Page images

their works ye shall know them," while some quiet Charles Lamb, with insanity in his family, asks, as he reads Aladdin's epitaph," "Where be all the bad people buried?"

The World Harvest.

THEY are sowing their seed in the daylight fair,
They are sowing their seed in the noonday's glare,
They are sowing their seed in the soft twilight,
They are sowing their seed in the solemn night-
What shall the harvest be?

They are sowing their seed of pleasant thought,

For the Schoolmaster.

THE word motive is derived from a Latin term signifying to move, and denotes " that which moves the will" or "incites the action.' We may consider motives in two classes; those which lie in the accidental circumstances in which a person happens to be; and those used intentionally, either by the person himself or some other one, to determine his action. The first class we will not consider; nor those, if there be such, which a person deliberately places before himself; but such as one person may em

In the Spring's green light they have blithely wrought; ploy to affect another, especially such as the

They have brought their fancies from wood and dell,
Where the mosses creep and the flower-buds swell;
Rare shall the harvest be?

They are sowing the seed of word and deed,
Which the cold know not, nor the careless heed,
Of the gentle word and the kindest deed,
That have blest the heart in its sorest need;
Sweet shall the harvest be!

And some are sowing the seeds of pain,
Of late remorse and a maddened brain,

And the stars shall fall and the sun shall wane,
Ere they root the weeds from their soil again;
Dark will the harvest be!

And some are standing with idle hand,
Yet they scatter seed on their native land;
And some are sowing the seeds of care,
Which their soil has borne and still must bear ;
Sad will the harvest be!

They are sowing the seed of noble deed,
With a sleepless watch and an earnest heed;
With a ceaseless hand o'er the earth they sow,
And the fields are whitening where'er they go;
Rich will the harvest be!

Sown in darkness or sown in light,
Sown in weakness or sown in might,

Sown in meekness or sown in wrath,

In the broad work-field or the shadowy path,
Sure will the harvest be!

There are many shining qualities in the mind of

teacher may use to influence and control his pupils; and these motives we may also consider in two classes; as leading motives, and driving motives, the phenomena of which are somewhat analagous to physical attraction and repulsion. Among the latter are the ferule, switch, strap, dunce-block, fools-cap, scolding, and such gymnastics as standing on one foot, holding a brick at arm's length, bending over and holding the tip of the fore-finger on the head of a nail in the floor. Among the former are all the advantages, immediate and remote, of education; as, mental power, knowledge, fame, social position, &c.

There is no difference of opinion as to which is the nobler class.

The word educate means to lead out, not drive out. And it is a question with me whether, in the process of educati‹ n, the driving motives perform any other service than to repress disobedience, and might not more properly receive another name. I call them driving motives because they are so frequently used as such. I know that I have not seen good results from this use of them. The discussion of leading motives is simple, the practice difficult.

The true theory is, to lead a scholar by the man; but none so useful as discretion. It is this, the highest motive with which he can be led, indeed, which gives a value to all the rest, and and you educate him to the noblest manhood sets them to work in their proper places, and turns possible to him. In the practice of this theory them to the advantage of their possessor. With- arise the greatest difficulties in education. In out it, learning is pedantry; wit, impertinence: a perfectly successful school every scholar is and virtue itself looks like weakness; and the putting forth his best effort constantly; he loves best parts only qualify a man to be more sprightly to study and recite; he is enthusiastic. Now, in errors, and active in his own prejudices.

no scholar will do this unless led by a motive; and in our common schools this is generally AT best, life is not very long. A few more smiles, presented by the teacher. The highest moa few more tears, some pleasures, much pain; suntives when happily urged, may interest all for shine and songs, clouds and darkness; hasty greetings, abrupt farewells-then our little play closes, a few minutes, but they seldom secure three and the injurer and the injured will pass away. Is good recitations daily for the term. My experience has led me to believe, that except in a

it worth while to hate each other?

few instances, they produce no effect in the pu- to an inanimate and dreary effort; and this, too, pil beyond a slight admiration while being pre- at an age when pleasure is all-powerful, and sented. After continued but unsuccessful efforts impulse predominant over reason. The result to educate with highest motives, I have come is manifest." down to the employment of emulation in one way or another. Many philosophic friends have objected to this, but I have found it the only efficient motive.

