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Philology.

the crisis, a calm, self-possessed, unflinching courage, adequate to any emergency, a kind and conciliatory tem

per, and the most earnest, sincere and unswerving devoCOMMUNICATIONS for this Departraent should be ad-tion to the Union and the Constitution.” dressed to HENRY CLARK, Pawtucket, R. 1.

“ We regret to say, that in our opinion, the message

injures the Union cause everywhere in the border States, For the Schoolmaster.

and strengthens secession in all quarters.” The Criticisms of the Press upon the President's Inaugural.

" It bears marks of indecision, and yet of strong coercion proclivities, with serious doubts whether the gov

ernment will be able to gratify them.” “ The power confided to me will be used to hold, occu

“ The firmness with which he avows his determination py and possess the property and places belonging to the

to obey the simple letter of his duty, must command the government, and collect the duties and imposts ; but beyond what may be necessary for these objects, there

respect of the whole country, while it carries conviction

of his earnestness of purpose, and of his courage to enwill be no invasion, no using of force against or among the people anywhere."

force it” “ The people everywhere shall have that sense of per

And so the verdicts swing back and forth. As fect security which is most favorable to calm thought and the opinions quoted above proceed from men unreflection."

doubtedly acquainted with the power of language, “ Plainly the central idea of secession is the essence of the nearest general conclusion — all the conclusion anarchy.”—The INAUGURAL.

we could reach -- after reading them, is, that imOne interested in the study of English must have pressions by means of the clearest intellectual been amused by the varying opinions of the press

vision may vary essentially according to the atmoson the interpretation of the President's Inaugural. phere of a man's political belief. Whatever might have been the motives for each editor's expression of his opinion, they should be

For the Schoolmaster. adınitted to be honest. With this admission in

A Concealed Fault. mind, and eschewing any intention of appealing to the partizan feelings of any reader of this page, we collect a few passages that have been wafted

A sentence in Sonthey's account of Henry Kirke to our table from the sanctums of some of the White, illustrates a grammatical error not always leading journalists. It is not necessary to men

noticed. It is in the use of an improper predicate tion the titles of papers quoted.

in connection with “there,” an expletive. Mr.

Southey speaking of the early education of Henry, Three editors doubt the meaning of the writer

says: of the aildress :

“ It was considered a great thing for him to be at so “ The President, Mr. Lincoln, though brief, is wordy, good a school, yet there was some circumstances which and though verbose, yet not clear."

rendered it less advantageous to him than it might have “ It is so clearly intended to admit of a double, or even been.” of any possible interpretation, that many will content themselves with waiting for the progress of events, in

The error will be recognized if a certain part of the meanwhile seeking in it for no meaning at all."

the sentence be reduced to a simpler form, as :

Some circumstances was there which rendered it “ We cannot determine from the address whether the new administration will pursue the policy of coercion or

less advantageous to him than it might have been. of conciliation; and must wait its development in its

Circumstances was. measures.”

This fault is so covered by means of the peculiar Others expressly affirm its clearness :

construction of the sentence, that the best extem

pore speakers are betrayed into it. Perhaps it is “It was wise to speak frankly and make himself un- not so often committed by writers as by speakers. derstood."

It consists in always giving to the verb the singular “We recognize the clearness of idea, and the forcible number, when the sentence or clause in which it diction which we have learned to anticipate when he occurs is introduced by the word there. “ There" speaks with freedom to do himself justice.”

is not properly a noun but an adverb, so that the "It is the language of a good man in earnest upon a verb depends for its number on its subject, another momentous subjectplain, lucid, compact, capable of word. but one meaning, and presenting that with resistless

The following sentences constructed for the purforce. Everybody can understand it.”

pose are added for illustration. They are all probof the varying opinions, some of the more ap- ably correct on this point: parent are the following:

There were many people at the ball. There was a " It is marked throughout by consummate ability, a great number of guests at the wedding. There are wise and prudent sagacity in the judgment of affairs, a plenty of roses in bloom. There were roses blooming in profound appreciation of the difficulties and dangers of the window.

