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foreign stars, the building of new merits special mention. Around his theatres throughout the country, the

theatres cluster the best traditions of American stage witnessed a develop the American stage. Other dramatists ment both in plays and players. The

of distinction are Bartley Campbell old-fashioned stock companies began (1843–1888), who wrote a number of to give way to the combination, and successful plays; Bronson Howard the stars were monopolized by a few (1842–1908), whose society drama, managers who gradually controlled “ Saratoga," was presented in Berlin; the chief playhouses. The drama thus

and James De Mille (1850–1893). became more of a business than an art. Among others of similar ability are With an exception here and there, the William Gillette, Clyde Fitch, David really artistic plays are few. It is Belasco, H. G. Carleton, Charles H. hardly fair to blame only the manager Hoyt, with Epes Sargent (1812–1880), for present conditions; the public it- R. W. Bird (1803–1854), Joseph self is at fault for patronizing what is Stevens Jones (1811–1877), a voluunhealthy and unworthy. And public minous writer, and George H. Boker taste has admittedly changed. The (1823–1890). theatre, in our large cities at least,

Of our actors and actresses, may be has ceased to attract the cultured and mentioned John McCullough, Edwin representative element of former Booth, Laurence Barrett, Joseph decades. At the same time audiences Jefferson, John Gilbert, Lester Walseem to prefer plays on American lack, W. J. Florence, E. A. Sothern, themes by American authors. So Richard Mansfield, James Lewis, John many foreign masterpieces have E. Owens, Mrs. Sefton, the Le Moynes, proved costly failures on the Ameri- Fanny Morant, Fanny Davenport, can boards that managers are giving with Ada Rehan, Mrs. Crabtree and more thought to native themes, and at Maud Adams.

, last the American drama may deserve

In 1889 an “American Academy of and gain recognition. Denman

Dramatic Art” was founded in New Thompson's “ The Old HomesteadYork by Franklin Sargent to train was a native drama of genuine Amer- pupils for the stage. ican flavor.

The history of the American drama Among American managers and is as yet merely a record of plays and playwrights to whom our drama is players. The great names are few. greatly indebted for artistic represen

Present tendencies, with the hold of tation and an admirably equipped commercialism on the stage, are not company, Augustin Daly (1899) very reassuring. Augustus Thomas, ART, MUSIC AND THE DRAMA.



in his “ As a Man Thinks” (1910),


can creative art and music - the shows what a serious American dra- best is yet to be.” * matist can do. The popularity of Samuel Isham, History of American Painting “ Get Rich Quick Wallingford ” and

(1905); Louis C. Elson, History of American

Music; L. Taft, History of American Sculpture; “ Excuse Me" (1910) tell the popular S. G. W. Benjamin, American Art; Dunlap, Histaste. If it is true that every country

tory of American Theatre (1832); Ireland,

Records of the New York Stage 1750–1860 has the drama it deserves, America

(1891); Ritter, Music in America (1900); Wilmust await a broader spirit of culture a

son, Memorial History of the City of New York,

vol. iv., chaps. v., xi., xvii. (1893); L. C. Elson, and a more purified taste before its

National Music of America and Its Sources dramas can attain a higher place.

(1900); Krehbiel, Music in America, in Lavig

nac's Music and Musicians, pp. 489–528 (1904); And this can be said as truly of Ameri

L. Gilman, Phases of Modern Music (1904).




The Development of Governmental Departments and Governmental Activities in Regulating Commerce and Industry,


118. The National Legislature 119. The National Executive Departments 120. The Judiciary 121. The Formation and Adoption of State Constitutions 122. Activities of the National Government in Regulating Commerce and In

dustry 123. State and Local Government Activity in Regulating Commerce and

Industry 124. History of Internal Improvements 125. The Conservation of Natural Resources 126. Civil Service Reform

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