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LITERATURE. .

up to date is A Manual of American Literature, edited by Theodore Stanton (1909). See also William B. Cairns, A History of American Literature (1912). Some of the numerous text books designed for school use are also worth consulting, e. g. Brander Matthew's Introduction to the Study of American Literature. The chief critic of the period after Lowell was the late Edmund Clar. ence Stedman, whose Life and Letters is probably the most important source of information that can be named. Mr. Stedman's American Poets and American Anthology should also be used, and vol. umes IX.-XI. of the Library of American Literature, edited by him and Miss Hutchinson (now Mrs. Cortissoz). For Whitman and Lanier The Chief American Poets, edited by Curtis Hidden Page, is valuable, and there are important biographies of these poets by Perry, Carpenter, and Mims. For the writers of the new South, consult Southern Writers by the late William M. Baskervill, and the final pages of a volume of specimens under the same title by W. P. Trent. There are smaller anthologies devoted to the section, and there is a painstaking and useful Literature of the South by Montrose J. Moses (1910).

For the years after 1901, surveys of the litera. ture of each twelvemonth to be found in literary journals and in year books will prove useful in furnishing the names of books and writers that have attracted attention. For the period 1865– 1900 the following partial list of writers, arranged somewhat in the order in which they became prominent, may be found helpful as a basis for an extended survey founded on se cted reading

Francis Parkman (Pioneers of France in the New World, 1865); Richard Henry Stoddard; Moncure D. Conway; John Esten Cooke; H. H. Brownell; Julia Ward Howe; William Dean Howells (Venetian Life, 1866; Their Wedding Journey, 1871; The Rise of Silas Lapham, 1885); Bayard Taylor (The Story of Kennett, 1866; translation of Faust, the first part, 1870); Samuel L. Clemens .“ Mark Twain” (The Celebrated Jumping Frog, 1867; Innocents Abroad, 1869; Tom Sawyer, 1876; Huckleberry Finn, 1884); Henry C. Lea; Bret Harte (Condensed Vorels, 1867; The Luck of Roaring Camp, 1870); Charles Eliot Norton; E. R. Sill (The Hermitage and Other Poems, 1867); Louisa M. Alcott; Edward Everett Hale; Thomas Bailey Aldrich (The Story of a Bad Boy, 1869); Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward; Helen Hunt Jackson; James Russell Lowell (Among My Books, first series, 1870); Charles Dudley Warner (My Summer in a Garden, 1870); Walt Whitman (Democratic Vistas, 1870); John Burroughs (Wake-Robin, 1871); Edward Eggleston (The Hoosier Schoolmaster, 1871);

VOL. X - 30

George Cary Eggleston; H. H. Furness; John Hay; Thomas Wentworth Higginson;, Joaquin Miller (Songs of the Sierras, 1871); E. P. Roe (Barriers Burned Away, 1872); Celia Thaxter; Lew Wallace (The Fair God, 1873; Ben Hur, 1880); John Fiske; Richard Watson Gilder (The New Day, 1875); Henry James (Roderick Hudson, 1875); E. C. Stedman (Victorian Poets, 1875); Sidney Lanier; Mrs. Francis H. Burnett; Sarah Orne Jewett; Moses Coit Tyler; G. W. Cable (old Creole Days, 1879); F. R. Stockton (Rudder Grange, 1879); Henry George; Robert Grant; Joel Chandler Harris (Uncle Remus, 1880); James Schouler; Dr. S. Weir Mitchell; Constance Fenimore Woolson; Paul H. Hayne (Poems, 1880); Brander Matthews (French Dramatists, 1881); James Parton; William G. Sumner; Francis A. Walker; F. Marion Crawford (Mr. Isaacs, 1882); Thomas R. Lounsbury; Richard Malcolm Johnston (Dukesborough Tales, 1883); J. B. McMaster; Justin Winsor; H. H. Bancroft; J. Whitcomb Riley; Henry Cuyler Bunner; Mary N. Murfree (“Charles Egbert Craddock”); Sarah Barnwell Elliott; Woodrow Wilson; George E. Woodberry; Theodore Roosevelt; Edith M. Thomas; Mrs. Freeman (Mary E. Wilkins); Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward, 1888); Thomas A. Janvier; Lafcadio Hearn; Irwin Russell; Henry Adams; William James; W. C. Brownell; Bronson Howard; Henry Cabot Lodge; Thomas Nelson Page; Henry Van Dyke; Alice French (" Octave Thanet"); Amélie Rives (Princess Troubetzkoy); Emily Dickinson; Eugene Field; Hamilton W. Mabie; A. T. Mahan; F. Hopkinson Smith; Jacob A. Riis; James Lane Allen; Margaret Deland; Hamlin Garland; Bar. rett Wendell; Richard Hovey and Bliss Carman (Songs from Vagabondia, 1893); James Ford Rhodes; Paul Leicester Ford; John B. Tabb; Stephen Crane; Harold Frederic; Kate Douglas Wiggin (Mrs. Riggs); P. F. Dunne (Mr. Dooley in Peace and War, 1898); Edwin Markham; E. N. Westcott (David Harum, 1898); Ida M. Tarbell; William Vaughn Moody (Poems, 1900); Henry Harland (“Sidney Luska”); Paul Elmer More. To these may be added the names of George Ade; Gellett Burgess; Irving Bacheller ; Cyrus T. Brady; John Kendrick Bangs; R. W. Chambers; Winston Churchill; Justus Miles For: man; John Fox, Jr.; Ellen Glasgow; W. N. Harben; 0. Henry; Mary Johnston; Jack London; George Barr McCutcheon; Meredith Nichol. son; Frank Norris; David Graham Phillips; Upton Sinclair; Booth Tarkington; Mrs. Wharton; William Allen White; Owen Wister -- as representatives of latter day humor and fiction, a list which might be easily extended.