Prof. Tischendorf's Sinai Bible. fulness, that these seeming accidents were all real

ly ordered of the Divine Providence and goodness, [From a notice in the Nero Englander of a de- so that after hope had almost died away, the treascriptive pamphlet published by Professor Tischen- sure was at length so wonderfully discovered. dorf, entitled, Notitia Editionis Codicis Bibliorum

“Of the manuscript itself the author gives a deSiniatici.]

scription, and adds, at the same time, some pages “Many of our readers will remember the inter- of the text. In the Old Testament, it contains a est which was excited, some eighteen months since, portion of the Chror.icles, the poetical books from by the announcement, that a very ancient manu- Job to the Song of Solomon inclusive, Isaiah, with script of the Old and New Testaments had been

a portion of Jeremiah, the Minor Prophets, with discovered in the East by Prof. Tischendorf. We the exception of Hosea, Amos and Micah ; and of have, in the pamphlet before us, recently received the Apocryphal books, Tobit, Judith, a portion of from Leipsic, a detailed account of this manuscript, the Maccabees, Wisdom of Solomon, and Ecclesiand of the way in which it was found, together asticus. We have not given the order of succeswith an encouraging assurance that it will soon be sion here, but, in the New Testament, we have, published. One can scarcely read the author's first, the four Gospels ; secondly, the Epistles of simple story, without partaking in his own joyful Paul, that to the Hebrews being placed between feelings, and uniting in his expression of gratitude the second to the ‘Thessalonians and the first to to God for this gift to the church. He had been Timothy; thirdly, the Acts of the Apostles; fourthenabled by the favor of the Emperor Alexander of ly, the Catholic Epistles ; fifthly, the Apocalypse ; Russia to make a third journey to the Orient, in and finally the Epistle of Barnabas with fragments the beginning of the year 1859, and was making a of the Shepherd. short visit to the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, where, some fifteen years before, he

“ The arguments for the antiquity of the manuhad discovered certain fragments of a most ancient script are presented briefly, and the conclusion decodex of the Septuagint version. On the fourth rived from them is, that beyond all reasonable of February, 1859, the very day on which he had doubt, it was written as early as the fourth centumade arrangements for an early departure for ry. Thereupon follows a list of the readings of Egypt, he happened to be walking with the stew- this codex in a large number of passages, in the ard of the monastery. The conversation turned different books of the New Testament. The auquite naturally upon the great subject of the author promises to have the complete work published thor's labors and investigations. The mind of his about the middle of the year 1862 — that being the companion being awakened to interest by the con- thousandth anniversary of the foundation of the versation, he informed the author, on their return Russian Empire — and we are sure that it will evefrom their walk together, that, in his own apart- rywhere be received with a grateful appreciation of ment, he himself had a copy of the Septuagint, the generous favor of the Emperor, without which and, as they entered the room, he presented it to the discovery would never have been made, and of him, as it was, rolled up in a cloth. Tischendorf that liberality through which he now offers it freely unrolled the cloth, and found, to his astonishment to the universities of every land. and delight, not only a very large portion of the “The remaining portions of the pamphlet, which old Testament, but also the whole New Testa- are mentioned in the title, we pass over without ment, without even the smallest part wanting, to- especial notice. The great interest and value gether with the Epistle of Barnabas and a fragment which the work has, is, of course, its promise of of the Shepard of Hermas- and that too the very the future, and we wait as patiently as we can, till codex which, so early as 1855, he had declared to that promise is fulfilled. Meanwhile we would be the oldest of all the Greek manuscripts on urge all, who may find the opportunity, to examparchment, which still survive. So overjoyed was ine what Tischendorf has here given us. That he, that, unable to sleep, he spent the night in opportunity will of course be found rather in our transcribing the Epistle of Barnabas, and then, on public libraries, than through a purchase of the on the following day, he obtained consent of the pamphlet by individual scholars." monks to have the manuscript forwarded to him at Cairo. After his arrival there, he further per- AUGUSTIN EUGENE SCRIBE, a distinguished suaded them to present it, through himself, as a French author, is dead. He had reached the age gift to the Emperor Alexander, and thus it was of seventy years. His last work was a comic opera, brought to St. Petersburg in November of the same La Circassienne, the music of which was written year. By the merest accident, as it seemed, had it by Auber, himself over eighty years old. been preserved from destruction, at the first, as a useless thing, and then again, by the merest acci- The effect of the crisis on literature is to dedent, did it become known to this critical scholar.crease the number of books published, and give by whose means it will now be made the property time for authors to prepare works for future dissem: of the world. We have abundant reason for thank-lination.

many oth

Editors' Department.

