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situation was different, and proposed British members consisting of Lord to submit the question to a commis- Alverstone, Lord Chief Justice of sion consisting of six eminent jurists England, Sir Louis A. Jette, Lieutenfrom each contracting party, the ex- ant-Governor of Quebec, and Allen isting settlements on the coast, in the

B. Aylesworth of Toronto. John W.

. meanwhile, to remain in the United Foster presented the arguments for States government.

The British the United States, being assisted by commissioners refused to agree to

J. M. Dickinson, D. T. Watson, Hanthis, and the sessions adjourned nis Taylor and Chandler P. Anderwithout action.

son. The sessions of the commission The need for some kind of settle

commenced September 3, 1903, and ment persisted, so it was determined

lasted until October 20, when the deto reach a temporary settlement, at

cision was signed. The contentions

of the United States were upheld in least, through diplomatic agencies. As a result, after much negotiation, almost every detail, the final line as a modus vivendi, or provisional established, barring minor differ

ences, agreeing with the old line. It agreement, was signed October 20,

is a testimony to the fair-mindedness 1899. This convention was to remain

of the British representative, Lord in force at the pleasure of both par

Alverstone, that he was able to rise ties, and, although certain concessions were made to Canada, the

above national considerations and

vote for the American side of the claims of the United States in the

question, thereby preventing a deadmain were upheld.

lock. The Canadian members reBut the principal question was as

fused to sign the decision. yet unsettled, and in order to reach a

The second session of the Fiftyconclusive decision, the British For

eighth Congress was marked by a eign Office decided to accept the pro- struggle between the President and posal for a joint arbitration committee

the Senate which revealed in clearto consist of three British and three

est light the affiliations of the latter American members. Accordingly, a

body. It was able to block most convention to this effect was signed effectually all of the legislation that January 24, 1903, by Secretary Hay indicated progressive tendencies, and the British ambassador, Sir

among which were bills for the proMichael Herbert. Tlie commissioners

tection of the forests in the Appathen appointed; President lachian and the White Mountain reRoosevelt selecting Elihu Root, Secre- gions, the reform of the consular sertary of War, Senator H. C. Lodge, vice, pure food, and others of a simand ex-Senator George Turner to ilar nature. represent the United States; the The first-named bill was reported favorably, and had public opinion blocks in the way of any legislation strongly in its favor, but the forces proposed by the President. opposing were too strong to permit As the time for the national elecits passage in spite of the fact that tions drew near it became more and the forests of the country were more apparent that there was wellrapidly being destroyed by the organized plan on the part of cerwasteful methods of the lumbermen tain elements within his party to deand the paper mills. The nation had feat Mr. Roosevelt's nomination for been listening so long to the cry that a second term. The problem they the natural resources of the United had to solve was a difficult one, for States were boundless and inexhaust- in spite of his mistakes, the Presiible that evidence to the contrary dent had impressed the country with came with a shock. For a number of his ability and his patriotism. These years it had been evident to those


very mistakes,


tended to who had knowledge of the fate of strengthen his hold on the people, fertile and populous regions which for it was clear that they arose from had been transformed into deserts by a frank and impulsive nature, that such spoliation that a continuation dared to go to any extreme in favor of the policy regarding the natural of a thing he conceived to be right. resources would be fatal. From time There is no doubt but that the oppoto time movements favoring regula- sition to his renomination gave the tion were inaugurated, but nothing President considerable uneasiness, more than an act favoring passed and had it not been for the death of March 3, 1891, authorizing the Presi- the one man, Mark Hanna, who was dent to make forest reserves of pub- capable of organizing the forces lic lands, resulted from the same. against him, there would have arisen The question, however, became acute a grave question of the ability of his in the early years of the new cen- friends to throw the nomination his tury, and a resulting investigation by way. The forces that fought him the forestry officials proved that the were powerful, politically and finanfears were well grounded. The bills cially, and rumors were abroad of that were introduced, however, were vast sums of money set aside for the opposed on the grounds of economy; purpose of insuring his downfall. the $15,000,000 appropriation that The death of Mr. Hanna on Februthey carried being disproportionate, ary 15, 1904, however, was a blow to it was argued, to the good that would Mr. Roosevelt's enemies from which result. The real animus, however, of they never recovered, although there the opposition was a fear lest their was still strong opposition to him by enactment might lead towards a sys

