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For the Schoolmaster. their works ye shall know them,” while some

Motives. quiet Charles Lamb, with insanity in his family, asks, as he reads Aladdin's epitaph,” " Where

THE word motive is derived from a Latin be all the bad people buried ?”

term signifying to move, and denotes “ that

which moves the will" or " incites the action.' The World Harvest.

We may consider motives in two classes ; those

which lie in the accidental circumstances in which They are sowing their seed in the daylight fair, a person happens to be; and those used intenThey are sowing their seed in the noonday's glare, tionally, either by the person himself or some They are sowing their seed in the soft twilight, other one, to determine his action. The first They are sowing their seed in the solemn night

class we will not consider ; nor those, if there What shall the harvest be?

be such, which a person deliberately places beThey are sowing their seed of pleasant thought, fore himself ; but such as one person may emIn the Spring's green light they have blithely wrought;

ploy to affect another, especially such as the They have brought their fancies from wood and dell, Where the mosses creep and the flower-buds swell;

teacher may use to influence and control his Rare shall the harvest be?

pupils; and these motives we may also con

sider in two classes ; as leading motives, and They are sowing the seed of word and deed,

driving motives, the phenomena of which are Which the cold know not, nor the careless heed, of the gentle word and the kindest deed,

somewhat analagous to physical attraction and That have blest the heart in its sorest need ;

repulsion. Among the latter are the ferule, Sweet shall the harvest be!

switch, strap, dunce-block, fools-cap, scolding, And some are sowing the seeds of pain,

and such gymnastics as standing on one foot, of late remorse and a maddened brain,

holding a brick at arm's length, bending over And the stars shall fall and the sun shall wane, and holding the tip of the fore-finger on the Ere they root the weeds from their soil again;

head of a nail in the floor. Among the former Dark will the harvest be!

are all the advantages, immediate and remote, And some are standing with idle hand,

of education; as, mental power, knowledge, Yet they scatter seed on their native land;

fame, social position, &c. And some are sowing the seeds of care,

There is no difference of opinion as to which Which their soil has borne and still must bear; Sad will the harvest be!

is the nobler class.

The word educate means to lead out, not They are sowing the seed of noble deed,

drive out. And it is a question with me whethWith a slepless watch and an earnest heed; With a ceaseless hand o'er the earth they sow,

er, in the process of educatie n, the driving moAnd the fields are whitening where'er they go;

tives perform any other service than to repress Rich will the harvest be!

disobedience, and might not more properly reSown in darkness or sown in light,

ceive another name. I call them driving moSown in weakness or sown in might,

tives because they are so frequently used as such. sown in meekness or sown in wrath,

I know that I have not se?n good results from In the broad work-field or the shadowy path,

this use of them.

The discussion of leading Sure will the harvest be!

motives is simple, the practice difficult.

The true theory is, to lead a scholar by the There are many shining qualities in the mind of man; but none so useful as discretion. It is this, the highest motive with which he can be led, indeed, which gives a value to all the rest, and and you educate him to the noblest manhood sets them to work in their proper places, and turns possible to him. In the practice of this theory them to the advantare of their possessor. With- arise the greatest difficulties in education. In out it, learning is pedantry; wit, impertinence : a perfectly successful school every scholar is and virtue itself looks like weakness; and the putting forth his best effort constantly; he loves best parts only qualify a man to be more sprightly to study and recite; he is enthusiastic. Now, in errurs, and active in his own prejudices.

no scholar will do this unless led by a motive ;

and in our common schools this is generally At best, life is not very long. A few more smiles,

presented by the teacher.