What a Spider Can Do.

LET me put a spider into a lady's hand. She

Great was my joy when I found experience is aghast. She shrieks. The nasty, ugly thing. had brought me to the same conclusion at which Madam, the spider is perhaps shocked at your that greatest of metaphysicians, Sir William Brussels lace, and although you may be the Hamilton, had arrived by his philosophy. The most exquisite painter living, the spider has a following is from the first of his Lectures on


"Besides placing his pupil in a condition to perform the necessary process, the instructor ought to do what in him lies to determine the pupil's will to the performance.

"But how is this to be effected? Only by

rendering the effort more pleasurable than its omission. But every effort is at first difficult, | consequently irksome. The ultimate benefit it promises is dim and remote, while the pupil is often of an age at which present pleasure is more persuasive than future good. The pain of the exertion must, therefore, be overcome by associating with it a still higher pleasure. This can only be effected by enlisting some passion in the cause of improvement. We must awaken emulation, and allow its gratification only through a course of vigorous exertion.

"Some rigorists, I am aware, would proscribe, on moral and religious grounds, the cmployment of the passions in education; but such a view is at once false and dangerous.


right to laugh at your coarse daubs as she runs over them. Just show her your crotchet work when you shriek at her. Have you spent half your days," the spider, if she be spiteful, may remark, "have you spent half your days upon these clumsy ottomans? My dear lady, is that


Let me

your web? If I were big enough, I might with reason drop you and cry out at you. spend a day with you and bring my work. I have four little bags of thread - such little bags! In every bag there are more than 1,000 holes-such tiny holes! Out of each hole thread runs, and all the threads - more than 4,000 threads- I spin together as they run, and when they are spun they make but one thread of the web I weave. I have a member of my family who is herself no bigger than a grain of sand. Imagine what a slender web she makes, and of that, too, each thread is made of 4,000 or 5,000 threads, that have passed out of her four bags through four or five thousand little holes. Would you drop her, too, crying out about your delicacy! A pretty thing for you to plume yourself on your delicacy and scream "The affections are the work of God; they at us." Having made such a speech, we may are not radically evil; they are given us for suppose that the indignant creature fastens a useful purposes, and are, therefore, not super- rope round one of the rough points of the lady's fluous. It is their abuse that is alone repre- hands, and lets herself down to the floor. Comhensible. In truth, however, there is no alter- ing down stairs is noisy, clumsy work, comnative. In youth passion is preponderant. pared with such a way of locomotion. The There is then a redundant amount of energy creeping things we scorn are miracles of beauty. which must be expended; and this, if it find They are more delicate than any ormulu clock not an outlet through one affection is sure to or any lady's watch made for pleasure's sake, find it through another. The aim of education is thus to employ for good those impulses which would otherwise be turned to evil. The passions are never neutral; they are either the best allies, or the worst opponents, of improvement.

no bigger than a shilling. Lyonot counted 4,041 muscles in a single caterpillar, and these are a small part only of her works. Hooke found 14,000 mirrors in the eye of a bluebottle, and there are 13,000 separate bits that go to provide nothing but the act of breathing in a carp.-Dickens' Household Words.

Without the stimulus of emulation, what can education accomplish? The love of abstract knowledge and the habit of application are still unformed, and if emulation intervene He who gives pleasure meets with it; kindness not, the course by which these are acquired is is the bond of friendship, and the book of love; from a strenuous and cheerful energy, reduced he who sows not, reaps not.

