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and applied, or abstract and concrete. The following is our logical outline of arithmetic :

Written Examinations.'

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be addrassed to A. J. MANCHESTER, Providence.

Forming Composite Numbers.


Common Divisor.

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| Multiplication.

Subtraction. | Division.








1. Multiply 25.07 by 1.001, add to the product
400.10, divide the sum by ,004, subtract from the
quotient 99009.09, call the remainder dollars, and
tell how many boxes of tea, each holding 80 lbs.
and worth 50 cents a lb., can be purchased.

24 .007 7-11 .0063

.03} 77-9 5-9 28–55
3. Reduce 6-11 of an acre to whole numbers of
lower denominations.

4. A note for $860.50, dated Jan. 10th, 1860, and payable in 90 days, was discounted at a bank March 1st, 1860. When did it become due, and what sum was received on it, money being worth 64 per cent. ?

5. I purchased $200 worth of goods, cash payment, and after keeping them 5 months, I sold them at an advance of 12 per cent of the first cost. What was my gain per cent. ?

6. For what sum must a note payable in four months be written, that when discounted at a bank money enough may be received to purchase a houselot 8 rods long, 115 ft. 6 in. wide, and worth at the rate of $5000 per acre ?

7. I sent to my agent $1026 to invest in cotton, at 8 cts. a lb., first deducting his commission of 18 per cent. on the purchase money. How many

bales, each weighing 500 lbs., did he purchase ? It is believed that the above view of arithmetic

8. I purchased goods at 163 per cent. less than must tend to simplify the subject, and that much their real worth, and sold them for 84 per cent. less clearer notions of the science will be obtained than their real worth. What was my gain per when these philosophical relations are understood.

cent. ? -EDWARD BROOKS, Prof. of Math., State Nor.

9. A certain window contains 15 panes of glass. mal School, Millersville, Pa.

The distance between the opposite corners of each SOLVE the following equations :

pane is 5 inches more than the length of the pane.

Required the number of sq. ft. of glass in the (1.) V(a + x) + (a — x) = b.

window if each pane is 15 inches wide. (2.) 'V(a + 2) + 'V(a — x) = b.

10. Divide $2610 among A, B, C and D so that (3.) (a + x) + b)(a − 2) = b.

when A receives $5 B shall receive $3}, and C shall (4.) Given, to find x and y by direct elimination, receive three-fifths of a dollar when A receives $3, and without resorting to Horner's method,

and D shall receive $1} when B receives $21. 210 g + 220 = 244, 2 y + x16 y = 2196. (5.) at - 2.13 +2-132 = 0.

1. Write the plurals of a, x, t, 8, 9, 47, $, +, 0, (6.)

0. 22 +222 + 12x + 112* — 102 = 0.

+ (7.) Find the arc whose sine is half the tangent

2. Write the possessive plural of brother, ox, of twice the arc.

chimney, bureau, wife, and the possessive singular (8. Required to find the greatest rectangle in- and plural of conscience, chimney, for, niece, hero. scribed between two concentric circles whose radii

3. Write the full declension of eagle, valley,

which, thou and p. are given, R the greater, r the less.

4. Parse yours in the sentence This book is No. 1. A tells the truth 3 times in 4; B 4 times yours. in 5; and C 6 times in 7: What is the probability 6. Give the principal parts of hecd, flee, seek, of an event which A and B assert and C denies ? need, shed, plead, shake, knead, creep, think, and -Ohio Journal of Progress.

state which are regular and which irregular.