THE PRIZE ESSAY.-We are glad to be able to give to our readers, entire, the excellent prize

essay by our fellow laborer who has charge of the A SPLENDID OFFER." philological department of our journal. We think

it a fair exponent of the rare ability of its author.

We hope that all who read will be ready to concur We offer to any person who will send us the in our opinion of its just merits. We have had the names of EIGHT NEW SUBSCRIBERS, with the mo- pleasure of perusing others which evince much ney enclosed, (one dollar for each subscriber) a talent of unusual excellence. copy of that magnificent standard work, Lippin- We can hardly refrain from calling attention to cott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World, price the other inducement which we offer, to any who

will send us eight new subscribers with the money. $6.00. By a little exertion every teacher may own The work which is here offered contains a notice this indispensable help for the student.

and the proper pronunciation of nearly one hun

dred thousand places, with the most recent and Obituary.

authentic information respcting the countries, &c.,

in every portion of the globe. Also, a complete It is with pain we are called upon to record the etymological vocabulary of geographical names, death of David MARCH WARREN, Esq., who was

valuable features to be found in no becoming well known among educators as the au- other gazetteer in the English language. It conthor of a most excellent series of school geogra- tains over 2000 pages, and is really one of the most phies. He died in Baltimore, March 10th, 1861, desirable helps to the teacher, student, or business at the early age of 41.

man, with which we are acquainted. We are pleasHe left Philadelphia in February to pass a few ed to find that some are taking advantage of our days with a brother, hoping to regain his strength, prize. already impaired, as his friends believed, by the perplexities arising from the embarrassed condi- In a late number of Lewis's Gymnastics there is tion of the firm to which he belonged.

an excellent extract upon the subject of sleep, It was in Baltimore, that he first learned the as- which affords much information upon that much tounding fact that he was fast sinking under a fa- abused blessing. It is there stated that he who tal organic disease.

reaches the bounds set to his life by the scriptures, His death, so unexpected to himself and his (seventy years) will have spent more than twenty

three years of this in the arms of morpheus. This friends, has deprived the cause of education of an

granted, how important is sweet, refreshing sleep earnest and faithful laborer. He had made geography a special study for many years. The results

to a vigorous, healthy constitution. We recollect

not long since of being in a little hamlet where of his labor appeared first in the form of Warren's Physical Geography,— a work which received high day of one of its citizens, a man of ordinary sta

was held the anniversary of the hundredth birthencomiums from scholars and naturalists on both

tion in life, who had lived to see his children's sides of the Atlantic. This work was followed by children arrive to manhood. Upon this festive ochis Common School Geography - a book admira

casion services were held in the village church, bly adapted to the wants of our schools, as its ex, and the veteran of twenty-five quarternions walktensive use abundantly proves. This was followed ed, unassisted, one mile to the church and returnby his Primary. In this, by a simple and pleasing ed. A friend talking with him one day, inquired introduction, in which the beginner is supposed to how he had managed to reach that age with such a travel over the surface of the earth, the elements

physical constitution left to his command, he reof geography are unfolded. This introduction is

plied: "Regular eating and sleeping.” We think then followed by an easy development of the first

it hardly likely that many will reach that age, eren principles of the study.

with the proper amount of sleep, yet we doubt not No better illustration could be given of Mr. his great longevity must in a measure be placed to Warren's views of elementary instruction than are that account. embodied in the introduction just alluded to. To the effectual success of their calling no per

Socially, he was cordial, frank, and always ani- son needs regular sleep and a proper amount of it mated in conversation. He had the rare faculty of more than the school teacher. The school-room surrounding himself with a multitude of friends, wears a different aspect to the eyes which have and herein lay the secret of his success in the busi- had a full night's repose. Much of the nervousness to which he devoted himself. He leaves a ness, and haggard looks, and fretty outbursts come wife and infant child to mourn his loss. We un- from a want of sufficient amount of quiet sleep. derstand that he had in manuscript other contri- We have some ground of fear that the stress which butions to his favorite subject, which we hope ere is frequentiy laid upon the habit of early rising long may be given to the public.