For the Schoolmaster.

extreme case, but there have been cases even
worse than this. I will venture to assert that in
nine cases out of ten the charge is as groundless
as in the example before us.

better than those of other people, especially at
Parents almost invariably think their children
school, and in most cases they persistently re-
train from going near the edifice where the dar-
ling little Peppers, Squashvines, Dogberrys and
Smiths are sent to get
06 book larnin'." I do
not ay that Angelina Miranda, or Ichabod Jo-
but I do mean to say that they are not very
sephus, tells lies at home about school affairs;
likely to set forth their own misdoings as worse
than they really are. Of course whatever the
young Squashvines say is gospel to the whole
race of Squashvines.

purpose at this time to speak of the advantages to be gained by school visitations.

PERHAPS there is nothing which is more frequently charged upon pedagogues by jealous scholars, and more jealous parents, than partial ity. Araminda Jane is a notoriously troublesome scholar, and requires reprimanding a dozen times every day. Her seatmate. Anna, is, on the other hand, a remarkably quiet and studious girl, who would deem a reproof from her teacher as a lasting disgrace, and, ever obedient to her teacher's wishes, she never receives one. But a few days after the commencement of the term, Araminda goes home from school with a doleful story of her wrongs. "The teacher is partial. He keeps me after school, but lets Anna go home. He watches me all the time, and lets Anna do just as she pleases." So far If parents would only take the trouble to all is true. He does keep one and excuses the visit from time to time the place where, for six other. And there is a cause. If Anna had hours of the day, the teacher labors to impart instruction to their children,broken a half dozen just such rules as her seat-as they do take mate had done, they would both have remained. Pains to circulate stories prejudicial to his charHe does let Anna do as she pleases, for she plea- acter when they imagine themselves wronged.— ses to do aright. He does watch Araminda a I have no doubt that many difficulties would be a great portion of the time, well knowing that removed, and greater confidence established beBut it is not my she is ever on the lookout for a chance to do tween parents and teacher. mischief. But after such complaints as these, Araminda, whose imagination is fruitful, proceeds to tell how the teacher shows Anna how I have given an example of supposed or imto do examples and does not help her; how he aginary partiality, I will now speak of a case gives her the easiest words in spelling, etc., etc. in which the charge was not without foundaMr. and Mrs. Simkins, the hopeful Araminda's tion, for that such cases are of frequent occurparents, (discerning souls) see through the whole rence I will not attempt to deny. In a school affair at once. "Anna Macy has sisters, and not a thousand miles from Boston were assemSquire Macy is a rich man." And so the whole bled some thirty or forty scholars of both sexes mystery is unraveled. "But I can tell him one and of all sizes, under the charge of a male thing," says Mr. S., he cannot treat other teacher. He was called a good teacher, and sucfolks' young ones better than mine, comforta- ceeded admirably until his marked attention to bly. And Mr. Smkins and wife, highly appre- one of the boys who showed a remarkable talent ciating their own judgment and foresight, go for mathematics (the teacher's favorite study) from neighbor to neighbor and communicate as created dissatisfaction among the rest of the a fact that which has no foundation save in their scholars, and this soon extended to the parents. own heated imaginations. They do not inquire His partiality to Stephen was manifested in difof the teacher respecting the truth of their ferent ways; such as showing him how to perdaughter's statements, deeming his word of no form more examples in arithmetic and geometry weight in comparison with that of their darling than others, and bestowing praise upon him in Araminda. Their neighbors, soon beginning to the presence of committee men, &c. The boy, believe what the Simkins say respecting the who had always had a full share of self-esteem, teacher's partiality to Anna Macy, canvass the soon began to assume airs among his schoolmatter over and freely express their opinion of fellows, which led them to despise him and dissuch a course before their children, who all at like the teacher. The term closed, and after a once begin to think themselves slighted by their long vacation Mr. M. (a new teacher) commenctutor, and having a very high opinion of their ed his labors. Accustomed to treat all scholars parents' judgments, they lose all confidence in alike so long as they behaved with decency, he and respect for him. It is true that this is an soon learned that Stephen did not have a very

[ocr errors]

Address at Baltimore.