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6. Analyze the sentence — My teacher whom I Natural Science. respect gives me good counsel. 7. What is a simple, a compler and a compound

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department should be adsentence? Give an example of each. When is a

dressed to I. F. CADY, Warren. proposition a sentence, and when not ? 8. Point out the difference between an adjective

For the Schoolmaster. and an adjective element, and give an example of Preparation of Objects for the Microscope. an adjective clause. 9. Write five sentences — the first containing

A few simple implements and inexpensive matewhom, feminine gender, plu. num.; the second rials are sufficient for the preparation of a large which, plu. num., obj. case; the third that, second class of objects for microscopic observation. A per., sing. num. ; the fourth what, plu. num., sec- small, wide-mouthed bottle containing an ounce of ond person; the fifth which, sing. num., nom. case. Canada balsam, another containing an equal quan

10. Correct the following sentences that are in-tity of camphene or spirits of turpentine, a third correct, and parse the words in Italics :

containing a solution of caustic potassa, a watchThe same kind of apples were bought yesterday. glass or two, a couple of fine needles set in hanHe hadn't ought to do it.

dles, for convenience in handling small objects, The men which refused to work were discharged. two or three bristles, having their ends cleft, set in

There has never passed any unkind words be the same manner to be used as forceps for the same tween you and I, that I know of.

purpose, a pair of delicate brass forceps, a sharp

penknife, a supply of glass slips, two inches long 1. 1. Name the State last admitted into the and one half an inch wide for a small microscope, Union. 2. Name its capital and three of its chief or three inches long and one inch wide for an in

strument of larger size, a spring "clothes nip," II. 1. Begin at the Open Polar Sea, and name for handling these when heated, and an alcohol in order ten bays. 2. Five sounds. 3. Five gulfs. or kerosene lamp to accomplish the heating pro4. Five straits. 5. Ten capes.

cess, will constitute a sufficient outfit to employ III. 1. Give the lat. of the extreme northern the experimenter for weeks and months in his inand southern points. 2. The long. of the eastern vestigations. In some instances a small bottle of and western points.

olive oil will also be found convenient to be emIV. 1. Name (in order) ten rivers of the Atlan- ployed in giving transparency to objects. For an tic slope. 2. Five of the Pacific slope. 3. Ten of extended series of observations other articles will the Central plain. 4. Ten that have their sources be required, such as various acids, glycerine, gold near the highest mountain peak of the Alleghany size, &c., as well as machines for cutting thin secsystem. 5. Five that rise near Pike's and Long's tions of bone, horn, wood and other solid subPeaks. 6. Five that rise near mounts Brown and stances, polishing apparatus and several surgical Hooker.

inplements for working upon delicate tissues. The V. Bound the Gulf of Mexico.

liquids named may be obtained from all dealers in VI. Trace the water route from the capital of optical instruments, or from any respectable apoTennessee to Providence, R. I.

thecary; needles and bristles can easily be mount. VII. Name five mountain chains, and 10 peaks. ed in handles by the experimenter, and the nearest

VIII. 1. Name the cultivated products of the glazier may be employed to cut the fragments of a northern third of the United States. 2. Of the broken looking glass with the amalgam removed, southern third. 3. Of the middle third. 4. What into slips of the required size. Or if deemed precauses this variety ?

ferable, slips already prepared, and also delicate IX. Trace the water route from Chicago to covers of thin glass, can be procured from dealers Washington.

in microscopes. In our own State, we recommend X. Name and locate twenty of the largest cities. our readers to call and examine the resources afSPELLING.

afforded by Messrs. Gorham Co. & Brown, at their Inaccessible, intelligible, impassable, incompati- beautiful establishment near the Arcade, in Provible, contemptible, indispensable, discernible, irri- dence. table, incomparable, impeachable, divisibie, allege- The insect world generally furnishes many of able, irretrievable, forcible, noticeable, infallible, the first objects for experiment with the microconceivable, malleable, indelible, ineffable, amica- scope. Such parts of insects as the foot or leg of ble, appreciable, acquirable, susceptible, immova- a spider, fly, or bee, are best prepared by soaking ble, ascertainable, inexhaustible, available, incor. four or five days in a solution of caustic potassa to rigible, inflammable, irresistible, edible, change- remove any oily or fleshy matter they may contain, able, horrible, ratable, legible, affable, irascible, and to soften the crustaceous tubes of which they peaceable, indigestible, flexible, palpable, blama-chiefly consist. They next require to be carefully ble, available, trisyllable, liquable, pleasurable, washed in alcohol, which may be done by removing feasible, crucible, laudable.

