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in width to 300 feet until, through the tory of the world. The opening of Culebra Cut, the bottom width will be Suez forced a readjustment of traffic 200 feet. Roughly speaking the lines, and the resultant development canal is formed by two artificial of European trade showed plainly lakes, one at Gatun and one at Mira- the effects. The long record of vicisflores, connected by a cut through the situde through which the Panama Culebra divide; a channel 5,000 feet canal has struggled is evidence of wide and 40 feet deep from the Carib- the world-wide effect its completion bean to Gatun, three miles inland, will demonstrate. Europe, with its where a flight of three locks rise to older civilizations and greater expethe 80-foot level of the lake formed rience, sees further ahead than by the Gatun dam across the Chagres America, and Great Britain, France River; then 25 miles of lake to the and Germany have at one time or Culebra Cut 7 miles long, thence into another, in open or secret manner, the second lake and a descent to the sought control of the isthmus and Pacific level through the Miraflores

the canal which was bound to come; and Pedro Miguel locks. Five- but a full view of the advantages to eighths of the entire distance is the the possessor is only half understood lake formed by the Gatun dam.

even by these astute nations. Could The estimated cost of the com- the future of the canal be clearly and pleted work as given in the latest re- accurately forecast today it is conport of the canal commission is $375,- ceivable that despite the strength of 000,000 and to date Congress has ex- the United States the peace of the pended $300,000,000 in round num- world might be rudely shattered. bers; subtract from this the millions That Panama will directly influence expended of necessity in sanitation the entire commerce of the world in and the construction work accom- a wider and broader way than Suez plished bears the same relative pro- cannot be doubted. Midway, north portion to the entire amount required. and south, of two mighty continents In other words, for every dollar ex- and midway practically of the east pended in canal construction the and west transportation of civilizaUnited States has one hundred cents tion, its geographical position makes worth of work to show for it. It is a its importance universal. It is the record in which we should take

gateway of the world and the United pride. The canal is being built rap- States is beside the gate and will idly, honestly and well, and its com- control the opening and shutting pletion in the near future will mark thereof. What this means is stimuthe beginning of a new era of devel- lating even to the dullest imaginaopment in the United States and in tion. The advantage to America is this wise directly influence the his- incalculable. Our South American neighbors, who alone could compete ing through the canal the market of with us in advantage of position, are the century for the soft coal of the so heavily handicapped in the race South lies at Panama; for the world by youth and undeveloped resources will send its steamships through Panas to be negligible quantities. Amer- ama as there is hardly a voyage of ica will be not only without a com- greater length than 5,000 miles which petitor but where she has been hand- will not use the canal en route. A icapped by distance she will be deep-water channel the length of the placed at once on an equal footing Mississippi would give Chicago adand where she is now equal will ob- vantage of position over London in tain a lead of from three to four the East Indies. Possession of the thousand miles in almost every case. canal may come to mean the naval New York and Liverpool are today dominance of the world and prove practically equidistant, via Cape the balance of power whereby the Horn, from the west coast of South peace of the world is maintained. It America and Liverpool, through the is certain to strengthen the United Suez has the advantage of distance States against future attack by comto Yokohama, Shanghai and other pleting her interior line of defense Eastern ports. Panama will place and permitting the cordon of her New York over 4,000 miles nearer battleships to be drawn closely about Valparaiso and practically equidis- her. Great opportunities for good tant with Liverpool from Yokohama, and for evil lie in the canal; it rests the Orient and

Australia. with America as to how they shall be Where this means a colossal advan- used. For four hundred years this tage to New York and the North At- work has struggled toward complelantic ports its means even more to tion and that completion is now close the South for while the canal brings at hand; through its narrow channel the rich markets of the west coast of there is to come an era of expansion South America nearer to New York and development as mighty as that it brings them to the very doorway which followed after the day Columof the South Atlantic and Gulf bus landed upon the beach of San States. The raw and cheap cotton Salvador. goods and hardware manufactures The question of Cuba again beof the Southern States will enter the came acute during the early months markets of western South America of 1903. This arose with regard to a and the Orient with the enormous reciprocity treaty, which had been advantage that a short traffic haul ratified by the Cuban Congress on gives; properly handled they can March 11. The Sugar Trust as usual monopolize the entire field. With the made its influence felt and the result steamships of the entire world pass- was an endeavor to prevent the rati




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fication by the United States Senate, ing the boundary line between Britbut public demand was so emphatic- ish and Russian territory was ratially in favor of the treaty that it was fied in 1825. This treaty was someratified March 19, with an amend- what obscure in its wording, the ment to the effect that “ This treaty French term, sinuosités (windings) shall not take effect until the same used in defining the line being vari. shall have been approved by the ously translated by the two powers. Congress.” This unprecedented ac- The contention of Russia, and later tion called up a storm of criticism in of the United States, was that the the daily press. The New York

word signified that the boundary line Evening Post called it ratification by comprehended a parallel with the burial, and the New York Times, true indentations with the coast, ten more emphatic still, characterized it marine leagues inland.

