on either the covers of letters; next, letters of little val. hand, down which the displaced rubbish—espec
The most precious contributions of the ially on the Northern side, which is for the first most esteemed corrrespondents, although eyed 1000 feet very little out of the perpendicular, wistfully many times and often returned to the rolled with ominous velocity.
pocket, were sure to be sent at last in pursuit of One could not fail to enjoy the magnificent the former squadrons. Of the portable volumes and extensive view encircling this vitreous vol- which were the companions of his rambles — cano, and which never showed to greater advan- and he seldom went out without a book — the tage than to-day, when a light north wind had fly-leaves were commonly wanting. He had carried the mountain mists to sea, and a brilliant applied them as our ancestor Noah applied gosun warmed pesk and valley, and even imparted pher wood. But learning was so sacred in his a genial aspect to those distant yokuls which the eyes that he never trespassed further upon the
integrity of the copy. The work itself was al- " When I had finished it, I showed it to Rev. ways respected. It has been said that he once Alexander Macbean, one of the ministers at Infound himself on the north bank of the Serpen- verness; who told me he had a set of almanacs tine River without the materials for indulging by him for several years past, and would examthose inclinations which the sight of water in. ine it by the eclipses mentioned in them. We variably inspired, for he had exhausted his sup- examined it together, and found that it agreed plies on the round pond in Kensington Gardens. throughout with the days of all the new and Not a single scrap of paper could be found, full moons and eclipses mentioned in the almasave only a bank-note for £60. He hesitated nacs; which made me think I had constructed long, but yielded at last. He twisted it into a it upon true astronomical principles. On this, boat with the extreme fineness of his skill, and Mr. Macbean desired me to write to Mr. Maccommitted it with the utmost dexterity to for- laurin, professor of mathematics at Edinburgh, tune, watching its progress, if possible, with a and give him an account of the methods by still more intense anxiety than usual. Fortune which I had formed my plan, requesting him to often farors those who fully and frankly trust correct it where it was wrong. He returned her. The northeast wind gently wafted the me a most polite and friendly answer, although costly skiff to the south bank, where, during I had never seen him during my stay at Edinthe la ter part of the voyage, the venturous own. burgh, and informed me that I had only miser waited its arrival with patient solicitude. taken the radical mean place of the ascending
node by a quarter of a degree; and that if I James Ferguson.---No. 4.
would send the drawing of my rotula to him, " To this I wanted to add a method for show.
he would examine it, and endeavor to procure ing the eclipses of the sun and moon; of which me a subscription to defray the charges of enI knew the cause long before, by having observ- graving it on copper plates, if I chose to publish
it. I then made a new and correct drawing of ed that the moon was, for one-half her period,
it, and sent it to him ; who soon got me a very on the north side of the ecliptic, and for the other half on the south. But not having ob
handsome subscription, by setting the example
himself, and sending subscription papers to othserved her course long enough among the stars, by my above-mentioned thread, so as to delineate her path on my celestial map, in order to
“I then returned to Edinburgh, and had the find the two opposite points of the ecliptic in rotula-plates engraved there by Mr. Cooper. It which her orbit crosses it, I was altogether at a
has gone through several impressions; and alloss how and where in the ecliptic, in my scheme, ways sold very well till the year 1752, when to place the intersecting points. This was in the style was changed, which rendered it quite the year 1739.
useless. Mr. Maclaurin received me with the “ At last I recollected, that when I was with greatest civility when I tirst went to see him at squire Grant of Auchoynancy, in the year 1730, Edinburgh. He then became an exceeding good I had real that on the first of Jannary, 1690, friend to me, and continued so till his death. the moon's ascending node was in the 10th min-One day I requested him to show me his orrery, ute of the first degree of Aries; and that her which he immediately did. I was greatly denodes moved backward through the whole eclip- lighted with the motions of the earth and moon tic in 18 years and 224 days, which was at the in it; and would gladly have seen the wheelrate of 3 minutes, 11 seconds every twenty-four work, which was concealed in a brass box, and hours. But as I scarce knew, in the year 1730, the box and planets above it were surrounded what the moon's nodes meant, I took no further by an armillary sphere. But he told me that he notice of it at the time.