may have depreciated to no small degree the real worth of repose. William M. Cornell, M. D., of from the pupil of the primary or intermediate. Philadelphia, to whom we have before alluded, Then, as the powers of intellect increase and the thinks" that the most frequent and immediate ability of appreciating the sentiment of an author cause of insanity, and one of the most important gains strength, cultivate the habit of giving force to guard against, is the want of sleep.” “Indeed,” and meaning to the sense of the subject. Like the says he, “so rarely do we see a recent case of in- art of singing, the pupil must first learn the scale sanity that is not preceded by want of sleep, that of vocal sounds, as well as their offices, and then it is regarded as almost a sure precursor of mental he may study the soul of the production. derangement.”

Teachers, do these ideas meet your approbation? In answer to the question, “When shall we if not, let us hear from you. Who will send us an sleep? our Maker has settled that point when he article upon this subject ? Please give us a bit of made day and night.” Indeed, we think this ques- your own experience in this direction. We know tion about as deep as one asked by an inventor of of many teachers who are capable of throwing floods highly illuminating substances, who had made of light upon this subject. many attempts to find the “cheapest light,” went into a chemical analysis, and pondered upon the

The River of Speech. comparative illuminating properties of water gas and the “light of other days.” The conclusion There flows a river through the earth, was that there would be some haziness or foggy

From hills of heaven it hath its birth; properties attending the latter. Franklin told the

Through all the lands that speech hath gone, Parisians the American people learned “that it is

For men to float their thoughts upon. cheaper burning day light than candle light.”

Some send rich fleets of myrrh and gold, Says the author of the same treatise: “We knew

Ships argosied with gems untold ; an individual who possessed at the age of eighty- And though the men upon the shore three, an unusual vigor, and presented the char- Bind them upon their hearts, the store, acteristic marks of a sound mind in a healthy body, Like prophet's oil, grows more and more, though he once occupied a prominent professor's chair in one of our first theological seminaries,

And some send flowers from fairy lands,

That float to little children's hands; and, both from his position, and having reared a

And some - alas ! that this should be large family, must have been exposed to much

Send ships that sail to meet the sea, company, yet his testimony upon this point was: Beneath the pirate's flag of black,

I have always been a good sleeper. Whatever With wreck and rapine on their track.
company may be at my house, when nine o'clock
comes, I uniformly take my light, bid them good

And some send idle straws alone; night, and retire.'For the remainder of this

And some rich seeds, that may be sown

In quiet creeks; for they will rise most interesting discussion we refer to the Educa

Dear flowers to aching hearts and eyes.
tor, a monthly journal printed at Pittsburg, which,
by the way, is very ably edited.

And some send holy words that shed
A strange light on the river's bed -

A light so steady, earnest, fair,
THERE is no department of school instruction

You almost think God's stars are there. which has suffered more neglect than the subject of reading. It has been remarked that in the Long years ago, past ships and stars, schools of Providence, and no doubt throughout

A fleet sailed through the Eastern bars, the whole State, we are more deficient in read

And on the wave a heavenly spell,

A silent consecration fell ; ing than any other department. This is in a mea

The stream grew holy as it bore sure true. It is a difficult matter to teach reading

Christ's spoken thoughts from shore to shore. to meet the views of all classes of educated men. In no general degree is the taste of scholars alike

We call the attention of teachers and school in this important branch of instruction. One great impediment to the progress of this art William Wood, No. 389 Broadway, New York.

committees to the advertisement of Samuel S. & is the want of a suitable voice. This should be

We have received from the enterprising publishers first of all cultivated. No person can read to the that indispensable “Grammar of English Gramedification of any number of persons without a voice to produce the required intonations and in mars,” which we shall notice more fully next

month. flections. This must be cultivated in the earliest years of the pupil's course. If you attempt to We have a bow and a bunch of thanks to that train the voice of an adult you will in a great de- cordial friend of THE SCHOOLMASTER, who sent us gree fail on account of the natural embarrassment seven new subscribers in one missive. Were it of age. No advanced pupil can yield to the power not for his proverbial modesty we would publicly of imitation which is requisite to the subduing and expose him. “If he does it again we shall be training of the vocal organs. First get a voice obliged to treat it seriously,” as the teacher says.