The highest moa few more tears, some pleasures, much pain; sun

tives when happily urged, may interest all for shine and songs, clouds and darkness; hasty greetings, abrupt farewells — then our little play closes, a few minutes, but they seldom secure three and the injurer and the injured will pass away. Is good recitations daily for the term. My expeit worth while to hate each other?

rience has led me to believe, that except in a Let me

few instances, they produce no effect in the pu- to an inanimate and dreary effort; and this, too, pil beyond a slight admiration while being pre- at an age when pleasure is all-powerful, and sented. After continued but unsuccessful efforts impulse predominant over reason. The result to educate with highest motives, I have come is manifest.” down to the employment of emulation in one way or another. Many philosophic friends have

What a Spider Can Do. objected to this, but I have found it the only efficient motive.

Let me put a spider into a lady's hand. She Great was my joy when I found experience is aghast. She shrieks. The nasty, ugly thing. had brought me to the same conclusion at which Madam, the spider is perhaps shocked at your that greatest of metaphysicians, Sir William Brussels lace, and although you may be the Hamilton, had arrived by his philosophy. The most exquisite painter living, the spider has a following is from the first of his Lectures on right to laugh at your coarse daubs as she runs Metaphysics :

over them. Just show her your crotchet work

when you shriek at her. Have you spent half “ Besides placing his pupil in a condition to perform the necessary process, the instructor your days,” the spider, if she be spiteful, may

remark, “ have you spent half your days upon ought to do what in him lies to determine the

these clumsy ottomans? My dear laily, is that pupil's will to the performance.

“ But how is this to be effected? Only by your web? If I were big enough, I might with rendering the effort more pleasurable than its

reason drop you and cry out at you. omission. But every effort is at first difficult,

spend a day with you and bring my work. I

have four little bags of thread - such little consequently irksome. The ultimate benefit it

bags ! In every bag there are more than 1,000 promises is dim and remote, while the pupil is

holes - such tiny holes ! Out of each hole often of an age at which present pleasure is

thread runs, and all the threads - more than more persuasive than future good. The pain of the exertion must, therefore, be overcome by as

4,000 threads — I spin together as they run, and

when they are spun they make but one thread sociating with it a still higher pleasure. This

of the web I weave. I have a member of my can only be effected by enlisting some passion in the cause of improvement. We must awak. family who is herself no bigger than a grain of

sand. Imagine what a slender web she makes, en emulation, and allow its gratification only

and of that, too, each thread is made of 4,000 through a course of vigorous exertion. “ Some rigorists, I am aware, would pro- four bags through four or five thousand little

or 5,000 threads, that have passed out of her scribe, on moral and religious grounds, the em

holes, Would you drop her, too, crying out ployment of the passions in education; but

about your delicacy! A pretty thing for you such a view is at once false and dangerous.

to plume yourself on your delicacy and scream “. The affections are the work of God; they at us." Having made such a speech, we may are not radically evil; they are given us for

suppose that the indignant creature fastens a useful purposes, and are, therefore, not super. rope round one of the rough points of the iady's Auous. It is their abuse that is alone repre. hands, and lets herself down to the floor. Comhensible. In truth, however, there is no alter. ing down stairs is noisy, clumsy work, comnative. In youth passion is preponderant. pared with such a way of locomotion. The There is then a redundant amount of energy creeping things we scorn are miracles of beauty. which must be expended ; and this, if it find They are more delicate than any ormulu clock not an outlet through one affection is sure to or any lady's watch made for pleasure's sake, find it through another. The aim of education

no bigger than a shilling. Lyonot counted is thus to employ for good those impulses which 4,041 muscles in a single caterpillar, and these would otherwise be turned to evil. The passions

are a small part only of her works. Hooke are never neutral ; they are either the best al. found 14,000 mirrors in the eye of a bluebottle, lies, or the worst opponents, of improvement.

and there are 13,000 separate bits that go to • Without the stimulus of emulation, what

provide nothing but the act of breathing in a can education accomplish: The love of ab.

carp.—Dickens' Household Words. stract knowledge and the habit of application are still unformed, and if emulation intervene

He who gives pleasure meets with it; kindness not, the course by which these are acquired is is the bond of friendship, and the book of love ; from a strenuous and cheerful energy, reduced he who sows not, reaps not.