The address

high appreciation of his judgment, because he did not seem to know that he was the smartest boy in school. He soon began to show indifferA very admirable address was delivered at ence to the commands of Mr. M., who, more Baltimore, Oct. 25, 1860, upon the cccasion of than once, was obliged to reprove him. In fact, the anniversary exercises, in connection with Stephen, though but fourteen and rather small the Western High School in that city. The orfor that age, was so large (to speak figuratively) ator was Rev. N. H. Chamberlain, and his rethat Mr. M.'s overcoat would have been too marks were so pertinent and forcible as to insmall to make him a vest-pattern. His airs, of duce us to make extracts for the benefit of the course, secured him the contempt of the teacher. readers of THE SCHOOLMASTER. Missing the praises bestowed upon him by his was directed more particularly to the young laformer teacher, he saw partiality in every act dies of the school, and upon the supposition of Mr. M., but it was all shown to others. that many of them would become teachers, the Night after night he returned home, not to tell speaker said: how much more the teacher thought of him "I am told that some of you aspire to the than of others, but of how he had been abused. high honor of being teachers, and that is a very The parents, who had been pleased with the noble ambition, indeed. It is very true that all flattering reports of Stephen's progress before, of you will teach by your example; for as surebecame dissatisfied with Mr. M. because he did ly as where fire is there will be heat, so surely not put him along so fast. The term passed will you exercise a woman's influence in every away, and at its close, in tead of a majority of position of your woman's life. All great powdissatisfied parents, only those of Stephen were ers in their exercise are silent, and woman's infound in the district, Such was the result of fluence on society, though it be silent, is very real partiality. For my part, I had rather be great. But I address myself especially now to the supposed than the real partial teacher. A those of you who are to undertake the instrucscholar once impressed with the idea that he is better than his fellows, will cling to it for a long time, to the annoyance of his teacher and with the dislike of his fellows.


tion of youth; and I say to you that in all this world there is no position more honorable than that of a true teacher; none which requires more and more varied ability, none crowned with more honorable rewards than that. It is not in place for me to point out to you the me

In a sermon recently delivered by Rev. Hen-thods in which you shall teach, but I do desire ry Ward Beecher, the following stern advice to impress upon you that your calling as teachwas given to parents, which teachers can take ers is an important and sacred one. I beg of as well: "Never strike a child upon the head; you to magnify your office as teachers. nature has provided other and more appropriate places for punishment."

Teaching is one of the fine arts, and ranks with painting, sculpture, poetry, and song. For the wise teacher, who deals with the plastic, sensitive mind of youth, may mould it into a more beautiful statue than ever took shape be"When children are so very keen, they gen-neath the chisel of a Phidias or a Thorwaldsen. erally become stupid as they advance in years." I know there is much in a teacher's life which The boy immediately replied:

WIT.-A boy being praised for his quickness of reply, a gentleman observed thus:

"What a keen boy you must have been."

EXCELLENT was the saying of the Lacedæmo nian educator: "I will teach the boys to take pride in what is good, and to abhor what is shameful." This is in truth the most beautiful and noble aim which man can have in education.-PLUTARCH.

CONTENTMENT.-Happiness in part is imaginary, and its possession depends almost entirely upon ourselves; contentment is the key which unlocks the treasure house, and with "goodliness is great gain."

seems common-place and barren routine, but it only seems. The commonest lessons of the school have more in them than the profoundest intellect can fathom. You teach a child that one and one are two. It is a simple statement, but the mystery of numbers no philosopher can read to you, though Pythagoras found the Divinity in it, and by that simple formula of one and one are two, God built this majestic universe, and the constellations above us this very hour are moving on obediently.