them with a small needle or a bristle from the solution to a watch-glass, and pushing them back The proboscis or sting of a bee, the piercing and and forth through the liquid. They may now be absorbing apparatus of a fly or mosquito, the removed to another watch-glass eontaining spirits spinneret of a spider, very small insects, entire, of turpentine, and thence to a glass slide for pre- such as the parasites of various animals, insects liminary examination, when they will usually be and plants, and many other objects, may be prefound quite transparent. Before they can be view- pared very successfully by simply soaking them in ed satisfactorily, they will often require careful spirits of turpentine a few days to render them pressure between two slips of glass, and perhaps transparent before mounting. The scales from the one or more washings in camphene and spirits of wings of moths and butterflies may be mounted turpentine, in order to remove all foreign matter. dry between two glass slides having their edges

The next process required is that of “mounting.” cemented together, or they may be mounted in To accomplish this, take from the bottle of Canada balsam in the manner described above. The polbalsam a drop, by inserting in it a piece of wire or len of flowers can be examined in a very satisfactoa large needle; warm the drop until it is ready to ry manner by previously moistening with a drop of fall, and catch it upon the middle of a neatly clean-oil. The spores of various plants, such as those ed glass slide. Hold the slide over the flame of of the equisetaceae, ferns and musci, and those of the lamp, when the drop will again melt and the common “puff-ball," can be well examined in spread, to a small extent, on the slide. Carefully the same manner, or they may be mounted in balremove any air bubbles that may rise, or conduct sam. Scales of various fishes, such as those of them to the edge of the drop, with a mounted nee- the tautog, flounder, "flying-fish,” and eel, which dle. Now, with a bristle, place the specimen to be will be found very interesting and curious in their mounted in the centre of the drop, and allow an- structure, may be mounted without any previous other drop to fall in the manner already indicated, preparation except careful cleaning. Sections of upon the top of the specimen. Next place another bone, horn, whalebone, and similar substances, glass slide, or what is better, a cover of thin glass, may be made by first sawing them off with a saw upon the top of the last drop, and heat over the made from the main-spring of a watch, as thin as lamp until the balsam flows to the edges of the possible, fastening them by means of sealing wax glass. Ang superfluous fluid may be removed by to a convenient handle of wood and reducing their gentle perssure; the two pieces of glass may be thickness by the use of a delicate file, and finally placed between two pieces of whalebone fastened reducing them to the last degree of thinness under togther by sliding rings or tied with twine if the the finger upon an oil-stone. They may then be pieces of glass incline to separate, and the work of washed in spirits of turpentine and mounted in mounting is completed. After a few days the bal- balsam. For a satisfactory view of their structure sam will become sufficiently solid to allow the spe- both vertical and longitudinal sections are necescimen to be removed from pressure, when any bal- sary. This is also the fact in regard to sections of sam that may have accidentally gotten upon the wood. To prepare these a metalic cylinder or tube surface can be removed, and the specimen may be about half an inch in diameter and three inches in papered and labeled according to the taste and length, with a driving screw entering through a skill of the experimenter.

“nut” at its lower end, needs to be fixed firmly, One of the greatest obstacles to the successful in a vertical position, in a block of hard wood, havmounting of specimens consists in freeing them ing its upper end just level with the upper surface from air-bubles. For this purpose a specimen will of the block. The pieces of wood from which the not unfrequently require mounting a second time, sections are to be cut must be inserted rather closewhich may be done by warming the slides so as to ly in the tube, when they may be elevated so gradallow of their easy separation. If the specimen ually by turning the screw as to allow sections of inclines to adhere rather closely to either piece of extreme thinness to be cut at the top of the tube, glass, it may readily be removed by dissolving the with a thin, sharp knife, or a razor ground flat on surrounding balsam with a drop of turpentine, and one side. Previous to cutting, the wood should be then mounted as before. Bubbles may also be re- soaked several days in alcohol to remove any resimoved by heating the slide until they expand and nous matter, and several days more in water to pass to the edges of the glass. Whatever other render the wood soft previous to cutting. It is debubbles may form will consist of steam, and may sirable to secure specimens that will show both the either be made to pass to the edges of the glass by wood, the bark, the rings of annual growth, and gentle pressure, or may be made to condense by the central pith. To effect this object it is best to gradual cooling. If the process of heating is con- select specimens not exceeding half an inch in ditinued until the balsam is made to boil smartly, a ameter and having a growth of two years or more. specimen is frequently rendered more transparent, Portions may be split from the sides of short while the balsam will become so much condensed pieces so as to leave a triangular portion containas to hold the glasses together firmly as soon as ing the pith at its centre and the bark at its cirit has been cooled, thus rendering any further cumference. From these, sections may be cut and compression unnecessary.

