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involved were fully fifty per cent. pended from Chicago to San Frangreater. It was computed that nine cisco. The United States courts in commercial houses out of every thou- Chicago, July 2, issued sweeping insand doing business in the United junctions against the strikers, and States failed in 1873; in 1893, the sim- General Miles and a detachment of ilar reckoning showed thirteen failures United States troops were ordered to in every thousand.""*

Chicago to see that the mails were not The problem of the unemployed be- delayed and to suppress rioting. came general and many relief com- On the 8th, President Cleveland ismittees were organized in the large sued a proclamation calling upon the cities to provide food and other neces- strikers to disperse and on the followsities. In several cities there were ing day issued another proclamation demonstrations of the unemployed. against mob violence in California, On April 21, 1894, 130,000 miners where United States troops were fired throughout the country stopped work. on and a train carrying them wrecked. They were afterward joined by 25,- President Debs and several other of000 more.

An “industrial army ficers of the Railway Union were under J. S. Coxey marched on Wash- placed under arrest on the 10th. The ington during the last half of April to backbone of the strike was now broken demand help from the national gov- and with military protection railway ernment, in the form of an issue of traffic was gradually resumed. The $500,000,000 in non-interest-bearing strike ended July 15.* notes to be used in the improvement Labor troubles, however, continued of roads, thus giving work to the un- to exist in many manufacturing towns, employed. Railway cars for trans- strikes occurring at New Bedford, porting the army were appropriated Fall River and New York. In Januand the advance guard reached Wash- ary, 1895, the employees of the Brookington April 30. On May 1, they at lyn electric railway system went on tempted a demonstration on the steps strike and during the following month of the capitol but the leaders were ar- much rioting occurred. The militia rested for “ trespassing capitol grounds. The strike ended Wright, Industrial Evolution, pp. 313-317;

William H. Carwardine, The Pullman Strike; June 18.

W. F. Burns, The Pullman Boycott; E. A. Ban. On June 26, 1894, the American croft, The Chicago Strike of 1891; Senate Ex. Railway Union declared a boycott of

Doc. No. 7, 53d Congress, 3d session; Andrews,

Last Quarter-Century, vol. , ii., pp. 330-346; Pullman cars, as an expression of

Grover Cleveland, The Government in the Chicago sympathy with striking Pullman em- Strike of 1894, in The Fortnightly, N. S.

vol. lxxvi., pp. 1-19 (London, 1904), in McClure's ployees. The strike spread and rail

Magazine, vol. xxiii., pp. 227–240 (New York, way traffic was almost entirely sus- 1904), and in Presidential Problems, pp. 79-117;

Schofield, Forty-Six Years in the Army, pp. 491Noyes, American Finance, p. 201; Lauck, 509, giving official proclamations and dispatches Panic of 1893, pp. 105–156.

regarding the use of government troops.

*

on the

AGRICULTURAL DISASTER; WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF ACT.

55

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was sent to restore order and the troduced in the House.* This measure strikers quickly subsided.

bore the name of William L. Wilson, In 1895, Carroll D. Wright, in the of West Virginia, Chairman of the tenth Annual Report of the Depart

House Committee on

on Ways

Ways and ment of Labor, made the following Means, and it provided for the imstatements:

port, free of duty, of raw sugar, lum“In that time [1881-1894] there were in the ber, coal, iron-ore, hides, cotton ties, United States 14,380 strikes, in which 69,167

binding twine, fresh fish and wool, establishments were involved, and the persons thrown out of employment numbered 3,714,406.

and substantially reduced the duties The loss in wages

estimated to be $163,807,866 on many articles listed in the McKinfor strikes and $26,685,516 from lockouts; the loss

ley law. In January, 1894, a bill imto employers, $82,590,386 in strikes, and $12,235,451 in lockouts. To the losses of wages must

posing a tax of 2 per cent. on incomes be added $5,262,000 paid to strikers by labor over $4,000 was introduced in the organizations. The strikes were successful in

House, and consideration was given 45 per cent. of the cases, and partly successful in 12 per cent. The effort to raise wages led to to other bills concerning internal 25 per cent. of the strikes; to reduce the hours

revenue, all of which were incorpoof daily labor 13 per cent.; to resist reduction of wages to 8 per cent.; both to raise wages and re

rated in the tariff bill during the subduce hours to 6 per cent. ; 7 per cent. were sympa- sequent debate. The bill was then thetic; 4 per cent. to prevent employment of non

passed (February 1, 1894) in the union men, and 3 per cent. for recognition of trade unions."

