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INDUSTRIAL COMBINATIONS.

339

it is apparent that in the case of those per cent. That the trusts were largely trusts which have been built up chiefly responsible for this great advance is on tariff benefits, a large part of the clear from the fact that from July 1, net profits shown, and in some cases, 1897, to January 1, 1900, the prices two-thirds or three-fourths of the of foodstuffs (in which there are but profits, are the direct result of the few trusts) advanced but 25 per cent. protective legislation which they have while the prices of metals, clothing received.

and miscellaneous products (in which Industrial combinations, in the there are most trusts) advanced 37 great majority of cases, have been per cent. Notable advances occurred formed primarily for the purpose of

in Steel Trust productions, some of controlling or advancing prices to the

which more than doubled within one consumer. While the theory has been

or two years. persistently urged for many years

If this process had not taken place, that the main purpose of combination the Steel Trust to-day would doubtwas to reduce producing and operating less be able to show substantial profits costs, and thus increase profits with- on its original and current investout the advancement of prices, yet the ment, but no profit whatever on its records shown during the entire trust era go to prove that such has not been

* E. L. Bogart, The Economic History of the the case. The great enlargement in United States (New York, 1907), chap. xxvii.;

J. H. Bridge, Inside History of the Carnegie Steel profits has for the most part been

Company (New York, 1903); J. B. Clark, The accomplished by price advances and

Control of Trusts (New York, 1912); S. C. T. not by cost curtailment.

Dodd, Combinations: their Uses and Abuses, with

a History of the Standard Oil Trust (New York, Never in our history, except fer- 1894); Chas. R. Flint, Industrial Combinations haps in war periods, has the price (New York, 1899); E. Von Halle, Trusts, or

Industrial Combinations and Coalitions in the level risen faster than it rose dur

United States (New York, 1895); J. Moody, The ing the first few years after the Truth About the Trusts (New York, 1904);

The Masters of Capital (New York, 1911); and passage of the Dingley Tariff Act in

Moody's Analyses of Investments (New York, an1897, and during the period when

nual); E. R. A. Seligman, Principles of Economics, trusts were forming most rapidly. (New York, 1909), chap. xxii.; F. C. Howe, Privt.

lege and Democracy in America (New York, 1910); From July 1, 1897, to January 1, 1900,

T. Veblen, The Theory of Business Enterprise the cost of living advanced 31 per (New York, 1904); L. F. Post, Social Service cent. From July 1, 1897, to May 1,

(New York, 1911); T. E. Burton, Financial Crises

(New York, 1911); F. W. Taussig, T'ariff History 1902, the cost of living advanced 41

of United States (New York, 1908).

“ water."*

CHAPTER VI.

1865-1912.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS. * Agriculture in the West as determined by pioneer migration - Shifting of rural population affected by the law

of supply and demand Increase in rural population in agricultural and other farm products since 1870 — Conditions favoring our agricultural development — Rise in wages of farm labor — The prairies of the Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Red River valleys The Homestead and the Bonanza farmer — Agricultural research and the Department of Agriculture — Work of the Bureau of Animal Industry — The application of science to agriculture — The cultivation of plants and the breeding of animals Coöperation in rural communities — Problems of conservation and reclamation Rural educational development Social and religious advance — Artistic progress.

Migration to the great prairies and prising portion of our eastern and plains of the West was interrupted at immigrant population. With a courits height by the Civil War. In 1865, age and optimism worthy of the high recovering from this check, the move- cause upon which they were embarked, ment assumed greater force than ever,

they braved the dangers of the wilderthousands of courageous men and wo- ness and the horrors of Indian warmen seeking the great West in mover fare that they might establish homes wagons, by the onpushing lines of rail- in this new and golden West. Upon way, and by water. Those of us who, their hardships, their sufferings, their from the vantage point of our farm- mighty labors, their self-denials steads in the Middle West, saw the upon their very lives, as upon a tragic daily passing of those picturesque foundation — rest our fruitful western prairie schooners and wagon trains; agriculture, our mining industries, and who beheld at its height this living

the wealth and eminence of our stately flood flinging itself against the bar

cities of the West. riers of frontier hardship and border

This great continental migration warfare, inundating the short-grass

has not ceased even yet, but various plains, overflowing even the natural facts indicate that the movement is barrier of the Rockies, and spreading nearing an end. In the first place, for out upon the shores of the Pacific,

a decade or more the rural population witnessed indeed a wonderful pageant of Iowa has been decreasing. Then, , of American National life.