CHAPTER IV.

1865-1912,

ART, MUSIC AND THE DRAMA.

The general artistic revival after the Civil War - · William Page and other portrait painters - The spread of

art museums and art associations — Extension of art education Sculpture and sculptors — Architecture and architects — Early musical activities Opening of the Metropolitan Opera House, Carnegie Hall, and the Manhattan Opera House - General musical development — The future of American music — The passing of stock-companies — The commercialization of the theatre Augustin Daly and other promoters of good American plays — A group of meritorious actors — Augustus Thomas and his serious American drama The future of American drama.

Art.

Vedder is subtle and imaginative, and The decade following the Civil War Albert Bierstadt's “Rocky Mounand closing with the Centennial Ex- tains," which won immediate fame, is position of 1876 showed a marked a work of genuine merit. Thomas Hill growth in art, to which the Centennial is identified with Californian scenes; itself gave great impetus. Many who for sentiment Homer Martin and A. were full of promise in the earlier

H. Wyant are noteworthy; and M. F. period were now to attain their de

H. De Haas was famous for his mavelopment. There was gratifying ad- rines, as was also W. E. Norton, who vance in landscape painting. J. F. died in 1876. The first annual exhiCropsey, A. F. Bellows, R. W. Hub- bition of water-colors in 1867 showed bard, Kensett, James Hart, W. T. ability, which has grown with time.

, Richards, all treated varied aspects of No less marked has been the developAmerican scenery, while George In- ment of our genre artists. S. J. Guy, nes, S. P. Gifford — and especially F. ,

T. W. Wood, J. G. Brown and M. A. E. Church, whose “ Niagara ” is a Woolf are examples of portrayers of work of rare

rare grandeur - had child-life. Eastman Johnson and strength and individuality that placed Winslow Homer are distinctively them in the first rank. There are

American in their themes, while Wilmany conspicuous examples in marine liam M. Chase has a genius for single and animal painting. In historical figures. painting Leutze, who studied at Düs- It is difficult within present limits to seldorf and painted “Washington mention later names in all varieties Crossing the Delaware,” is among of painting, as well as our masters of the leaders.

engraving and etching, our caricaturIn portrait-painting William Page ists, illustrators, and decorators. Nor easily ranks among the best. Elihu is it possible to allude at any length

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ART, MUSIC AND THE DRAMA,

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to the forces so powerfully promoting fame, such as Powers and Crawford. American art — the rapid spread of Horatio Greenough is among Ameriart museums, with their students'

can pioneers in the art in which J.Q. A. classes, and the increased attention Ward, W. W. Story, Harriet Hosmer, paid to the arts and handicrafts in our Launt Thompson, Randolph Rogers, public schools. Art associations are J. S. Hartley, D. C. French, and Aucommon in cities large and small, and gustus St. Gaudens were to attain emiforeign scholarships awarded by some nence. The recent exhibitions of our museums give good post-graduate National Sculpture Society in New training to worthy students. Recently York indicate the varied quality of its the generosity of private citizens has work, which is both plastic and picbrought to our shores famous works torial. Wood and stone carving and by the old masters, while municipal art monumental work, the decoration of associations throughout the country church and civic buildings, have entend toward improvement in many tered sculpture's broadening sphere. ways.

Still more hopeful is the outlook for Perhaps the happiest sign is the architecture. Here, too, the close of growing educational character of our the Civil War marked an epoch in its art museums, which are becoming less growth, as our cities expanded and the and less storage warehouses. The need of greater beauty in civic and Boston Museum was the first to under- domestic building was more generally take the work of art extension, coördi- felt. It is a far cry from the simple nating its work with that of the pub- Colonial or Queen Anne and the selic schools. Toledo, Detroit, New verer Gothic to the Romanesque of York, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Richardson and the word of his conothers carry on similar work. Geog- temporaries, R. M. Hunt, McKim, and raphy, history, biography, as well as Stanford White. The Institute of art, are thus taught in the halls of the Architects (1857), the Commission of museum by means of lectures to the Fine Arts recently established by Congroups of classes wao attend at stated

gress,

New York's Architectural hours. Elementary instruction in the League, and similar clubs in other public schools aims not only to teach cities which organized the Architecdrawing for use in various trades, but tural League of America, with its ciralso to train the pupils' taste in line, cuit of exhibitions, its forming of new mass and color.