House by a vote of 204 to 140.1 The The year 1894 was also a year of Senate, however, under the leadership agricultural disaster. A drought

of A. P. Gorman, of Maryland, radiruined the corn crop of Iowa, Kansas

cally altered the bill, replacing the and Nebraska, so that the yield was

duty on iron-ore, coal and sugar,|| and only 25 per cent. of what it had been

on August 13 forced the House to in 1893.7 The yield of wheat was

accept the amended document. The large, but the European crops had also

bill as thus shaped became the Gorbeen large, and thus as there was no

man-Wilson tariff law of 1894, but

President Cleveland refused to sign market either abroad or at home, the

the bill and it became a law without price of wheat fell until it reached its

his signature on August 27, 1894.|| lowest mark — forty-nine cents per

Meanwhile the condition of the bushel. This was the situation facing

treasury was a continued source of the government when the attempt to reform the tariff was being made. * Record, 53d Congress, 2d session, vol. xxvi., But as the administration

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p. 415.

was

† Stanwood, Tariff Controversies, vol. ii., p. 20. pledged to it the attempt was made.

| Record, p. 1796; Stanwood, pp. 321-326. On December 19, 1893, the bill was in

|| Record, pp. 1804, 3126, 3389–7136, 7188-7195.

§ Ibid, pp. 7714, 7930, 8482. See also Coman's Industrial History, p. 333 [Ibid, p. 8666; Stanwood, Tariff Controvers

ies, vol. ii., pp. 327–359; Proctor, Tariff Acts, pp. † Annual Reports. Department of Agriculture, 443-473; Dewey, Financial History, pp. 455-458; 1893 and 1894.

Noyes, American Finances, pp. 223–231; F. Pierce,

et seq.

alarm. Gold continued to flow away, subsequent sale netted a premium of and to make matters worse the revenue $8,660,917 in gold.* But though this

. from all branches of public revenue

issue raised the total of gold up to fell off, so that by October 19, 1893, $105,000,000, it did not stop the the stock of gold had diminished to drain on the reserve. By August 7 $81,551,385 and by January 1, 1894, “ the redemption of legal-tender notes had reached $65,000,000.* Therefore, for export gold had reduced the on January 17, 1894 without special treasury's gold reserve to $52,189,legislation but under authority of the 500," and by October “ the monthly Resumption Act of 1875, Secretary of deficit had risen to thirteen million the Treasury Carlisle invited bids on dollars, the largest of the year.”+ an issue of $50,000,000 of 5 per cent. In November, therefore, another issue ten-year bonds at $117.223, and the of $50,000,000 of bonds was floated at

$117.077 bringing in $58,538,500 in The Tariff and the Trusts, pp. 291-294; Laughlin gold.I and Willis, Reciprocity, pp. 230-269; Sherman,

In both cases the sale of these bonds vol. ii., pp. 1201-1208; Whittle’s Cleveland, pp. 165–173; F. N. Thorpe, Constitutional History,

had called for subscriptions in gold, pp. 318-319. Sections 27 to 30 of this aèt (those but fresh redemptions of notes quickly providing for the income tax) were subsequently

exhausted the new supplies. As a declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the case of Pollock vs. Farmers' Loan and Trust consequence of the bond sales the Company (157 U. S. 429). The case was argued

volume of gold in the treasury fluctwice — in April, 1895, and in May, 1895. After the first hearing the decision rendered was to the

tuated as follows: effect that a tax on the rents or income from

Date.

Gold in Treasury. real estate was a direct tax and that a tax on the interest on municipal bonds was a tax upon

January 31, 1894...