too, the movement into the great The individuals composing this hu- plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the man flood came from the most enter- far West has projected a great off

shoot northwestward into Canadian * Prepared for this history by Willet M. Hays, territory, where hundreds of thouAssistant Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

sands of people, largely from the Mid

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dle West, have gone into Assiniboia, apple and peach growing is making Alberta, and other northwestern terri- certain hilly sections of the Applachtories in the last few years. Finally, ian regions more populous. The many farm people have moved from higher prices of farm products cause the prairies of the Middle West to the New England farmers to revive many South and even to the Eastern States.

of the abandoned farms. There are For a time the farmers of the east- yearly movements of farmers into ern section saw their lands depreciate newly irrigated areas and newly

drained swamp regions. in value owing to the onrush of food

Easy methods of transportation, a and fibre from the great, easily sub

universal distribution of information, dued and cheaply purchased farms of

a uniform language, much travel on the West, both north and south; but

business or pleasure, and habits of now that the western farms have risen migration,— all these make the people nearly to their normal selling prices,

move readily from areas oversupplied eastern farms are again coming into with farmers to such as promise their own. Henceforth the movement better and more permanent profits. of the farm population from one place The following tabular statement to another will largely follow the lines gives the increase of rural population of local profit-making from the land. by States since 1870, as shown by the At present the commercial success of United States census:

NUMBER OF PERSONS (MALE AND FEMALE) 10 YEARS OLD AND OVER ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED

STATES IN 1870, 1880, 1890* AND 19007.

STATE OR TERRITORY

1870

1880

1890*

1900+

Maine..
New Hampshire
Vermont.
Massachusetts.
Rhode Island.
Connecticut.
New York.
New Jersey.
Pennsylvania.
Delaware..
Maryland.
District of Columbia.
Virginia..
West Virginia
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Georgia.
Florida
Ohio.
Indiana.
Illinois.
Michigan.

: : : : :
: : : : : :

82,011 46,573 57,983 72,810 11,780 43,653 374,323

63,128 260,051 15,973 80,449

1,365 244,550

73,960 269,238 206,654 336, 145

,492 397,024 266,777 376,441 187,211

82,130 44,490 55,251 64,973 10,945 44,026 377,460

59,214 301,112

17,849 90,927

1,464 254,099 107,578 360,937 294,602 432,204

58,731 397,495 331 , 240 436,371 240,319

86,296 42,982 56,183 81, 100 12,606 48,676 410,132

74,889 453,086

18,702 105,396

1,886 271,745 129,887 374,359 328,017

,128 66,198 429,019 330,569 456,488 308,501

76,923 38,782 49,320 66,551 10,957 44,796 375,990

68,881 341,712 19,002 95,554

1,488 300,268 151,722 459,306 393,693 522,848

88,688 414,662 342,733 462,781 312,462

418,

42,4

* Engaged in agriculture, fisheries and mining. † Engaged in agricultural pursuits.

NUMBER OF PERSONS (MALE AND FEMALE) 10 YEARS OLD AND OVER ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE IN THE

UNITED STATES IN 1870, 1880, 1890* AND 19001- Continued.

STATE OR TERRITORY

1870

1880

1890*

19007

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Wisconsin
Minnesota.
Iowa..
Missouri.
North Dakota.
South Dakota.
Nebraska.
Kansas..
Kentucky.
Tennessee.
Alabama.
Mississippi
Louisiana.
Texas..
Indian Territory.
Oklahoma.
Arkansas.
Montana.
Wyoming
Colorado.
New Mexico.
Arizona.
Utah.
Nevada.
Idaho..
Washington.
Oregon.
California.

159,687

75,157 210,263 263,918

2,522 23, 115 73,228 261,080 267,020 291,628 259, 199 141,467 166,753

90,507 206,080 320,571 294,153 380,630 339,938 205,306 359,317

242,099 195,422 330,390 404, 665 43,955 70,839 170,574 256,582 326,085 336,886 380,852 360,049 240,730 432,318

270,007 258,944 371,604 463, 293 71,626 82,857 186,587 271 , 252 408,185 413,406 515,737 490,582 295,445 644,634 92,418 94,931 345,479

,693 13,407 44,904 27,314 16,174 29,414

5,890 27,489 61 ,113

490 152,371

28,9

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58,4

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AREA, PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF CROPS INDICATED, 1866 AND 1910, With INCREASE (+) OR DECREASE (---)

1866

1910

Increase (+) or decrease (-)

CROP

Area

Production

Value

Area

Production

Value

Area

Production

Value

Corn..
Wheat.
Oats..
Rye.
Barley
Buckwheat.
Potatoes
Hay..