individuals who felt the repressing tem of forest supervision and, in influence of his policies. They were, addition, a desire to place stumbling however, disorganized and without a



leader, and when the Republican the delegates were disinclined to national convention met in Chicago, nominate Mr. Bryan for the third June 21, President Roosevelt was time, although the convention was nominated unanimously on the roll still sufficiently under the spell of his call of the States. The nomination personality to eliminate a sound for Vice-President was tendered to money clause that had been inserted Charles W. Fairbanks, of Indiana, by the conservatives. The theory of by acclamation.

the Democrats, apparently, was to In its platform the Republican party endeavor to capture the conservative reiterated its adherence to the gold elements of both parties who were standard; the policy in the Philip- displeased with the radicalism of pines was commended; the inaugura- Mr. Bryan and President Roosevelt. tion of the Panama Canal was re- The Democratic party, however, was ferred to as being due to the Repub- not only divided, but in desperate lican party; the protective tariff was

straits for a standard-bearer. A again upheld, but a plank in favor of movement was instituted to nominate reciprocity was included; ship subsi

Mr. Cleveland for a third term, but dies, a stronger navy, exclusion of the antagonism of the Bryan wing of the Chinese, enforcement of the Civil party and the refusal, finally, of Mr. Service Law, and the encouragement

Cleveland to consider such a proof international arbitration were all posal, forced its abandonment. The favored, while negro disfranchise- choice then lay between Judge Alton ment in the South and combinations B. Parker, chief justice of the New of capital and of labor were disap- York Court of Appeals, and William proved. The platform ended with an

R. Hearst, proprietor of the New enthusiastic eulogy of President

York Journal and other papers of Roosevelt, closing with the following the so-called “yellow variety.” The words:

former was comparatively unknown,

the delegates not even being aware “He has held firmly to the fundamental American doctrine that all men must obey the

of his position on the money question law; that there must be no distinction between until after his nomination, while the the rich and the poor, between strong and weak; but that justice and equal protection under the

latter was only too well known as an law must be secured to every citizen without agitator. Judge Parker was nomiregard to race, creed or condition. His adminis

nated on the first ballot, receiving 658 tration has been throughout vigorous and honorable, high-minded and patriotic. We commend

votes out of 1,006, the minority givit without reservation to the considerate judg- ing a vote of 178 to Mr. Hearst. The ment of the American people.”

nomination for Vice-President was The Democratic national conven- tendered to ex-Senator Henry G. tion was held in St. Louis on July Davis, a retired capitalist of West 6, and lasted for three days. It was Virginia. Just after the announceevident from the very beginning that ment of his nomination, a telegram from Judge Parker was read an- Populists nominating Thomas E, nouncing his adherence to the gold Watson, of Georgia, and Thomas H. standard. This produced a sensa- Tibbles, of Nebraska; the Prohibition, yet the writer of it had care- tionists nominating Rev. Silas C. fully selected selected the wording, and Swallow,

of Pennsylvania, and the time for its presentation, and the George W. Carroll, of Texas; the result was the one anticipated. After Social Democrats nominating Eugene a heated discussion, the following V. Debs, of Indiana, and Benjamin resolution was passed by a vote of Hanford, of New York; and the So798 to 184, and telegraphed to Judge cialist Labor party nominating CharParker:

les H. Corrigan, of New York, and The platform adopted by this convention is William W. Cox, of Illinois. silent on the question of the monetary standard