never had opened it; and I could easily per“ However, in the year 1739, I set to work at ceive that it could not be opened but by the Inverness; and after a tedious calculation of the hand of some ingenious clock-maker, and not slow motion of the nodes from January, 1690, without a great deal of time and trouble. to January, 1740, it appeared to me that, (if I “ After a good deal of thinking and calculawas sure I had remembered right.) the moon's tion, I found that I could contrive the wheelascending node must be 23 degrees, 25 minutes work for turning the planets in such a machine, of Cancer, at the beginning of the year 1740. and giving them their progressive motions ; but And so I added the eclipse part to my scheme, should be very well satisfied if I could make an and called it the Astronomical Rotula. orrery to show the motions of the earth and
moon, and of the sun round its axis. I then strove to excel, because my mind was still puremployed a turner to make me a sufficient num- suing things more agreeable. He soon after ber of wheels and axles, according to patterns told me he had just received an answer from the which I gave him in drawing; and after having mathematical master, desiring I might be sent cut the teeth in the wheels with a knife, and put immediately to him. On hearing this, I told the whole together, I found it answered all my Mr. Poyntz that I did not know how to mainexpectations. It showed the sun's motion round tain my wife during the term I must be under its axis ; the diurnal and annual motions of the the master's tuition. • What!' says he, are earth on its inclined axis, which kept its paral. you a married man?' I told him I had been so lelism in its whole course round the sun ; the ever since May, 1739. He said he was sorry motions and phases of the moon, with the retro- for it; because it quite defeated his scheme, as grade motion of the nodes of her orbit; and the master of the school he had in view for me consequently, all the variety of seasons, the must be a bachelor. lengths of days and nights, the days of the new " He then asked me what business I intend. and full moons, and eclipses.
ed to follow? I answered that I knew of none “ When it was all complete, except the box except drawing pictures. On this, he desired that covered the wheels, I showed it to Mr. me to draw the pictures of his lady and childMaclaurin, who commended it in presence of a ren, that he might show them, in order to regreat many young men who attended his lec- commend me to others; and told me that when tures. He desired me to read them a lecture on I was out of business I should come to him, it, which I did without any hesitation, seeing I and he would tind me as much as he could; had no reason to be afraid of speaking before a and I soon found as much as I could execute : great and good man who was my friend. Soon but he died in a few years after, to my inexpresafter that, I sent it as a present to the Rev. and sible grief. ingenious Mr. Alexander Irvine, one of the min
“ Soon afterward, it appeared to me, that al. isters at Elgin, Scotland. I then made a small though the moon goes round the earth, and that er and neater orrery, of which all the wheels the sun is far on the outside of the moon's orbit, were of ivory; and I cut the teeth in them with yet the moon's motion must be in a line that is a file. This was done in the begivning of the always concave towards the sun : and upon year 1743; and in May, that year, I brought it making a delineation, representing ber absolute with me to London, where it was soon after path in the heavens, I found it to be really so. bought by Sir Dudley Rider. I have made six I then made a simple machine for delineating orreries since that time, and there are not any her path and the earth's on a long paper laid on two of them in which the wheel-work is alike, the floor. I carried the machine and delineafor I could never bear to copy one thing of that tion to the late Martin Folkes, Esq., president kind from another, because I still saw there was of the Royal Society, on a Thursday afternoon. great room for improvement.
He expressed great satisfaction at seeing it, as it “I had a letter of recommendation from was a new discovery; and took me that evening Mr. Baron Eldin at Edinburgh, to the right hon- with him to the Royal Society, where I showed orable Stephen Poyntz, Esq., at St. James's, the delineation, and the method of doing it. who had been preceptor to his royal highness When the business of the Society was over, one the late duke of Cumberland, and was well of the members desired me to dine with him known to be possessed of all the good qualities next Saturday at Hackney, telling me that his that can adorn a human mind. To me his good- name was Ellicott, and that he was a watchness was really beyond my power of expres. maker. I accordingly went to Hackney, and sion; and I had not been a month in London, was kindly received by Mr. John Ellicott, who till he informed me that he had written to an then showed me the very same kind of delineaeminent professor of mathematics to take me tion, and part of the machine by which he had into his house, and give me board and lodging, done it; telling me that he had thought of it with all proper instructions to qualify me for twenty years before. teaching a mathematical school which he (Mr.
[TU BE CONTINUED.] Poyntz) had in view for one, and would get me settled in it. This I should have liked very “ We may glean knowledge by reading, but well, especially as I had begun to be tired of we must separate the chaff from the wheat by drawing pictures ; in which I confess I never thinking."