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President Ha son inaugurated - His Cabinet Pan-American Conference McKinley Tariff Bill -

Blaine's efforts to secure reciprocity -Act passed - Result - Silver bill passed - Sherman AntiTrust Law -— Idaho and Wyoming admitted - Oklahoma Territory formed — Unstable condition of financial markets — Change in political conditions - Labor troubles Presidential elections Cleveland inaugurated — Panic of 1893 — Repeal of Sherman Silver Law — Destitution among unemployed — Strikes Agricultural crops fail — Wilson Tariff bill — Efforts to maintain gold re. serve - Silver question — Utah admitted — World's Fair at Chicago - Cotton States Exposition,

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Harrison and Morton were inau- he issued an invitation to eighteen gurated March 4, 1889, and the Presi- countries to send representatives to dent appointed the following men as meet at Washington, October 2, 1889.* his Cabinet officials: Secretary of Regular sessions were held down to State, James G. Blaine, of Maine; April 19 of the following year. SpecSecretary of the Treasury, William ial committees were appointed and Windom, of Minnesota, who was suc- mutual interests discussed. The receeded by Charles Foster of Ohio, in ports of the committees were in the 1891; Secretary of War, Redfield majority of cases approved, such as Proctor, of Vermont; Attorney-Gen- that on an intercontinental railway eral, W. H. H. Miller, of Indiana; (see Records of the Conference, vol. i., Postmaster-General, John Wana- pp. 93-102); on an international monemaker, of Pennsylvania; Secretary of tary union (Ibid, vol. ii., pp. 624-828); the Navy, Benjamin F. Tracy, of New on an international bank (Ibid, vol. ii., York; Secretary of the Interior, John pp. 829-875); on the adoption of the W. Noble, of Missouri; Secretary of metrical decimal system (Ibid, vol. i., Agriculture, Jere M. Rusk, of Wis- pp. 77-92); and on subsidies to steamconsin.

ship lines plying between the ports of Immediately after he had been ap- the two divisions of the continent pointed Secretary of State, Mr.

* The history of the legislative action on this Blaine again urged the formation of a

subject is given in the fourth volume of the Procloser union with the South American ceedings of the International American Conference. republics.* In pursuance of his plan The countries represented were Mexico, Honduras,

Guatemala, Costa Rica, Salvador, Hayti, Nica* For the circular letter of November 29, 1881, ragua, Columbia, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, see Freeman Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 314- Chili, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Ecuador 316

and the United States.


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(Ibid, vol. i., pp. 264-342). After a guay, Venezuela and the United States
long debate the conference adopted a were present. But though the meet-
treaty of arbitration, but this treaty ings extended into the month of April
“ failed to receive the approval of the no steps were taken to enforce uni-
governments whose representatives formity.*
adopted it.”*

President Harrison had been elected The subject of reciprocity received upon a platform calling for a revision considerable attention, but nothing of the tariff, and his administration, definite was done. The discussion had therefore, is primarily memorable for some effect, however, on the reci- the tariff law known as the McKinley procity clause of the McKinley tariff Act. On April 16 William McKinley act which was introduced in Congress reported from the House Committee April 16.1

on Ways and Means a bill “ to reduce Two of the immediate results of this the revenue and equalize duties on imPan-American conference were the ports.” It was debated from May 7 establishment of the International to 21 and was passed by the House on Bureau of American Republics for the the latter date, with various amendpurpose of disseminating information ments, by a vote of 164 to 142.+ concerning these countries, and the Much of the credit for the introducdevelopment of the project for the tion of this bill is due to Secretary Pan-American Railroad which is to Blaine, for while the Pan-American complete a chain of railroads between Conference was in session the question the countries of South America and of reciprocity with other nations had the United States.

been seriously discussed and this disIn accordance with the recommenda- cussion awakened widespread interest tions of the first congress, delegates to in our foreign trade and created a dean international monetary conference sire to improve the methods to be emassembled at Washington January 7, ployed in its expansion. Therefore, 1891. Delegates from Bolivia, Brazil,

when the terms of the tariff bill, introChili, Columbia, Hawaii, Hayti, Hon

duced by McKinley, increased the duras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uru

duties over those of previous laws, * Moore, American Diplomacy, p. 127. The text greatly restricting the free list and of the proposed agreement is given in Snow,

was silent upon reciprocity, Blaine, Treaties and Topics, pp. 323–326. The Records of the Conference, vol. ii., pp. 954-1083, gives the

though an ardent friend of protection proceedings in connection with this agreement in and a strong believer in reciprocity, full

* Laughlin and Willis, Reciprocity, pp. 133–138. Ridpath's Blaine, pp. 173–188. (The Baker & Taylor Co.)