mounted as described above.


Animal tissues require very delicate manipula- we refer less to its embellishments than to the tion in their preparation, and need to be mounted grouping of subjects, and the simplicity and conin shallow cells containing some transparent, pre- ciseness of the language used. We fully endorse serving fluid. A still more delicate process is re- the sentiments of contemporary journals, and say quired when it becomes necessary to examine mi- with them, it is the best Geography we have seen, nute vessels by injecting into them some fluid to and “if we had to select a geographical schooldistend them and reveal their structure.

book for our own use we should choose this.” J. The preparation for examination of the beauti- B. Lippincott & Co., publishers, 22 and 24 North ful silicious shells found in peat formations, chalk, Fourth street, Philadelphia. the mud of brooks and rivers, and various earthly deposits, requires the digestion of the substances PILGRIM Songs. Eighty soul-stirring hymns, containing them, or brisk boiling, successively in

mostly new. various acids according to the chemical constitu

The best commendation - opinions of the booktion of the foreign substances to be removed. ling at home. The Providence Journal says :When all these have been dissolved, the remain- " This is an excellent little collection of hymns.” ing acid and dissolved organic matter may be re

The Pawtucket Gazette and Chronicle says that it moved by successive and careful washings in pure

" cannot fail to be acceptable to a large number of water. The residue, which will consist wholly of persons.” The Providence Evening Press terms it silicious matter containing shells in greater or less

“a very choice collection of the most precious abundance, may be removed in small portions by gems of devotional poetry in the language.” It is allowing them to enter a glass tube by inserting it sold at one dime, to Baptists, Episcopalians, Meinto the water containing them, with the upper

thodists and Freewill Baptists, and will be mailed, end closed with the finger. On removing the fin- postage free, on the receipt of the price, to any ger the water will rush into the tube carrying with address, by the compiler, Henry Clark, Pawtucket, it a portion of the deposit. This may be placed

R. I. upon a glass slide, dried, examined, and if found N. B. Twelve copies for $1 and 3 red stamps. to contain desirable specimens, may be mounted Two churches in Pawtucket are using it constantin the manner already indicated.


A few copies at Snow & Greene's bookstore, Our Book Table. where appropriate music can be obtained in single


I. F. C.

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Smith's New GEOGRAPHY.–We have carefully SARGENT'S ORIGINAL DIALOGUES ; A collection examined Smith's New Geography, and take great for School and Family reading and representapleasure in calling the attention of our fellow teach- tion. By Epes Sargent, author of “ The Standers to a work of such unrivalled excellence. We

ard Speaker," “ The Standard Readers,” etc. believe it is peculiarly adapted to supply a great

Published by John L. Shorey, 13 Washington

street, Boston. 18861. deficiency now felt in the teaching of geography –

This new work by Epes Sargent is a handsome for the majority of teachers are, and ever will be, duodecimo of 336 pages, with a life-like portrait of dependent upon text-books. This Geography dif- the author. We have used in one of our schools fers from any that we have seen in many important several of Mr. Sargent's dialogues, and can speak respects. We have only room to notice a few of with confidence and say that they are entertaining its novelties. Its small maps of the races, reli- and are never silly. This is the best book of the gions, governments, and states of civilization, the kind we know of. We would like to speak at length isothermal lines, volcanic systems, and vicinity in favor of his Standard Readers, suffice it to say, maps, are enough of themselves to commend the that an impartial examination must satisfy any one book.