66

For the Schoolmaster,

extreme case, but there hare been cases eren Partiality.

worse than this. I will venture to assert that in

nine cases out of ten the charge is as groundless Pernaps there is nothing which is more fre

as in the example hefore us. quently charged upon pedagogues by jealous scholars, and more jealous parents, than partial. better than those of other people, especially at

Parents almost invariably think their children ity. Araminda Jane is a notoriously trouble

school, and in most cases they persistently resome scholar, and requires reprimanding a dozen

train from going near the edifice where the dar. times every day. IIer seatmate. Anna, is, on

ling little Peppers, Squashvines, Dogberrys and the other hand, a remarkably quiet and studi.

Smiths are sent to get

.. book larnin'." I do ous girl, who would deem a reproof from her

not ay that Angelina Miranda, or Ichabod Joteacher as a lasting disgrace, and, ever obedient

sephus, tells lies at home about school affairs ; to her teacher's wishes, she never receives one.

but I do mean to say that they are not very But a few days after the commencement of the term, Araminda goes home from school with a

likely to set forth their own misdoings as worse

than they really are. doleful story of her wrongs. The tiacher is

Of course whatever the partial. He keeps me after school, but lets young Squashvines say is gospel to the whole

race of Squashvines. Anna go home. He watches me all the time, and lets Anna do just as she pleases." So far

If parents would only take the trouble to all is true. lle does keep one and excuses the visit from time to time the place where, for six other. And there is a cause.

If Anna had hours of the day, the teacher labors to impart broken a half dozen just such rules as her seat. instruction to their childien, - as they do take mate had done, they would both have remained.puins to circulate stories prejudicial to his char. He does let Anna do as she pleases, for she plea. acter when they imagine themselves wronged.ses to do aright. fle does watch Araminda a

I have no doubt that many difficulties would be a great portion of the time, well knowing that removed, and greater confidencr establisted be

But it is not my she is ever on the lookout for a chance to do tween parents and teacher. rischief. But after such complaints as these, purpose at this time to speak of the advantages Araminda, whose imagination is fruitful, pro

to be gained by school visitations. ceeds to tell how the teacher shows Anna how I have given an example of supposed or im. to do examples and does not help her ; how he aginary partiality, I will now speak of a case gives her the easiest words in spelling, etc., etc. in which the charge was not without foundaMr. and Mrs. Simkins, the hopeful Araminda's tion, for that such cases are of frequent occur. parents, (discerning souls) see through the whole rence I will not attempt to deny. In a school affair at once. " Anna Macy has sisters, and not a thousand miles from Boston were assemSquire Macy is a rich man." And so the whole bled some thirty or forty scholars of both sexes mystery is unraveled. “ But I can tell him one and of all sizes, under the charge of a male thing," says Mr. S., " he cannot treat other teacher. He was called a good teacher, and sucfolks' young ones better than mine, comforta- ceeded admirably until his marked attention to bly. And Mr. S.mkins and wife, highly appre- one of the boys who showed a remarkable talent ciating their own judgment and foresight, go for mathematics (the teacher's favorite study) from neighbor to neighbor and communicate as created dissatisfaction among the rest of the a fact that which has no foundation save in their scholars, and this soon extended to the parents. own heated imaginations. They do not inquire His partiality to Stephen was manifested in difof the teacher respecting the truth of their ferent ways; such as showing him ho.w to perdaughter's statements, deeming his word of no form more examples in arith:netic and geometry weight in comparison with that of their darling than others, and bestowing praise upon him in Araminda. Their neighbors, soon beginning to the presence of committee men, &c. The boy, believe what the Simkins say respecting the who had always had a full share of self-esteem, teacher's par:iality to Anna Macy, canvass the soon began to assume airs among his schoolmatter over and freely express their opinion of tellows, which led them to despise him and dissuch a course before their children, who all at like the teacher. The term closed, and after a once begin to think themselves slighted by their long vacation Mr. M. (a new teacher) commenctutor, and having a very high opinion of their ed his labors. Accustomed to treat all scholars parents' judgments, they lose all confidence in alike so long as they behaved with decency, he and respect for him. It is true that this is an soon learned that Stephen did not have a very high appreciation of his judgment, because he