$65,650,000 the

104,119,000

February 10, 1894 (bond issue).. and means of the State to borrow power

November 20, 1894...

59,054,000 money and therefore repugnant to the Constitu

November 30, 1894 (bond issue).. 105,424,000 tion. But at this first hearing the court did not decide whether or not the tax upon personal

February 9, 1895...

41,393,000N property was constitutional, the court being evenly divided (one justice was absent). In May,

An experiment in finance was now however, when the cases were reargued before a full court the majority of the court, in an opinion

tried — that of restoring the gold rerendered by Chief Justice Fuller (158 U. S. 601),

serve and preventing the immediate held that in order to be constitutional a direct tax must be apportioned according to representa

withdrawal of the specie thus obtained tion; that a tax on personal property or the in- through the medium of the intercome on personal property was a direct tax; that

national banking houses instead of! the tax imposed by the above act was a direct tax; and that as the method of imposing the tax was not according to representation the act was Noyes, pp. 210–215; White, p. 210; Cleveland, unconstitutional and void. On the internal rev- Presidential Problems, p. 138 et seq. enue features of the bill, the income tax and the

† Noyes, pp. 230, 231. subsequent decisions see Howe, Internal Revenue 1 White, p. 215; Noyes, pp. 216, 231; Cleveland, System, pp. 231-252.

* White, Money and Banking, p. 210; Noyes, 1. Dewey, Financial History, pp. 449-453; Noyes, American Finance, pp. 203–205; Report of the American Finance, p. 232; White, Money and Secretary of the Treasury, 1894.

Banking, p. 211.

p. 142.

GOLD RESERVE MEASURES; BLAND SILVER BILL.

57

ary 7.1

through the regular channels. On On January 6, 1896, Secretary CarJanuary 28, 1895, President Cleveland lisle was again forced, owing to the sent a special message to Congress,* continued business depression and the recommending that the Secretary of export of gold (the reserve having the Treasury be given authority to gone down to $61,251,710 on that day) issue bonds at a low rate of interest to to issue a call for bids on an addimaintain the reserve and redeem the tional $100,000,000 of the 4 per cent. outstanding notes which had been bonds. The total number of bids subissued for the purchase of silver, but mitted was 4,600 and the amount of this recommendation did not receive the subscriptions was several times the approval of Congress, the resolu- the sum required. The premium tion carrying this provision being de- yielded amounted to about $11,000,feated by a vote of 167 to 120, Febru- 000* and the gold reserve was thus in

creased to $128,291,327 (April 9, Secretary Carlisle on February 8 1896).* signed a contract with a syndicate of In the meantime the silver question New York bankers for the purchase had again come up in Congress, when of 3,500,000 ounces of gold coin. In on February 7, 1894, the House Compayment the government was to issue mittee

on Coinage, Weights and 30-year 4 per cent. bonds on condition Measures reported a bill directing that if 3 per cent. bonds should be au- that the silver held in the treasury thorized by Congress, the latter might vaults must be coined. Congressman be substituted for the 4 per cent. bonds Bland, however, introduced a substiwithin ten days. There was also a tute measure providing for the coincondition that one-half of this coin age of the seigniorage and this substishould be purchased in Europe. tute was passed in the House by a vote Secretary Carlisle under this con- of 168 to 129 with 56 not voting and tract received $65,116,244 in gold for in the Senate by a vote of 44 to 31, $62,315,400 in bonds. On June 25 the

with 10 not voting. The President treasury reserve of $100,000,000 was vetoed the bill March 29, 1894, and as again intact and on July 8 it had it failed to pass over his veto it did reached $107,571,230.1

not become a law.t * Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. ix., pp.

In 1896 the Territory of Utah was 561-565; Cleveland, Presidential Problems, pp. admitted to the Union as a State, the 143-146.