You say to your school-children, may-be, some sultry summer-day, "Children, with ea

gerness and patience, study your algebra and I beg you to notice what that one book has your philosophy." Well, in this comparatively done for you - how it protects you, and honors simple sentence, you have summoned into your you, and gives you culture, and calls your friends school-room almost all the great civilizations of here, and furnishes us this Christian spectacle forty centuries, and the five great races that of young girls honoring themselves by public have shaped the destinies of the world. the literary exercises before an honorable and sym. Saxon out of his German forest or his English pathetic audience of Christian men and women. home; the Scandinavian out of his Norwegian I charge you, then, to culture yourselves with valleys; the Arabian from his sandy deserts, good books. For a good book is always the and his career of splendid Saracenic conquest; life-blood of a true soul, and it is a giver of life the Roman from the pride of his imperial city; to all. Your friends desert you, but a good and the Greek from his beautiful land of poetry book never deserts you. Your friends flatter and dreams. Do you not understand how that you, but a good book never flatters. Your enis? Well, examine closely the structure of that emies malign you, but a good book never masimple sentence, and you will find that it is ligns you. You are troubled and harrassed with really so. It is said that Columbus on his voy- cares, but a good book, with its serene and age of discovery learned from the sea-weed, saintly presence, meets you gently to give you laden with a few red berries, floating around his rest. Human plans and institutions change or ship, of the great continent which lay beyond. fall, but what is written is written, and a good And the most common words and lessons of book never alters. A good book is like the your school-room are but the sea-weed and ber- amber of the Gods, in whose transparency the ries floating on the surface of an unfathomed pure thoughts and lives of great men embalm sea, and prophecying of the boundless continent themselves. A good book is a safeguard against of truth that lies beyond; and the true teacher oblivion and decay; it bridges over the gulf bewill see this, and teach that truth in common things is infinite, blessed, sacred. I charge you, teachers, to magnify your office, and be true to yourselves, by being true to it."

The reverend gentleman also made some fine suggestions respecting the value of reading good books, which we heartily commend :

tween the past and present, and makes the centuries kin; it is the advocate of honor as against all shame; it is the statesman of liberty as against all tyranny; it is the stumbling-block in the path of unjust kings; it is the friend of virtue, the herald of progress, the ally of our humanity; and with a sublime self-sacrifice, it would make every mother a Spartan, and send

"I exhort you to read good books, for good ing forth her son to return with his shield or on

it for human rights; and from age to age it inspires brave men with patriotism to guard the mountain defile of Thermopyla against the beleaguring Medes and Persians, or man the fleet at Salamis for fatherland and liberty forever!

books have been, and will always be, your best friends. And I will ask you to notice here what one book, the best of books, has done for you. I do not forget that I stand to-night in a public theatre, and I find in this spectacle one great lesson of Christianity. Such a spectacle as this is only possible where the Bible rules the world. In a Roman theatre, you would have had, in- READING. This is a reading age, and full of stead of these beautiful young women, a show all kinds of books and papers. Everybody has of gladiators hewing at one another with swords, a paper, even to the children. The news all and covering the arena with the dead bodies of goes into print, and the people read it and then some mother's sons, or a profane dance of Venus talk about it. All the jokes, puns, fun, pleasant Anadyomene, and for an audience a howling stories and good lessons are printed, and so beand infuriated multitude thirsting for blood; come public property. The best of things get and here are only living friends rejoicing in the into papers and books. Men's best thoughts and gentle culture of daughters or of sisters. The feelings, their cutest, funniest, lovliest ideas are Arabian Mohammed taught that women have no souls, and over all the world, all religions except Christianity have practically taught the same thing.

The address was delivered in the Front Street Theatre, which had been hired for the occasion.

spread upon paper. So by reading we get the best of everything the cream of news and knowledge. How much young people lose, then, that cannot or do not read. Reading is talking on paper, and everybody who has a *ongue and loves to talk should love to read.Youth's Friend.

« PreviousContinue »