Address at Baltimore. did not seem to know that he was the smartest boy in school. He soon began to show indiffer

A very admirable address was delivered at ence to the commands of Mr. M., who, more Baltimore, Oct. 25, 1860, upon the occasion of than once, was obliged to reprove him. In fact, the anniversary exercises, in connection with Stephen, though but fourteen and rather small the Western High School in that city. The orfor that age, was so largé (to speak figuratively) ator was Rev. N. H. Chamberlain, and his rethat Mr. M.'s overcoat would hare been too marks were so pertinent and forcible as to insmall to make him a vest-pattern. His airs, of duce us to make extracts for the benefit of the course, secured him the contempt of the teacher. readers of The SCHOOLMASTER. The address Missing the praises bestowed upon hiin by his was directed more particularly to the young laformer teacher, he saw partiality in every act dies of the school, and upon the supposition of Mr. M., but it was all shown to others. that many of them would become teachers, the Night after night he returned home, not to tell speaker said : how much more the teacher thought of him “I am told that some of you aspire to the than of others, but of how he had been abused. high honor of being teachers, and that is a very The parents, who had been pleased with the noble ambition, indeed. It is very true that all flattering reports of Stephen's progress before, of you will teach by your example ; for as surebecame dissati-tied with Mr. M. because he did ly as where fire is there will be heat, so surely not put him along so fast. The term passed will you exercise a woman's influence in every away, and at its close, in tead of a majority of position of your woman's life. All great powdissatisfild parents, only those of Stephen were ers in their exercise are silent, and woman's infound in the district, Such was the result of fluence on society, though it be silent, is very real partiality. For my part, I had rather be great. But I address myself especially now to the supposed than the real partial teacher. A those of you who are to undertake the instrucscholar once impressed with the idea that he is tion of youth; and I say to you that in all this better than his fellows, will cling to it for a world there is no position more honorable than long time, to the annoyance of his teacher and that of a true teacher; none which requires with the dislike of his fellows.

more and more varied ability, none crowned Uxus.

with more honorable rewards than that. It is

not in place for me to print out to you the meIn a sermon recently delivered by Rev. Hen-thods in which you shall teach, but I do desire ry Ward Beecher, the following stern advice :o impress upon you that your calling as teachwas given to parents, which teachers can take ers is an important and sacred one. I beg of as well : “ Never strike a child upon the head; you to magnify your office as teachers. nature has provided other and more appropriate

Teaching is one of the fine arts, and ranks places for punishment.”

with painting, sculpture, poetry, and song. For

the wise teacher, who deals with the plastic, WIT.—A boy being praised for his quickness sensitive mind of youth, may mould it into a of reply, a gentleman observed thus : more beautiful statue than ever took shape be

“ When children are so very keen, they gen. neath the chisel of a Phidias or a Thorwaldsen. erally become stupid as they advance in years." I know there is much in a teacher's life which The boy immediately replied :

seems common-place and barren routine, but it “ What a keen boy you must have been.” only seems. The commonest lessons of the

school have more in them than the profoundest EXCELLENT was the saying of the Lacedæmo intellect can fathom. You tcach a child that nian educator : “I will teach the boys to take pride one and one are two. It is a simple statement, in what is good, and to abhor what is shameful." but the mystery of numbers no philosopher can This is in truth the most beautiful and noble aim read to you, though Pythagoras found the Diwhich man can have in education.-PLUTARCH.

vinity in it, and by that simple formula of one

and one are two, God built this majestic uniCONTENTMENT.-Happiness in part is imaginary, verse, and the constellations above us this very and its possession depends almost entirely upon hour are moving on obediently. ourselves; contentment is the key which unlocks the treasure house, and with "goodliness is great

You say to your school children, may-be, gain."