President issuing a proclamation to † Whittle's Cleveland, pp. 165-180; White,

that effect January 4. I Dewey, Financial History, pp. 449–453 ; Noyes, In 1893 occurred the World's CoAmerican Finance, p. 235 et seq.; Hepburn, Contest for Sound Money, p. 382; White, Joney and Dewey, pp. 453-455; J. F. Johnson, Money Banking, p. 211. See also Cleveland's message of and Currency, p. 357 et seq.; Cleveland, PresiFebruary 8, 1895, and his annual message dential Problems, pp. 161–170. December 2, Richardson, Messages and Papers, † Noyes, American Finance, p. 253. vol. ix., pp. 567, 641 et seq.; Cleveland, Presi. † Noves, American Finance, p. 230; Richardson, dential Problems, pp. 147-160.

Messages and Papers, vol. ix., pp. 483-489.

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p. 212.

of

lumbian Exposition. On April 28, The most noted works of art were: 1890, President Harrison signed a bill the Columbia fountain, in the western entitled: “An act to provide for :

section of the court of honor, designed celebrating the 400th anniversary of by Frederick McMonnies; the statue the Discovery of America by Chris- of the “ Republic,” in the eastern sectopher Columbus, by holding an inter- tion of the court of honor, designed national exhibition of arts, industries, by Daniel C. French, of New York; manufactures and the products of the the peristyle and colonnade, which insoil, mine, and sea, in the City of closed the court on the east and south, Chicago, in the State of Illinois." designed by Charles B. Atwood, of

Though the exposition itself did not New York; the Columbus quadriga, being until May, 1893, the preliminary surmounting the central arch of the celebration began in October, 1892. peristyle, designed by D. C. French In New York there was a parade of and E. C. Potter, of New York; the school children, October 10, a naval statue of Columbus, in front of the adparade on the 11th, and a military ministration building, by Mary T. and civic parade and a night pageant Lawrence; the statue of Benjamin on the 12th. In Chicago there was a Franklin, in the portal of the eleclarge parade on the 20th and on the tricity building, the work of Carl 21st the dedication exercises took place Rohl-Smith. in the manufactures and liberal arts In the southern portion of the grand buildings.

canal, fronting the colonnade, was a The following were the principal magnificent obelisk, surrounded by a buildings with their dimensions and

group of lions, designed by M. A. costs:

Waagen. Adorning the bridges and

overlooking the lagoons were the cele691,500 brated bulls, by E. C. Potter, the

draught horses, by Potter and French, Dairy.

cowboy and pony and Indian and Electricity. Fisheries.

pony, by A. P. Proctor, and the buf

faloes, bears, elks and panthers, by Machinery..

1,050,750

Edward Kemeys and A. P. Proctor.

There was also a statue of Diana by Mines and Mining.

Augustus St. Gaudens, adorning the

dome of the agricultural building, beTransportation.

369,000

side hundreds of other groups, deThirty other buildings.

signed by such eminent artists as Karl

Bitter, Philip Martiny, Lorado Taft, Battleship State and foreign buildings (approximately).

Johann Gelert, Larkin Mead, John J. Boyle and others. There were 21,477,212 paid admissions and 6,052.188

Cost.
$436,500

BUILDINGS.
Administration.
Agriculture..
Anthropology
Art Palace.

200,000

Size in feet.
262 x 262.
1 500 X 800
312 x 550.5*
415 x 225
320 x 500
136 x 200 (2)

94.1 x 199.8*
345 x 690
162.1 x 361.1,
135 in diameter* (2)
208 x 528..
250.8 x 997.8.
150 x 625.
494 x 842
490 x 551*

86 x 103.6
787 X 1,687
350 x 700.
265 x 960.

670,500

30,000 413,500 224,750

90, 250 287,000 100,000

Forestry
Horticulture
Leather and Shoe.

Boiler House.
Manufactures

Stock Pavilion.
Stock Sheds.
Terminal ...

75.000 1,600, 750

266,500 125,000 210,000 300,000

450 x 150
256 x 960
435 X 850*
198.8 x 398

Woman's

138,000 738,000

$8,017,000 U. S. Government 351 X 421

400,000 " Illinois 69 x 348,

100,000

2,250,000 Midway Plaisance buildings (approximately). 1,500,000 Children's Building.... 150 x 90..

30,000 $12,297.000

* Annex.

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