This, of as “ a shameful chapter of pure sel

course would

would carry the line ten fishness and greed.” President

leagues from the headwaters of Roosevelt was determined that this

every bay and estuary. The Canatreaty should be ratified, and accord

dian authorities, on the contrary, ingly called an extra session of Con

claimed that the term referred to the gress to convene November 9, for

general contour of the coast, thereby the purpose of considering the same

placing points at the headwaters of He thus checkmated the plans of the

these inlets in British territory. enemies of the treaty, whose inten

As long as Alaska was looked tions were to defeat it by indirect

upon as a barren waste, valuable methods. As it was, the usual wail of the infant beet sugar industry was

only for its furs and fisheries, the

question was allowed to remain unso loud that the legislation failed of

settled, although President Grant, passage during the extraordinary

foreseeing the possibilities of intersession, and it was not until after

national misunderstanding in the sitthe convening of the regular session of the Fifty-eighth Congress that the

uation, strongly advised in his mestreaty was finally ratified (December

sage to Congress, December 2, 1872, 16, 1903). This agreement gave

that the line be surveyed and the Cuban commodities imported into

question settled. But owing to the the United States an average reduc- expense the survey was not made tion of 25 per cent. on the rates of

until 1892 and then no recommendathe Dingley law.

tions were made. Each nation seemed When the United States purchased to think that the survey would settle Alaska from Russia in 1867, a contro- the controversy, yet lack of interest versy with Great Britain was also prevented the project from being acquired that had remained unsettled pushed to a conclusion. The discovsince the Anglo-Russian treaty defin- ery of gold, however, in 1896, put an entirely new complexion on the af- point at issue was the proposal on fair. Alaska and upper British Co- the part of the British authorities to lumia assumed new and immense im- submit the matter to a disinterested portance, and the boundary question arbitrator after the precedent set by rapidly approached a crisis. The the Venezuela case. The American overland trails leading into the gold members, however, asserted that the fields of the upper Yukon started at two settlements, Dyea and Skagway,

ish-American Peace Commission, and Senator

Charles J. Faulkner, of West Virginia, was ap. on the headwaters of the long es

pointed by the President to fill the vacancy. tuary known as Lynn Canal. Acting Lord Herschell was chosen president of the

Joint High Commission. upon their theory of the position of

The principal questions submitted for the conthe line, the Canadian authorities ad- sideration of the Commission were as follows: vanced their outposts to these points,

1. The questions in respect to the fur seals of

Behring Sea and the waters of the North Pacific which had long been considered Ocean. within United States territory. Con

2. Provisions in respect to the fisheries off the

Atlantic and Pacific coasts and in the waters of ficts of jurisdiction arose which

their common frontiers. tended to become so serious that the 3. Provisions for the delimitation and estab

lishment of the Alaska-Canadian boundary by necessity for an immediate settle

legal and scientific experts if the commission ment of the question became impera- shall so decide, or otherwise. tive. It was therefore referred to 4. Provisions for the transit of merchandise in

transportation to or from either country, across the Joint High Commission com

intermediate territory of the other, whether by posed of representatives of the two land or water, including natural and artificial

water-ways and intermediate transit by sea. powers which met in 1898 for the set

5. Provisions relating to the transit of mertlement of all differences between chandise from one country to be delivered at Canada and the United States.* The

points in the other beyond the frontier.

6. The question of the alien labor laws, appli.

cable to the subjects or citizens of the United * Commissioners appointed by the governments States and of Canada. of the United States and Great Britain, respec- 7. Mining rights of the citizens or subjects of tively, were as follows:

each country within the territory of the other. On the Part of the United States.- Senator 8. Such readjustment and concessions as may Charles W. Fairbanks, of Indiana, chairman; be deemed mutually advantageous, of customs Senator George Gray, of Delaware; Representa- duties applicable in each country to the products tive Nelson Dingley, of Maine; John W. Foster, of the soil or industry of the ther, upon the former Secretary of State; John A. Kasson, of basis of reciprocal equivalents. Iowa, and T. Jefferson Coolidge, of Massachu- 9. A revision of the agreement of 1817 resetts.

specting naval vessels on the lakes. On the Part of Great Britain and Canada.- 10. Arrangements for the more complete defiLord Herschell, ex-Lord Chancellor of England, inition and marking of any part of the frontier chairman; Sir Wilfred Laurier, Premier of line, by land or water, where the same is now Canada; Sir Richard J. Cartwright, Minister of so insufficiently defined or marked as to be liable Trade and Commerce; Sir Louis H. Davies, Min- to dispute. ister of Marine and Fisheries; John Charlton, 11. Provisions for the conveyance for trial or M. P., and Sir James T. Winter, Premier of punishment of persons in the lawful custody of Newfoundland.

the officers of one country through the territory Senator Gray resigned in September, 1898, to of the other. accept the appointment of member of the Span- 12. Reciprocity in wrecking and salvage rights.

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