some sultry summer-day, “Children, with eagerness and patience, study your algebra and I beg you to notice what that one book has your philosophy." Well, in this comparatively done for you — how it protects you, and honors simple sentence, you have sunimoned into your you, and gives you culture, and calls your friends school-room almost all the great civilizations of here, and furnishes us this Christian spectacle forty centuries, and the five great races that of young girls honoring themselves by public have shaped the destinies of the world — the literary exercises before an honorable and symSaxon out of his German forest or his English pathetic audience of Christian men and women. home; the Scandinavian out of his Norwegian I charge you, then, to culture yourselves with valleys; the Arabian from his sandy deserts, good books. For a good book is always the and his career of splendid Saracenic conquest; life-blood of a true soul, and it is a giver of life the Roman from the pride of his imperial city: to all. Your friends desert you, but a good and the Greek from his beautiful land of poetry book never deserts you. Your friends flatter and dreams. Do you not understand how that you, but a good book never flatters. Your enis ? Well, examine closely the structure of that emies malign you, but a good book never masimple sentence, and you will find that it is ligns you. You are troubled and harrassed with really so. It is said that Columbus on his voy- cares, but a good book, with its serene and age of discovery learned from the sea-weed, saintly presence, meets you gently to give you laden with a few red berries, floating around his rest. Human plans and institutions change or ship, of the great continent which lay beyond. fall, but what is written is written, and a good And the most common words and lessons of book never alters. A good book is like the your school-room are but the sea-weed and ber- amber of the Gods, in whose transparency the ries floating on the surface of an unfathomed pure thoughts and lives of great men embalm sea, and prophecying of the boundless continent themselves. A good book is a safeguard against of truth that lies beyond; and the true teacher oblivion and decay; it bridges over the gulf bewill see this, and teach that truth in common tween the past and present, and makes the centhings is infinite, blessed, sacred. I charge you, turies kin; it is the advocate of honor as against teachers, to magnify your office, and be true to all shame; it is the statesman of liberty as yourselves, by being true to it."

against all tyranny; it is the stumbling-block The reverend gentleman also made some fine

in the path of unjust kings; it is the friend of suggestions respecting the value of reading good virtue, the herald of progress, the ally of our books, which we heartily commend :

humanity; and with a sublime self-sacrifice, it

would make every mother a Spartan, and send“ I exhort you to read good books, for good

ing forth her son to return with his shield or on books hare been, and will always be, your best

it for human rights; and from age to age it infriends. And I will ask you to notice here what one book, the best of books, has done for you. mountain defile of Thermopylæ against the be

spires brave men with patriotism to guard the I do not forget that I stand to-night in a public

leaguring Medes and Persians, or man the fleet theatre, * and I find in this spectacle one great

at Salamis for fatherland and liberty forever! lesson of Christianity. Such a spectacle as this is only possible where the Bible rules the world. In a Roman theatre, you would have had, in- READING.—This is a reading age, and full of stead of these beautiful young women, a show all kinds of books and papers. Everybody has of gladiators hewing at one another with swords, a paper, even to the children. The news all and covering the arena with the dead bodies of goes into print, and the people read it and then some mother's sons, or a profane dance of Venus talk about it. All the jokes, puns, fun, pleasant Anadyomene, and for an audience a howling stories and good lessons are printed, and so beand infuriated multitude thirsting for blood; come public property. The best of things get and here are only living friends rejoicing in the into papers and books. Men's best thoughts and gentle culture of daughters or of sisters. The feelings, their cutest, funniest, lovliest ideas are Arabian Mohammed taught that women have spread upon paper. So by reading we get the no souls, and over all the world, all religions best of everything — the cream of news and except Christianity have practically taught the knowledge. How much young people lose, same thing.

then, that cannot or do not read. Reading is

talking on paper, and everybody who has a * The address was delivered in the Front Street "ongue and loves to talk should love to read. Theatre, which had been hired for the occasion. Youth's Friend.

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