Mathematics.

From the Mathematical Monthly.
A Logical Outline of Arlthmetic.

COMMUNICATIONS for this Department, if relating to

ONE great error in our systems of elementary the higher branches, should be addressed to J. M. Ross, instruction is the lack of logical method. With Lonsdale ; otherwise to N. W. DeMunn, Providence.

the desire of lending a word toward the correction

of this error, we present the following logical outFor the Schoolmaster. Involution.

line of arithmetic.

All numerical ideas begin with the unit. It is We give below a few special rules and illustra- the origin, the basis of arithmetic. The unit can tions for the squaring of numbers. In doing so, we be increased and divided, hence arise numbers and do not claim originality for them; but simply de- fractions. Every number is a synthesis, every fracsire to bring the subject of involution before those tion the result of an analysis. When by synthesis teachers who may not have access to such authors

we bave obtained a number, by analysis we may as have taken up the subject in a special manner.

pass to a small number; hence numbers can be inThe following are brief rules for squaring num

creased and diminished, and these are the only bers less than 100; and we limit the numbers to

operations to which they may be subjected. All less than 100, because, by the rules, we can obtain other processes are merely modifications of, or the square mentally.

based upon, these fundamental ones. Rule First. Square the left-hand figure, under which, one place to the right, place twice the pro- when and how to diminish, we employ a process of

To determine when and how to increase, and duct of the two figures; and under this last product write the square of the right-hand figure, one

reasoning called comparison. This reasoning proplace still further to the right, and add the num

cess also gives rise to several particular arithme

tical processes. Arithmetic of whole numbers — bers thus written.

and the same obtains with fractions is therefore EXAMPLE. What is the square of 84 ?

reduced to the two general processes of synthesis 8% = 64

and analysis, these to be controlled by the logic of Twice 8 x 64

comparison. Let us briefly glance at each.
4 =
16

A synthesis is addition. Multiplication
Square of 84 = 7056

is a special case of addition, in which the numbers

to be added are equal, — the sum in this case being In the same way square 76, 87, 99, 27, 47, 23, 89, distinguished by the term product. Composite &c.

numbers, formed by the synthesis of factors; mulThe following rule will apply for numbers be

tiples formed by the synthesis of particular factors, tween 50 X 60 :

and involution, requiring a product of equal facRule. Add the right-hand figure to the square tors, are all included under multiplication. of the left-hand figure, and on the right of this number place the square of the right-hand figure,

A general analysis is called subtraction. Diripreceded by a (0) if less than 10.

sion is a special analysis, in which equal numbers

are successively subtracted, with the additional What is the square of 56 ?

object of ascertaining how many times such sub52 + 6

tractions may be performed. Factoring is a spe3164. 62 = 64

cial case of division, in which many or all of the In the above manner square 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, divisors of a member are required; evolution a 68, 59.

special case of factoring, in which one of several To square any number ending with the figure 5 : equal factors is required; and common divisor, a

Rejecting the 5, multiply the remaining number case of factoring in which some common factor of by itself increased by 1, and to the right of the several numbers is required. product place the square of 5.

In comparing numbers we observe we may pass

from one to another of different species under the What is the square of 325 ?

same genus, and thus we have reduction. By 32 x (32 + 1) = 1056

}= 105625. comparison we obtain ratio, arithmetical and geo25

metrical, from the first of which, by a further comIn the same manner square 125, 75, 95, 455, 725, parison, arises arithmetical progression; and from 1255, &c.

the second we obtain, in a similar manner, propor

tion and geometrical progression. ALGEBRAICAL QUESTION.-There are four num- Thus we derive a complete outline of the science bers in geometrical progression, the second of of numbers. The rest of arithmetic consists of which is less than the fourth by 24 ; and the sum the solution of problems, either real or theoretic, of the extremes, is to the sum of the means, as 7 and may be included under the head of applicato 3. What are the numbers ?

A. É. K. tions of numbers. Arithmetic is therefore pure

EXAMPLE.

= 31

}

EXAMPLE

52 =

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