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in 1908; these are some of the prob- progress compared with which the lems calling for determination in this greatness of the first century of the branch of conservation.
Republic must fall far behind. The The mineral production of the project involves expenses that rise to United States for 1907 exceeded billions of dollars and it is estimated 2,000,000,000 tons and contributed 65 that this will result in more billions of per cent. of the total freight traffic of dollars of National wealth. Under the the country. The waste in the extrac- reclamation act of June 17, 1902, there tion and treatment of minerals during was spent for irrigation in the ensuing the same year amounted to more than seven years $45,750,000, when it was $300,000,000, or 15 per cent. of the reckoned that the cost of the underwhole. Gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, takings then either finished or in coal, petroleum, iron, phosphates, clay, process of completion would be at stone, cement and natural gas were least $115,500,000. For improvement included in this category.
of waterways, to add to transportaAlthough continental United States tion facilities, to lessen flood damage, has a great area of land cultivated to reduce forest fire destruction, to and capable of cultivation, the yield add to water power and to save soil per acre is less than that of many erosion, $500,000,000 to be spent in European countries and this result is ten years was called for, and it was largely due to preventable waste of argued that this would result in an soil and unscientific methods of culti- annual national saving of $1,000,000,vation. It has been estimated that 000, or twenty times the cost. For the loss to farm products due to injurious protection of woodland, reforestation mammals probably exceeds $130,- and other measures, the figures of 000,000 annually; the loss through in- cost rise to similar figures, with simisects, $650,000,000; the loss through lar proportionate ultimate enrichment soil exhaustion and erosion and in savings and profits. through plant diseases, each to several In March of 1907 President Roosehundred million dollars more. In fact, velt appointed the Inland Waterways the annual loss to the farming in- Commission, and the first report of terests of the country from all causes this commission pointed out that the must amount to much more than a problem was broader than the single billion dollars, most of which could be question of water power and navigasaved.
tion. It involved the control and use In its entirety, the conservation of water to conserve coal, iron and movement seems in an economic sense the soil, and the preservation of the to mean almost the complete making forests to increase rainfall so as to over of the country and the develop- add to our water supply. The comment of a commercial and industrial pletely interdependent character of
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
all these natural resources was dwelt our natural resources as the founupon and the necessity of strong con- dation of our future prosperity. Imcerted action in the interests of all. mediately a National Conservation
The ideas that were then presented Commission was appointed by the grew into a larger movement to bring President, and in less than two years the individual States as well as the more than forty State conservation Nation into considering and acting commissions and more than fifty simiupon the matter. The President lar commissions representing organcalled a conference of the governors izations of National scope had been of the States, other prominent public created. In 1909 the National Conmen, representatives of scientific and servation Association was organized, industrial societies, and others inter- independent of the official commission ested in the subject which so quickly created by the President, but designed assumed national importance. This to work in harmony with that and all White House Conference in May of other organizations devoted to the 1908 was exceptional in many re
The special purpose of its spects, but in nothing more than that founders is to make it the centre of a it was the first time in the history of great propaganda. With the holding the country that the governors of the of several conventions and the producStates and eminent citizens had been tion and distribution of much literaassembled to consult upon the Na- ture on the subject, the supporters of tional welfare. The conservation the cause made a considerable and movement, which had been slowly definite progress in the first few years developing, came from this conference of their active work prior to 1911, and fully grown and clothed with an im- laid plans for the future that were portance and a power that made it the even international in scope. greatest national enterprise under- The vital principles of conservation taken for over a third of a century, were clearly set forth in the declara
As an outcome of this conference, tion which emanated from the conboth popular and official interest in ference of governors in May of 1908. the subject was awakened to a re- In this declaration it was asserted markable degree. Before the govern
that the resources of the country were ors had separated, they drew up a a heritage not to be wasted, deterioseries of resolutions in which they sur- rated or needlessly destroyed; that veyed the subject in all its branches, these resources supply the material taking advanced position in condemn- basis upon which the perpetuity of the ing the extravagance and waste Nation rests and yet that this material which has characterized the past and basis is threatened with exhaustion; urging in the strongest terms the im- that the conservation of these reportance of protecting and developing sources - the land, the waters, the
forests and the minerals — is a sub- lands wholly or in part covered with ject of transcendent importance which timber or undergrowth, whether of should engage unremitting attention commercial value or not, as public of the Nation, the States, and the reservations, and the President shall, people in earnest co-operation; that by public proclamation, declare the there should be a continuation and establishment of such reservations and extension of forest policies adapted to the limits thereof." secure the husbanding and renewal of Under the provisions of this law diminishing timber supplies, the pre- magnificent National forests, not survention of soil erosion, the protection passed in extent by any nation of Euof headwaters and the maintenance
rope, save perhaps Russia, have been of the purity and navigability of secured to the people forever. The streams; that laws should be enacted general policy of the Government has looking to the conservation of water been to withdraw from entry lands resources for irrigation, water supply, which are more valuable for timber power and navigation, and to the pre- than for purposes of agriculture. vention of waste in the mining and ex- President Harrison withdrew 13,416,traction of coal, oil, gas and other 710 acres; President Cleveland, 25,minerals, with a view to their wise 686,320 acres; President McKinley, husbanding for the use of the people.* 7,050,089 acres; President Roosevelt,
Congress has been less enthusiastic 148,346,925 acres; making a total of for conservation than have been the national forest area of 194,500,043 active supporters and endorsers of
acres. Of the 149 national forests the movement. Legislation to make .
existing in May of 1909, 617,677,749 effective the plans of the National
were in continental United Commission was urged by President
States, 26,761,626 acres in Alaska, and Roosevelt and also by President Taft, 65,950 acres in Porto Rico. Most of but was refused by the legislative
the continental acreage was in the branch. Nevertheless something has
Far West, but there were portions in been done by Congressional enact
22 States and Territories. As the first ment, especially in the direction of
decade of the Twentieth century came forest protection. In 1891 the first law treating of the subject was passed.
to an end, the question of the reservaThis provided “ that the President of
tion of extensive tracts of the Appathe United States may, from time to lachian range and the White Mounttime, set apart and reserve in any
ains of New Hampshire was being state or territory having public land agitated with every prospect of a bearing forests, any part of the public favorable outcome.