† Stanwood, Tariff Controversies, vol. ii. pp. | Hamilton's Blaine, pp. 677–683; Crawford's 261–262; McPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1890, Blaine, pp. 608-614; Stanwood's Blaine, pp. 315– pp. 223–238; Appleton's Annual Cyclopædia, 1890, 317. See also Intercontinental Railway Commis.

pp. 191-234.

For McKinley's part in framing sion Reports of surveys, etc.

the bill see Halstead's McKinley, pp. 72–83.




immediately began a compaign on be- country are showing determined hostility to it.

* They know and feel that, with a system half of reciprocity. He appeared

of reciprocity established and growing, their before the Committee on Ways and policy of free trade receives a most severe blow. Means to advocate reciprocity, and

The protectionist who opposes reciprocity in the

form in which it is now submitted knocks away wrote and spoke extensively upon the

one of the strongest supports of the system. The topic, in one of his speeches saying: enactment of the reciprocity is the safe-guard of

protection. The defeat of reciprocity is the oppor. “I wish to declare the opinion that the United tunity of free trade."'* States has reached a point where one of its highest duties is to enlarge the area of its foreign

On June 18 the bill was reported in trade. * I mean expansion of trade with

the Senate from the Committee on countries where we can find profitable exchanges. * I think that we would be unwisely con

Finance and shortly after, Senator tent if we did not seek to engage in what the Hale (Republican introduced an younger Pitt 80 well termed 'annexation of

amendment along the lines suggested

by Blaine, but it failed.i Another In an official document prepared by amendment was suggested by Senator Blaine and transmitted by the Presi

Sherman, providing a reciprocity ardent to Congress he recommended:

rangement with Canada for the free “An amendment to the pending tariff bill, admission of coal into both countries, authorizing the President to declare the ports of

and for a joint commission to negothe United States free to all the products of any nation of the American hemisphere upon which no tiate a full reciprocity treaty with that

a export duties are imposed, whenever and so long

country, but this amendment was also as such nation shall admit to its ports free of all national, provincial, state, municipal and other

defeated. I After prolonged debate taxes, our flour, corn-meal and other breadstuffs, the bill was passed September 15 in preserved meats, fish, vegetables and fruits,

the Senate by a vote of 40 to 29, and cotton-seed oil, rice and other provisions, including all articles of food, lumber, furniture, and

sent to the House. A conference

|| other articles of wood, agricultural implements committee then was appointed. After and machinery, mining and mechanical machinery,

the committee had reported, it was structural steel and iron, steel rails, locomotives, railway cars and supplies, street cars and refined passed in the House on September 27 petroleum." +

by a vote of 152 to 81 and in the SenAfter the passage of the bill through ate on the 30th of that month by a vote the Senate he wrote to the Boston of 33 to 27. The act became a law by Journal, September 15, 1890, as fol- the President's signature October 1.8 lows:

* Laughlin and Willis, Reciprocity, pp. 189– Finally, there is one fact that should have great 190; Yew York Daily Tribune, September 17, 1890. weight, especially with protectionists. Every free Record, pp. 6259, 9510, 9908. trader in the Senate voted against the reciprocity | Ibid, pp. 9454, 9543-44; Laughlin and Willis, provision. The free-trade papers throughout the

pp. 191-206.

LVcPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1890, pp. * In a speech at Waterville, Me., August 29, 239-244; 1892, pp. 4–22. 1890, Laughlin and Willis, Reciprocity, p. 186. & Stanwood, Tariff Controversies, vol. ii., p. 262;

† Laughlin and Willis, p. 189; Congressional McPherson, 1892, pp. 22–23; Sherman, vol. ii., pp. Record, p. 6257, 51st Congress, 1st session; Stan- 1081–1087; Burton's Sherman, pp. 377–381; Por. wood, Tariff Controversies, vol. ii., p. 276 et seq. ter and Boyle, McKinley, pp. 325-341.

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