Acres Bushels Dollars Acres

Bushels
Dollars
Acres

Bushels
34,306,538|867,946,295 411,450,830 104,035,000 2,886, 260,000|1,384,817,000 +69,728,462 +2,018,313,705
15,424,496 151,999.906 232, 109,630) 45,681,000 635, 121,000 561,051,000 +30,256,504 +483,121,094
8,864,219 268,141,077 94,057,945 37,548,000 1,186,341,000 408,388,000 +28,683,781 +918,199.923
1,548,033 20,864,944 17,149,716 2,185,000 34,897.000 24,953,000 +636,967 +14,032,056

492,532 11, 283,807 7,916,342 7,743,000 173,832,000 100,426.000 +7,250,468 +162,548,193 1.045,624 22,791,839 15,413,160 860.000 17,598,000 11,636,000 ---185, 624 -5,193,839 1,069,381 107,200,976 50,722,553 3,720,000 349,032,000 194,566.0001 +2,650, 619 +298, 309, 447 17.668,901 121.778,627 220,835,771 51,015,000 $69,378,000 842, 252,000 +33,346,096 +47,599,373

Dollars +973,366,170 +328,941,370 +314,330,055

+7,803, 284 +92,509, 658

--3,777,160 +143,843, 447 +621.416,229

* Engaged in agriculture, fisheries and mining.
† Engaged in agricultural pursuits.
| Tons.

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The increase in the production of poultry, and forest products from fruit crops, also live stock, dairy, 1870 to 1900, is shown in the next table.

ORCHARD PRODUCTS, LIVE STOCK, DAIRY PRODUCTS, POULTRY AND FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES,

BY DECADES, 1870–1910, As COMPILED FROM CENSUS REPORTS.

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Orchard products, value. $47,335, 189 $50,876,154 t

$83,750,961 $140,867,347 Live stock, number.

85,703,913 130,969,581 161,973,518 215,587,565 199,501, 108 Live stock, value. $1,525, 276,457 $1,500,384,707 $2,208,767,573 $2,979, 197,586 $4,760,060,093 Dairy products,* pounds. 567,584,836 804,522,776 | 1,042,950, 286 1,790,097,244 1,939,947,444 Poultry, number.

125,507,322 285,609,440 250,623,354 295,880, 190 Forest products, value... $36,808,277 $95,774,735

$109,864,774 $195,306,283

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During the last third of the Nine- Another matter profoundly affectteenth century the combination of ing the prices of farm products was cheap, new lands, of agricultural ma- the rapid development of manufacturchinery propelled by horses and ing, transportation, merchandising, motors, of railway transportation, and and other non-agricultural industries. of a vigorous pioneer population, The profits in these lines of trade pushed the production of farm prod- made the payment of higher wages ucts beyond the demands of even a possible. The cities and manufacturrapidly increasing city and manu- ing centers, therefore, drew upon the facturing population. This kept the rural commuities for workers. This in level of farm prices relatively very turn reacted upon the price of farm low. But manufactures steadily in labor, which is now almost double creased, the cities kept on growing, that of the preceding generation. the foreign demand for our farm Henceforth those who consume farm products continued unabated, all at products must pay interest on high an increased speed which a settled valuations of farm lands and for highagriculture could not maintain; with priced farm labor, as well as farmers'

, the result that for a decade prices have profits comparable to those accruing in gone up to what seems to be a per- other lines of industrial and profesmanently higher level. The logical re- sional work. It may be assumed, sult was that land began to rise therefore, that we are in a permanent rapidly in value in the producing re- period of higher prices for farm prodgions of the Middle West. This tend- ucts. Of course there will be fluctuency to an increased valuation of ations, but these will be at a higher lands has spread to the South, to the

average level. great plains, to the Far West, as well Almost as enticing as the gold fields as to the Eastern States.

of California were the rich prairies of

a

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