Following the example of the Na* United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 340.
tional Government, more than 20
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.
States and Territories made a start treme Western States. They range in in forest reserves. These range in size from the 2,142,720 acres of the size from 1,957 acres in Maryland, Yellowstone Park in Wyoming, Mon4,000 acres in Nevada, and 9,000 acres tana, and Idaho to the 480 acres of in New Jersey, to 2,695,187 acres in the Casa Grande River in Arizona. Minnesota, 1,599,638 acres in New Altogether they make up a territory York, and 1,000,000 acres in Montana. of nearly 4,400,000 acres. Generally In 1908 the total in State reserves was these are forest and game preserves, 9,460,622 acres.
but some of them have been set apart As part of the National conserva- to preserve mineral springs of metion movement, the setting apart of dicinal value, while others are to be extensive forest regions for National kept intact for the investigation and parks was notable in this period. study of the ruins of prehistoric Most of these parks are in the ex- American races. *
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.
- The Civil Service Law
The nature of civil service and civil service reform The evils of the "spoils system
of 1883 – Its provisions and its operation Recent extensions of its benefits.
Civil service in its broadest sense is, rather than as a reward for any pothe conducting of public business by litical services they might have perchosen officials, whether elected or ap- formed or were supposed to perform, pointed. In its usual and restricted meaning, however, it is government Treadwell Cleveland, Jr., A Primer of Conserservice, outside of the army and navy,
vation, United States Forest Service circular
(Washington, 1908); Gifford Pinchot, The Conthat is performed by appointive, not servation of Natural Resources, United States, elective, officers.
Agricultural Department, Farmers' Bulletin 327
(Washington, 1908); articles on the same subject Into this system abuses gradually
in The Outlook (New York, 1907), and The crept, from the very nature of things, Fight for Conservation (New York, 1910); Sir and improvement in methods of ap
Horace Plunkett, The Rural Life Problem of the
United States (New York, 1910); Joseph Hyde pointment, rules of conduct, etc., be
Pratt, The Conservation and Utilization of Our came not only desirable but impera
Natural Resources in Elisha Mitchell Scientific tive. Hence came “civil service re,
Society Journal, vol. xxvi. (Chapel Hill, N. C.,
1910); United States Conservation Conference form” -- a movement which looks to "
(Washington, 1909); Report of United States the appointment of public servants ac
National Conservation Commission (Washington,
1909); Charles Richard Van Hise, The Conservacording to fitness for their duties
tion of Natural Resources in the United States
either by personal effort or by contri- who are appointed, not elected, should butions of money. It is “ the adop- carry on public business undisturbed tion, by legislation or executive action, and uninterruptedly, from year to of rules for improving the civil service year. But that is just what, under the of the State by prescribing the qualifi- spoils system, they were not allowed cations of candidates for public office to do. and for the good behavior of public In the first forty years of the history servants and their independence of of the United States, the six Presiexternal control.”
dents made less than a hundred reIt is hardly possible to exaggerate movals from office — and every one of the evils which have grown up under these only for cause.
But with the what is called the “ spoils system.” incoming of President Jackson in 1829 In a republican form of government a revulsion, rising to a revolution, public policies may, of course, be took place. Thousands of subordichanged by the electorate. If the nates in the Government service were people desire a different administra- removed for no other reason than tion of the tariff, for instance, they that their places were desired by those may elect officers who are pledged to who had supported or helped to seat carry out their views, and these the new Administration. officers may greatly modify protective A period of corruption and of deprinciples, or even reverse the policy terioration of the public service set in, of a preceding administration. But which was to continue for half a centthe routine business of the custom ury and intrench itself so deeply and houses must go on practically un- powerfully that only the assassination changed “forever,” like Tennyson's of a President (President Garfield) brook. And it is highly desirable, if could arouse the Nation to a sense of not absolutely necessary, that officers its peril and bring about the over
throw of a system which was second (New York, 1910); Rudolf Cronau, Our Waste
only to slavery itself in its baleful ful Nation: the Story of American Prodigality and the Abuse of Our National Resources (New
influence on public morals. York, 1908); William B. Bosley, Conservation This change was not effected withand the Constitution in Yale Law Review, vol.
out vigorous and prolonged struggle XX. (New Haven, 1910); Andrew A. Bruce, The ('onservation of our National Resources in Uni- which characterized the half century. versity of Pennsylvania Law Review, vol. xxviii.
In 1835 a great debate took place in (Philadelphia, 1908); George L. Knapp, The Other Side of Conservation in North American
the United States Senate, participated Review, vol. cxci. (New York, 1910); W. J. in by Clay, Calhoun, Webster and McGee, The Cult of Conservation (Washington,
others -- men who differed radically 1908); Declaration of Principles, North American Conservation Conference (Washington, 1909); on many other great questions of the Smith Riley, Preservation and Utilization of the
day and who were bitter rivals in perNational Forests in Colorado Scientific Society Proceedings, vol. ix., (Denver, 1909).
sonal ambition, but who were agreed