The campaign, like the one of 1900, because it is not regarded by us as a possible issue in this campaign, and only campaign issues

seemed to inspire little interest until were mentioned in the platform; therefore there the date of the election drew near. is nothing in the views expressed by you which would preclude a man from accepting a nomi

It was, however, stirred up by two nation on said platform."

announcements; one by Thomas LawThe tariff, the trusts, and imperial- midst of his spectacular fight against

son, who was at that time in the ism were the main issues in the

the Standard Oil group and the platform of the Democratic party.

the financial rottenness of the great It also declared for the enactment of

insurance companies. In this adlaws regulating the relations of labor and capital; favored inland water

dress to the people, he stated that ways and the reclamation of arid

a vote for Judge Parker was a vote

for Wall street and the corporate inlands, the election of Senators by

terests that centered there. In conpopular vote, and the maintenance of

trast with this was the statement the Monroe Doctrine; ship subsidies were condemned, as was polygamy;

made by the Democratic candidate and in its close paid its respects to

himself a few days before the ballotthe Republican administration in the ing to the effect that the Republican following terms: “ The existing Re- party, through Mr. George B. Cortelpublican administration has been you, had been soliciting contribuspasmodic, erratic, sensational, spec

tions from these very corporations, tacular and arbitrary. It has made thereby pledging the party to enact no itself a satire upon the Congress, the legislation in opposition to the same. . courts, and upon the settled practices The President denounced this accuand usages of national and inter- sation as “Unqualifiedly and atronational law."

ciously false, * if elected I shall Four other parties held conven- go into the presidency unhampered tions and nominated candidates: the by any pledge, promise or under

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standing of any kind, sort or descrip- Kinley in 1900 by 415,308; that of tion, save my promise, made openly Parker falling short of Bryan's in to the American people, that so far 1900 by 1,276,172.* as in my power lies, I shall see to it This astounding victory was more that every man has a square deal, no than a mere expression of admiraless and no more.”

tion for a popular idol; it was in That there were grounds for Judge addition the ratification of certain Parker's charges, was fairly well progressive policies that he advoestablished in the insurance inves- cated, which the reactionary forces tigations that took place in the suc- were fighting with all their might. ceeding year, but that the state- With this election a new era was ment of the President regarding him- instituted in the national life, and self was true in every respect no one in his forthcoming administration at the time or afterward had any President Roosevelt kept his promdoubt. The result of the voting was ised word to give every man, as far an overwhelming testimonial to his was in his power, “a square popularity. Mr. Roosevelt received deal." a poular vote of 7,621,985, with an

* The entire vote cast was 13,544,705. The electoral vote of 336; that of Judge

following votes were counted for the candidates Parker being 5,098,225, his electoral of the minor parties: Watson, 114,106; Swallow, vote being 140. The popular vote of

258,039; Debs, 397,208; Corrigan, 32,516.

large Republican majority was also returned to Roosevelt thus exceeded that of Mc







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The Cabinet — The influence of Secretary Hay The struggle with the trusts — Acts of the Fifty.

ninth Congress -- Amendment of the Interstate Commerce Law - The Pure Food Law — The Chicago stock-yards and the Beef Inspection Law — The conference of governors — Conditions in Porto Rico and Cuba - The statehood bill — Oklahoma admitted Booker T. Washington and the Brownsville affair — Venezuela and the foreign powers — An era of catastrophes - San Francisco earthquake The voyage of the American fleet - The currency bill — The campaign of 1908 and the election of William H. Taft.

Immediately after his inaugura- Columbia; Secretary of the Treastion President Roosevelt sent to the ury, Leslie M. Shaw, of Iowa; SecreSenate for confirmation the names tary of War, William II. Taft, of of those selected as his official ad- Ohio; Secretary of the Navy, Paul visors. These were: Secretary of

Secretary of Morton, of Illinois; Secretary of the State, John Hay, of the District of Interior, Ethan Allen Hitchcock, of

VOL. X-17

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