schools and traveling scholarship at Sculpture was more backward than Harvard, promising signs. its sister arts in attaining maturity. Whether a more original and creative It was not until the decades preceding period is to dawn, cannot be stated. and following the Civil War that Landscape architecture, too, has America could point to sculptors of reached a more ambitious stage with

are

Music.

our era of civic planning and rural im- band comparable with the best Europrovement and the growth of what pean organization and began a series may be termed National aesthetics. of symphony soirées. In 1873 Leopold Under this new impetus the group Damrosch founded the Oratorio Sosystem of public buildings is beautify- ciety and in 1878 the Symphony Soing our cities, and model industrial ciety, conducting both until his death villages and recreation centres are in 1885, when his son Walter sucwidening the scope of architects and ceeded him. In 1881 and 1882 New designers. Here, too, every effort is York had musical festivals of a high made to combine the practical and the order, under Damrosch and Thomas artistic.

respectively, the latter on a remark

able scale, with Materna and Gerster, The years of civil strife were not Anna Louise Cary and Emily Winant, propitious to musical development, Campanini

Campanini and Candidus, Galassi, yet there were intermittent operatic Remnertz, and Myron W. Whitney performances under Ullman, Maret- among the solo singers. Mr. Thomas zek, Strakosch, Grau, and Carl An- conducted the Wagner festival conschutz. After the war Offenbach be- certs in New York in 1885 and the came the favorite, a powerful rival American Opera from 1885 to 1887. to Italian opera. Then Gilbert and After a brief sojourn in Cincinnati, he Sullivan's melodious operettas held returned as leader of the Philharthe boards for some years, to be fol- monic. In 1891 he organized the Chilowed by a mixed multitude of comic cago Symphony Orchestra and mainoperas. New York's musical centre tained the high standard of his New then was Steinway Hall, opened in

York concerts. 1866 with Bateman's concert troupe, The Metropolitan Opera House which included Parepa, Brignoli, Fer- (opened in 1882) gave a new impetus ranti, Fortuna, S. B. Mills, Carl Rosa,

to Italian and German opera, the J. L. Hatton, with Theodore Thomas latter (under Damrosch and Seidel) leading the orchestra. A few years supplanting the former, where Waglater came Christine Nilsson, first in

ner's music-dramas were given on a concerts and then in operatic rôles.

scale of magnificence unsurpassed Lohengrin” was heard for the first even in Germany, while production of time in America in 1874. German in- more recent composers like Strauss, fluence grew more and more para- Humperdinck and Franchetti have mount, the Philharmonic leading the also been heard. The most eminent way, with such conductors as Berg- vocalists and musicians of the world mann, L. Damrosch,

Neuendorf, have been welcomed. Dvorák (1892) Thomas, Seidel, and others of recent for some years was head of New date. Thomas gathered an orchestral York's Conservatory of Music. The

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ART, MUSIC AND THE DRAMA.

459

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opening in 1893 of the Manhattan American composers, many of whose Opera House, the abode for a time of works are of merit and promise. In French opera, and of Carnegie Hall the field of serious composition (ex(1891), for the symphony and ora- cluding the popular ballad and the torio societies, were further steps in light opera) there are some eminent musical progress. No less significant names, but none surpasses that of for the West was the Chicago Opera Edward A. MacDowell. His years of House. Through all the musical activity as teacher and composer were gamut - from opera bouffe, vaude- limited, but his worth is recognized. ville, and comic operat to the majestic The music festivals at Peterboro, New oratorio and solemn music-drama – Hampshire, in his memory, invest the taste of the people has been met American life with a certain ideality and developed.

which will spread with the years. His New York is but an illustration in Indian Symphony " is a meritorious this regard of similar growth through

American addition to the world's out the country, with music-festivals, music. No less significant of prog,

. seasons of opera (permanent or tem

was Horatio Parker's tragic porary), classical concerts, musical opera“ Mona," which won the Metroclubs and societies in large number. politan prize of 1911. Of worth, Music is now part of the regular though lacking in evenness, was Victor schedule in our public schools, and ele

Herbert's “Natoma” (1911). Mr. mentary vocal music instruction is of Pulitzer's bequest of $500,000 to the profound value to the health and cul- Philharmonic (1910) means much for ture of millions of pupils. Chairs for musical culture. The formation of a music have been founded in some of permanent symphony orchestra in San our universities. Church music has at- Francisco (1911), with Henry K. tained a better style; more appropri- Hadley as conductor, was a noteate compositions are introduced, while worthy event for Western musical public taste is being improved by growth. The Boston symphony con

. organ and other free recitals. Of certs, held in the chief cities of the marked influence for good can be men

country, add appreciably to popular tioned municipal lectures, recitals,

interest in music. In 1911 Liszt's orchestral park concerts, and similar centenary was fitly celebrated by speagencies for our general musical cial programs devoted to that master. growth.

The enthusiasm aroused indicated the After English, Italian and German

steady musical progress. influences, is there opportunity for

The Drama. native musical art? And what new With the increased prosperity that fundamental art-elements will Amer- dawned after 1865, the rapid growth ica produce? There is a long list of of our cities, the frequent visits by

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