of their superiority over all others. The pages devoted to ancient geography, illustrated with a highly finished map of the Roman The PhilosoPHY OF NATURAL History. By J. Empire, giving both the ancient and modern names Ware, M. D. Prepared on the plan and retainof places, are peculiarly valuable for reference. ing portions of the work of William Smellie, There is also a railroad map and a geographical

member of the Antiquarian and Royal Societies

of Edinburgh. Boston: published by Brown & clock, which, we take the liberty of saying, many Taggard, 27 and 29 Cornhill, 1860. teachers might study with profit, and we must not This is an excellent work illustrating the philofail to mention the marginal notes which are found sophy of history. We much need this book in all upon every page, giving a great amount of valua- our schools. We have great reason to regret that ble information concerning the subjects treated, - men of learning often betray an ignorance on the just the kind of facts pupils need to fasten the most common subjects of natural history. This knowledge we would have them acquire.

work is superbly illustrated, and the general exeIt is an attractive book, something we can say cution reflects great credit upon its enterprising of few school-books, and when we say attractive, publishers. Every high school should have it.

The R.). Schoolmaster.


MAY, 1861.



For the Schoolmaster.

Men are

our task to see to it that this maximum never The Faults of Boys.

shall be reached, - to labor lhat the present

may, indeed, be the maximum of actual vicious Boys are not the most vicious species of the progress, though not the maximum of the capagenus homo. It would be an anomaly indeed, if city for vice, or of present tendencies. If our the maximum of vice were to be found in youth, efforts, or some other powerful counteracting with a law of diminution directly proportional influences, do not succeed in this, the vicious to age. Is a tree created crooked, to assume by boy must become a more vicious man. a gradual change, its destined comeliness: Or, but boys developed. And the vice of the boy is it created with the rudiments of those forms is found, ordinarily, to be greatly exaggerated which are to mature into grace and beauty! We in the man, just as the wound in the bark of can admit that in children exists the minimum the sapling is larger and more unsightly in the of virtue; but this is very far from implying mature tree. that they embody the maximum of viciousness. If men seem less troublesome. more orderly, In their primary condition, on entering this more systematic, more self-controlled, it is beworld of ours, their virtues, as their vices, are cause the good training of those who have been negative. They have rudiments, germs, facul- so fortunate as to have any, or the restraints of ties undeveloped, with facts of tendency and society, or the necessities of trade, have made laws of developrent. By the time they enter them so. Rut, notwithstanding all the disciour schools, these germs have partially unfold- pline of the schools and the family, the restraints ed, the faculties have proceeded more or less of society, and the necessities of business, put in their course of development. In this state men and women, such as we find them in our they come into our hands, and it is our business, American society, our New England Society, as teachers, to aid and direct that development whether “high" or "low,” into a school, or to its natural symmetry and completeness. any where else, under the same restrictions with

We do not say these children are now free the boys and girls in our schools, and how much from vice. Having made some progress in de- larger would be the proportion of those who velopment, their characters have become pro- could conscientiously report themselves "

“perportionally positive; and some, nurtured under fect,” at the close of a day, or a week? How most untoward influences, and being much un- large a proportion would report conscientiously, der such influences still, come to us with habits at all ? We are apt to think we have in our of thinking, feeling, willing and acting, which New England com.nunities a fair proportion of harmonize but ill with the modes and principles severely self-disciplined men and women. Yet of a well regulated school, and which tax to we fear that, even here, the children would take the utmost, sometimes, the perseverance and the the prize in every such contest. ingenuity of the teacher. Still, we say that

Were facts wanted in evidence, we might go even in these, viciousness of temper and action into our town meetings, our State legislatures, cannot have reached its maximum. And it is our congresses. How many times have we all


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